Catholic Culture Solidarity
Catholic Culture Solidarity

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church: Index of References and Footnotes

by Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

Descriptive Title

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church

Description

This is the Index of References and Footnotes of the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church.

Larger Work

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church

Publisher & Date

Vatican, 2004

INDEX OF REFERENCES

The second column refers to paragraph numbers of the Compendium.
An asterisk following the number indicates that the reference is found in a note.

SACRED SCRIPTURE

Old Testament

Genesis

1:4,10,12,18,21,25 113, 451
1:4.10,12,18,21,25,31 488
1:26 149
1:26-27 26, 36, 428
1:26-28 209
1:26,28-30 149
1:26-30 64, 326, 451
1:27 108, 110, 451
1:28 36, 111, 209, 255
1:28-29 171
1:31 451, 578
2:2 255, 284
2:5-6 255
2:7 108
2:7-24 209
2:8-24 428
2:15 255, 452
2:15-16 326
2:16-17 136, 326
2:17 256
2:18 209
2:19-20 113
2:20 110
2:20.23 149
2:23 110
2:24 209, 217, 219
3:1-24 27
3:5 256
3:6-8 256
3:12 116
3:17-19 452
3:17,19 256
4:1-16 488
4:2-16 116
4:12 256
5 428
9:1-17 429
9:5 112
10 428
10:1-32 429
11:1 429
11:1-9 429, 488
11:4 429
11:4-8 562
17:1 488
17:4 430

Exodus

3:7-8 21
3:14 21
12:25-27 210
13:8,14-15 210
19-24 22
20:13 112
23 24*
23:10-11 258
30:22-32 378
33:11 13
34:28 22

Leviticus

19:13 302
19:18 112
19:33-34 23
25 24*
26:6 489

Numbers

6:26 489

Deuteronomy

4:13 22
5:17 112
6:20-25 210
6:21 451
10:4 22
13:7-11 210
15 24*
15:7-8 23
17:15 377
24:14-15 302
26:5 451

Joshua

24:3 451

Judges

6:24 488

First Book of Samuel

2:35 378
3:13 210
8:5 377
8:11-18 377
9:16 377
10:1-2 377
10:18-19 377
16:1-13 378
16:12-13 377
24:7,11 378
26:9,16 378

Second Book of Samuel

7:13-16 378

First Book of Kings

21 377

First Book of Chronicles

22:8-9 488

Job

25:2 491
38-41 255

Psalms

2 378
2:7 377
8:5-7 255
18 378
20 378
21 378
29:11 491
37:11 491
51:4 484
72 377, 378
72:3,7 491
72:7 490
85:9 490
85:9,11 491
85:11 490
89:2-38 378
92:15 222
104 255
104:24 452
119:165 491
125:5 491
128:6 491
132:11-18 378
139:14-18 108
147 255
147:14 491

Proverbs

1:8-9 210
4:1-4 210
6:20-21 210
10:4 257, 323
12:20 489
15:16 257
16:8 257
16:12 378
22:2 323
22:11 378
29:14 378

Ecclesiastes

3:11 114

Song of Songs

8:10 491

Wisdom

1:7 578
9:2-3 326

Sirach

3:1-16 210
7:27-28 210
15:14 135

Isaiah

2:2-5 430, 490
9:5 490
9:5s 491
10:1-4 377
11:2-5 378
11:4 59
11:6-9 490
19:18-25 430
26:3.12 491
32:15-18 452
32:17 102, 203, 494
32:17f 491
44:6-8 430
44:24-28 430
45:8 123
48:18 489
48:19 489
52:7 491
53:5 493
54 111, 219*
54:10 491
54:13 489
57:19 491
58:3-11 323
60:17 491
61:1 59
61:1-2 28
65:17 452, 453
66:12 491
66:18-23 430
66:22 453

Jeremiah

3:6-13 219*
7:4-7 323
23:5-6 378
31:31-34 324
31:33 25

Baruch

3:38 13

Ezekiel

16:25 219*
34:22-31 324
34:23-24 378
36:26-27 25
37:24 378

Hosea

1-3 111
2:21 219*
3 219*
4:1-2 323

Amos

2:6-7 323
2:6-8 377
8:4-8 377

Micah

2:1-2 323
3:1-4 377
5:1-4 491

Zephaniah

3:13 490

Haggai

2:9 491

Zechariah

9:9-10 378
9:10 491

Malachi

2:5 489
2:14-15 210

New Testament

Gospel according to Matthew

1:1-17 378
4:1-11 175
4:8-11 379
5:9 492
5:43-44 40
6:12 492
6:19-21 260
6:24 181, 325
6:25.31.34 260
6:33 260
7:12 20
7:24 70
9:37-38 259
10:8 184
10:40-42 193
11:5 183
12:9-14 261
13:22 325
13:52 12
13:55 259
14:22-33 453
18:20 52
19:3-9 210
19:5 219
19:5-6 209
19:8 217
19,18 22
19:21-26 181
20:1-16 541
20:20-23 379
20:24-28 379
20:25 193
22,15-22 379
22:37-40 112
22:40 580
24:46 259
25:14-30 259, 326
25:31-46 183
25:34-36.40 57
25:35-36 265, 403
25:35-37 58
25:40,45 183
26:11 183
27:45.51 454
28:2 454
28:19-20 52

Gospel according to Mark

1:12-13 175
1:15 49
2:27 261
3:1-6 261
6:3 259
6:45-52 453
8:36 260
9:33-35 379
10:5 217
10:35-40 379
10:42 379
10:42-45 193
10:45 379
12:13-17 379
12:28 40
12:29-31 40, 112
14,7 183

Gospel according to Luke

1:38 59
1:50-53 59
2:51 259
3:23-38 378
4:1-13 175
4:5-8 379
4:18-19 28
6:6-11 261
6:20-24 325
6:46-47 70
8:22-25 453
10:5 492
10:7 259
10:27-28 112
10:40-42 260
11:11-13 453
12:15-21 325
12:21 326
13:10-17 261
14:1-6 261
16:9-13 453
16:13 181
17:33 34, 583
19:12-27 326
20:20-26 379
22:24-27 379
22:25 379
22:25-27 193
24:36 491
24:46-49 52

Gospel according to John

1:3 262
1:4.9 121
3:5 484
3:8 50
3:16 3, 64
5:17 259
6:16-21 453
10:9 1
12:8 183
12:24 570
13:8 484
13:34 32
13:35 196*, 580
14:6 1, 555
14:9 28
14:16,26 104
14:21,23-24 70
14:27 491, 516
15-17 39
15:12 580
15:14-15 13
15:15 29
16,13-15 104
16:15 29
17:3 122
17:14-16 18
17:21-22 34
20:19,21,26 491

Acts of the Apostles

1:8 3, 453
2:5-11 562
2:6 431
10:34 144
10:36 493
17:26 431

Letter to the Romans

1:3 378
1:7 492
2:6 399
2:11 144
2:14-15 53
2:15 397
5:5 31
5:12 115
5:12-21 64
5:14 121
5:18-21 121
5:19 115
6:4 41
8 38
8:1-11 522
8:14-17 122
8:15 31
8:18-22 123
8:19-22 64, 262
8:19-23 455
8:20 64, 262
8:23 522
8:25 579
8:26 30
8:29 121
8:31-32 30
10:12 144, 431
12:17 380
13:1-7 380
13:2 398
13:4 380
13:5 380
13:7 380
14:6-8 325
14:12 399
14:15 105

First Letter to the Corinthians

3:22-23 44, 455
6:20 1, 578
7:31 48, 264
8:6 262
8:11 105
9:16 71, 538
12:13 144
12:31 204
12:31-14,1 580
13:12 122
15:20-28 383, 454
15:47-49 121
15:56-57 121

Second Letter to the Corinthians

1:22 122
4:4 121, 431
5:1-2 56
5:17 454

Letter to the Galatians

2:6 144
3:26-28 52, 431
3:27 484
3:28 144
4:4-7 122
4:6 31
4:6-7 39

Letter to the Ephesians

1:8-10 431
1:14 122, 522
1:22-23 327
2:10 258
2:12-18 431
2:14 491
2:14-16 491
2:16 493
3:8 262
3:20 122
4:25,29 562
4:28 264
5:16 579
5:21-33 111
6:9 144
6:12 579
6:15 493

Letter to the Philippians

2:8 196

Letter to the Colossians

1:15 121
1:15-16 327
1:15-17 262
1:15-18 327
1:15-20 454
1:18 327
1:20 327
3:11 144, 431
3:14 580
4:5 579

First Letter to the Thessalonians

4:11-12 264
4:12 264
5:21 126

Second Letter to the Thessalonians

2:7 578
3:6-12 264
3:7-15 264

First Letter to Timothy

2:1-2 380, 381
2:4-5 121
4:4 325
6:10 328

Second Letter to Timothy

4:2-5 2

Letter to Titus

3:1 380, 381
3:2 381
3:3 381
3:5-6 381

Letter to the Hebrews

4:9-10 258
10:23 39
12:22-23 285
13:20 1

Letter of James

1:17 12
1:22 70
2:1-9 145
2:8 580
3:18 102, 203
5:1-6 184
5:4 264, 302

First Letter of Peter

1:18-19 1
2:13 380
2:14 380
2:15 380
2:17 380

Second Letter of Peter

3:10 453
3:13 56, 82, 453

First Letter of John

1:8 120
3:16 196
4:8 54
4:10 30, 39
4:11-12 32

Revelation

17:6 382
19:20 382
21:1 453, 455
21:3 60

Ecumenical Councils
(cited according to DS [Denziger-Schönmetzer],
except for Second Vatican Council)

Lateran Council IV

800 127*

First Vatican Ecumenical Council

3002 127*
3005 141
3022 127*
3025 127*

Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium
10 519
Inter Mirifica
3 415*
4 560*
11 415*
Lumen Gentium
1 19*, 49, 431
5 49
9 33*
11 519
12 79
31 11, 83*, 220*, 541, 545
35 579
42 580*
48 65
Christus Dominus
12 11
Gravissimum Educationis
1 242
3 238*, 239*
6 240*
Nostra aetate
4 536*
5 433*
Dei Verbum
2 13, 47*
4 31*
5 39
Apostolicam Actuositatem
7 45*
8 184, 581*
11 211*
Dignitatis Humanae
97*
1 152*, 421
2 155, 421*, 422*
3 421*
5 239*, 241*
6 423*
7 422
8 530
14 70*, 75*
Gaudium et Spes
96*
1 60*, 96, 197*, 426
3 13, 18
4 104
9 281*
10 14*, 31
11 53*
12 37, 109*, 110, 149*, 209
13 27*, 143
14 128
15 129, 456, 456*
16 198*
17 135, 135*, 199*
22 38*, 41, 105, 121, 153*, 522
24 34, 96, 133*
25 81*, 96, 150*, 384*, 384
26 132, 155*, 156*, 164, 166*, 197*, 287*
27 112*, 132, 153*, 155*
28 43
29 144*
30 19, 191*, 355*
31 191*
32 61*, 196*
33 456
34 456, 457
35 318*, 457*
36 45, 46, 197*
37 44
38 54, 580
39 55, 56
40 51, 60*, 62*, 96
41 152*, 159, 575, 576
42 68, 82*, 192*, 432*
43 83*, 554*, 574
44 18*
47 213
48 211*, 215, 218*, 219*, 223*
50 111*, 218*, 232*, 234*
51 233*
52 238*, 242*
59 556*
60 557
61 198*, 239*, 558
63 331, 336*
65 185*, 333*
66 290*, 298*
67 250*, 284*, 302
68 301*, 304*, 307
69 171, 177*, 178, 180*, 481*
71 176
73 392
74 168*, 384*, 394, 396*, 398*, 567*
75 189*, 413*,531*, 531
76 49, 50*, 50, 81*, 150*, 424, 425, 527*, 544, 550, 571*
77 497
78 494*, 495
79 497*, 500, 502*, 503, 513
80 497*, 509*, 509
82 441
83 194*
84 145*, 194*, 440*
85 194*
86 194*
90 99
91 551
92 12*

Papal Documents

Pope Leo XIII

Enc. Letter Immortale Dei (1 November 1885)
393*

Enc. Letter Libertas Praestantissimum (20 June 1888)
149*

Enc. Letter Rerum Novarum (15 May 1891)
87, 87*, 89, 89*, 90, 91, 100, 101, 103, 168*, 176, 176*, 177*, 185*, 249, 250*, 267, 268, 269, 277, 286*, 287*, 293, 296, 301*, 302, 417, 521, 581

Address to the College of Cardinals (1899)
497

Pope Benedict XV

Appeal to the Leaders of Warring Nations (1 August 1917)
497

Enc. Letter Pacem Dei (23 May 1920)
581*

Pope Pius XI

Enc. Letter Ubi arcano (23 December 1922)
494

Enc. Letter Casti Connubii (31 December 1930)
233*

Enc. Letter Quadragesimo Anno (15 May 1931)
82*, 87*, 89*, 91, 91*, 167, 178*, 185*, 186, 250*, 273, 277*, 277, 301*, 302*, 330, 419*, 552, 581*

Enc. Letter Non abbiamo bisogno (29 June 1931)
92

Enc. Letter Divini Redemptoris (19 March 1937)
92, 201*, 355*

Enc. Letter Mit Brennender Sorge (17 March 1937)
92

Speeches 6 September 1938
92

Pope Pius XII

Enc. Letter Summi Pontificatus (20 October 1939)
125, 194*, 396*, 397*, 434*, 437*, 577

Enc. Letter Sertum Laetitiae (1 November 1939)
301*

Enc. Letter Humani Generis (12 August 1950)
141*

Ap. Exhort. Menti Nostrae (23 September 1950)
87*

Radio Message (24 August 1939)
497

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1939)
93*, 434*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1940)
93*

Radio Message for the 50th Anniversary of Rerum novarum (1 June 1941)
81*, 82*, 87*, 89*, 168*, 171*, 172, 176*, 355*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1941)
93*, 436, 437*, 438*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1942)
93*, 149*, 176*

Radio Message (1 September 1944)
93*, 176*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1944)
93*, 106, 385, 396*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1945)
439*, 446*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1946)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1947)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1948)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1949)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1950)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1951)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1952)
93*, 191*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1953)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1954)
93*

Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1955)
93*

Speeches

29 April 1945 85*
21 October 1945 251*
6 December 1953 432*, 434*
3 October 1953 506*, 518*

Pope John XXIII

Enc. Letter Mater et Magistra (15 May 1961)
84*, 87*, 94*, 95, 107*, 160*, 164*, 166*, 167*, 176*, 178*, 185*, 189*, 192*, 194*, 336*, 339*, 355*, 384, 396, 440*, 446, 527*, 549*, 551*, 575, 579, 581*

Enc. Letter Pacem in Terris (11 April 1963)
84*, 87*, 94, 95*, 95, 145*, 149*, 153*, 153, 155*, 156*, 156, 164*, 165*, 190*, 197*, 198*, 200*, 201*, 205*, 301*, 383*, 384, 386, 387*, 388, 389, 391, 393, 393*, 395*, 396, 396*, 397*, 398*, 414*, 432, 433*, 434*, 435*, 437, 437*, 439*, 441*, 441, 497, 497*, 499*, 499, 527*

Pope Paul VI

Enc. Letter Populorum Progressio (26 March 1967)
98, 98*, 102
6 449
13 61, 81, 197*
14 373
17 194*, 467
19 318*
20 449
21 98, 449
22 172, 177*, 446*, 449*, 481*
23 158, 177*, 300*
31 401
35 198*
37 234*
40 198*, 373*
41 373*
42 82, 98, 373*
43 145*
44 145*, 448*, 581*
47 449*
48 194*
51 442*
52 442*
53 442*
54 442*
55 442*, 449*
56 447*
57 364, 447*
58 447*
59 366, 447*
60 447*
61 364*, 447*
63 433*
76 98, 495*
77 98, 442*
78 98, 372*, 441*, 442*
79 98, 442*
80 98
81 83*, 531

Enc. Letter Humanae Vitae (25 July 1968)
7 233*
10 232
14 233*
16 233*
17 233*

Ap. Letter Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum (29 June 1969)
445

Ap. Letter Octogesima Adveniens (14 May 1971)
100, 100*
3 80*
4 11*, 80*, 81*, 574
5 80*
16 145*, 433*
21 461*, 461
22 189*
23 158
26 124*
27 124*, 126
28 124*
29 124*
30 124*
31 124*
32 124*
33 124*
34 124*
35 124*
36 124*
37 53*, 124*
38 124*
39 124*
41 349*
42 86
43 372*, 446*
44 372*
46 164*, 167*, 189*, 565*, 573*, 581*
47 191*
50 574*
51 525

Ap. Exhort. Evangelii Nuntiandi (8 December 1975)
9 64*, 82
20 523*
29 66*
30 64*
31 66
34 71*
37 496*
45 415*

Motu proprio Iustitiam et Pacem (10 December 1976)
159

Message for the 1968 World Day of Peace
519, 520

Message for the 1969 World Day of Peace
494*

Message for the 1972 World Day of Peace
494*

Message for the 1974 World Day of Peace
495*

Message for the 1976 World Day of Peace
520

Message for the 1977 World Day of Peace
391

Speeches
5 January 1964 210*
24 June 1965 497*
4 October 1965 145*, 155*, 433*, 497
15 April 1968 153
10 June 1969 292, 446*
16 November 1970 207*, 581*
26 October 1974 155*

Letter of Card. Maurice Roy for the 10th Anniversary of the Encyclical Pacem in Terris (11 April 1973)
95*

Pope John Paul II

Enc. Letter Redemptor Hominis (4 March 1979)
1 262
8 64, 262
11 53*
13 58*
14 62, 82, 105*, 126
15 581
17 155, 158*, 168*

Ap. Exhort. Catechesi Tradendae (16 October 1979)
5 529
14 423
18 529*
29 529

Enc. Letter Dives in Misericordia (30 November 1980)
12 206
14 206, 582

Enc. Letter Laborem Exercens (14 September 1981)
72, 101*, 269
1 269
2 201*, 269*
3 72*, 87*, 269
4 275
6 259, 270, 271, 272
8 193*, 308
9 287*
10 249, 249*, 287*, 294, 294*, 317*
11 279
12 277, 290*
13 277*
14 177, 189*, 192*, 281, 282, 287*
15 192*
16 274, 287*
17 288*, 336*
18 287*, 287, 301*
19 172, 250*, 251*, 284*, 295, 301*, 301, 302*, 345*
20 301*, 304*, 304, 305, 306, 307, 318*
21 299
22 148
25 326*
26 326*
27 263*, 326*

Ap. Exhort. Familiaris Consortio (22 November 1982)
12 219*
13 217*, 219
18 221*
19 217
20 225
23 251*, 294*
24 295*
26 244
27 222*
32 233*
36 239
37 238*, 243
40 240
42 553*
43 221, 238*, 242*, 553*
44 247, 553*
45 214*, 252, 355*, 553*
46 253*, 553*
47 220, 553*
48 220, 553*
77 226*, 298*
81 229
84 226*

Ap. Exhort. Reconciliatio et Paenitentia (2 December 1985)
2 116
10 121
15 116
16 117, 118, 193*

Enc. Letter Redemptoris Mater (25 March 1987)
37 59

Enc. Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (30 December 1987)
72, 102, 102*
1 60*, 87*, 104, 162*
3 85*, 85
9 374*
11 192*
12 192*
14 192*, 374
15 185*, 191*, 192*, 336*, 336, 435*
16 192*, 446
17 192*, 194*, 342
18 192*
19 192*
20 192*
21 192*
22 192*
25 483, 483*
26 150*, 443, 470
27 181*
28 181*, 318*, 334, 449*, 462*
29 181*
30 181*
31 181*, 327
32 181*, 333*, 446*, 446, 537*
33 157*, 181*, 442*, 446*, 446, 449
34 181*, 459, 465*, 466, 470*
36 119*, 193, 332, 446, 566
37 119, 181*, 193, 446
38 43*, 193, 194*, 449
39 102, 194*, 203, 383*, 442*, 446
40 33, 194*, 196*, 196, 202*, 332*, 432, 580
41 7, 67*, 68*, 72, 73, 81*, 82*, 159, 563
42 172, 182
43 364*, 372*, 442
44 189*, 198*, 411*, 449*
45 189*, 194*
47 578
48 526*

Ap. Letter Mulieris Dignitatem (15 August 1988)
7 33, 34
11 147

Ap. Exhort. Christifideles Laici (30 December 1988)
15 10, 83*, 543
24 544*
29 549
30 549*
35 523
37 552
39 553, 553*, 570*
40 209, 212
41 412
42 410*, 581*
50 146
59 546
60 528
62 549

Ap. Letter on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Outbreak of the Second World War (27 August 1989)
2 157
8 517

Enc. Letter Redemptoris Missio (7 December 1990)
2 538
11 1, 521*, 523, 524
20 50
37 415*
52 523

Enc. Letter Centesimus Annus (1 May 1991)
103*
3 538
5 67, 71*, 90, 521, 523, 583*
6 176*
7 301*
9 284*
10 103, 194*, 580
11 107*
13 125, 135*
15 301, 351*, 352
16 293, 336*
17 200*
18 438
21 157*
23 438*
24 558, 559*, 577*
29 373
31 171, 176, 273, 287*
32 179, 278, 283*, 337, 343, 344*
33 344*, 447
34 347, 349*, 448
35 179, 189*, 340, 344, 446*, 450
36 345, 358, 359, 360, 376, 486*, 486
37 360*, 460, 467*
38 340, 464
39 212, 231, 350, 375
40 347, 349, 356*, 466*, 470*
41 47, 170*, 181*, 280, 333, 348*
42 200, 335
43 278, 282, 288, 338, 340*
44 191*, 408
45 191*
46 86*, 190*, 395*, 406, 407, 567, 569*
47 155, 158, 191*, 424
48 185*, 186*, 187, 188*, 291, 336*, 351, 352, 353*, 354*, 411*
49 185*, 355*, 420*
50 556
51 494*, 498
52 434*, 439, 498
53 60*, 81*, 82*
54 60*, 61, 67, 69, 78, 159*, 527*
55 9*, 560, 577
56 90, 90*
57 193*, 525, 551*
58 371, 442*, 448
59 73, 76, 78
60 90

Enc. Letter Veritatis Splendor (6 August 1993)
13 75*
27 70*
34 135*
35 136
44 138*
48 127
50 75*, 140*
51 142
61 139
64 70*
79 75*
80 155*
86 138
87 143*
97 22, 397*
98 577
99 138*, 397*
107 530
110 70*

Motu Proprio Socialium Scientiarum (1 January 1994)
78*

Ap. Letter Gratissimam Sane (2 February 1994)
6 111*, 230
7 213
8 111*
10 237
11 218*, 221, 230
13 231
14 111*, 227*
16 111*
17 211, 251*
19 111*
20 111*
21 233*

Ap. Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente (10 November 1994)

13 25*
51 182*, 450*

Letter to Women (29 June 1995)
3 295
8 147

Enc. Letter Evangelium Vitae (25 March 1995)
2 155*
7 155*
8 155*
9 155*
10 155*
11 155*
12 155*
13 155*
14 155*
15 155*
16 155*, 483*
17 155*
18 155*
19 112*, 142*, 155*
20 142*, 155*
21 155*
22 155*
23 155*
24 155*
25 155*
26 155*
27 155*, 405
28 155*
32 182*
34 109*, 114*
35 109*, 110
56 405
58 233*
59 233*
61 233*
62 233*
70 397*, 407
71 229*, 397
72 233*
73 399*, 570*
74 399
92 231*
93 231
101 233*

Ap. Letter Dies Domini (31 May 1998)
26 285*

Enc. Letter Fides et Ratio (14 September 1998)
74*

Prologue 113*
36-48 560*

Ap. Exhort. Ecclesia in America (22 January 1999)
20 362*
25 466
54 7*, 8*

Ap. Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte (6 January 2001)
1 1*
16-28 58*
29 577
49 182*, 583*
50 5, 182*, 583*
51 5, 583*

Message for the 1982 World Day of Peace
4 494

Message for the 1986 World Day of Peace
1 494*
2 509*

Message for the 1988 World Day of Peace
3 516*

Message for the 1989 World Day of Peace
5 387
11 387

Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace
6 459
7 459
9 468, 468*

Message for the 1992 World Day of Peace
4 519*

Message for the 1993 World Day of Peace
1 449*
3 298*
4 497*

Message for the 1994 World Day of Peace
5 239*

Message for the 1996 World Day of Peace
2-6 245*
5 296*

Message for the 1997 World Day of Peace
3 517*, 518*
4 517*, 518*
6 518*

Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace
2 154
3 363
4 450*
5 412
6 296

Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace
3 153, 154
5 423*
6 411*
7 506*, 518*
8 287*
9 450*
10 468*
11 497, 510*, 511*, 512*, 518
12 494*

Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace
6 388*
7 506*
11 506
13 373*
14 373*, 449, 564
15-16 333*
17 564*
20 516

Message for the 2001 World Day of Peace
13 298*
19 405*

Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace
4 513*
5 514
7 515*
9 517*

Message for the 2003 World Day of Peace
5 365, 485*,
6 441

Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace
4 494*
5 437
6 438*, 501
7 440, 442*, 443
8 514*, 514
9 439, 506*, 516*
10 203, 206, 517*, 582

1990 Message for Lent
3 505

Message for the 23[rd] World Day of Social Communications (1999)
3 560

Speeches, Letters and others Messages
2 December 1978 71
13 January 1979 244
28 January 1979 64*, 82*, 178*, 182*, 449*
17 February 1979 159*
14 September 1979 266
29 September 1979 496
2 October 1979 152, 155*, 244
12 November 1979 440*
9 February 1980 581*
1 June 1980 390*
2 June 1980 435*, 440*, 554, 556*
10 July 1980 471*
1 September 1980 426*
25 February 1981 457, 458
3 October 1981 458, 474*
3 April 1982 85*
15 June 1982 292*, 404
21 September 1982 458, 477*
23 October 1982 458, 473*, 477*
18 December 1982 470*
7 March 1983 471*
19 October 1983 15
29 October 1983 460
12 November 1983 496*
22 March 1984 92
18 September 1984 471*
31 January 1985 471*
5 February 1985 471*
13 May 1985 439
18 August 1985 486*
14 October 1985 508
28 November 1986 457*, 458
29 November 1986 471*
12 July 1987 466*
14 September 1987 471*
6 November 1987 470*
9 January 1988 157*
17 April 1988 508*
8 October 1988 468
16 November 1989 470
19 March 1990 457, 458, 505
22 September 1990 244*, 296
1 October 1990 497*
12 January 1991 437
16 January 1991 497
17 January 1991 497
1 May 1991 374
19 May 1991 63*
5 December 1992 506*
16 January 1993 506*
7 March 1993 504
18 April 1993 506
30 November 1993 440*, 504*
11 March 1994 502*
18 March 1994 440*, 483
28 October 1994 470*
9 January 1995 507*
26 May 1995 440*
9 July 1995 147
5 October 1995 145*, 152*, 157, 388*, 432*, 434*, 435*, 435, 436
13 January 1996 509*
2 December 1996 308*
13 January 1997 495*, 518*
24 March 1997 461, 463, 464, 465
25 April 1997 287*, 369*
20 June 1997 446*
19 February 1998 228*
9 May 1998 363*
14 June 1998 506*
4 July 1998 506*
30 November 1998 450*
21 January 1999 228
6 March 1999 279*
11 August 1999 505
31 March 2000 402, 404
1 May 2000 321
2 May 2000 446*
29 August 2000 236*
13 January 2001 435*
27 April 2001 310*, 366
14 September 2001 309, 320*
24 September 2001 515*
24 February 2002 515*
21 March 2002 437*
3 April 2002 222
11 April 2002 367
27 April 2002 367*
13 January 2003 497
5 January 2004 148
7 January 2004 484
12 January 2004 572
4 February 2004 341
21 February 2004 236*

Church Documents

Catechism of the Catholic Church
Title of ch. 1, sec. 1, Part 1 109
24 8*
27 133*
356 109*, 133*
357 108
358 109*, 133*
363 128*
364 128*
365 129
369 110*
371 111*
373 113*
404 115
826 580*
1033 183
1603 215*, 216*
1605 209*
1639 215*
1644 223*
1645 223*
1646 223*
1647 223*
1648 223*
1649 223*
1650 223*, 225*
1651 223*, 225*
1652 230*
1653 238*
1656 220*
1657 220*
1703 128*
1705 135*, 199*
1706 134, 136*
1721 109*
1730 135*, 199*
1731 135*
1732 135*
1733 135*
1738 199
1740 137
1741 143*
1749 138*
1750 138*
1751 138*
1752 138*
1753 138*
1754 138*
1755 138*
1756 138*
1789 20*
1806 548*
1807 201
1827 207*
1849 116*
1850 115*
1869 119*
1879 149*
1880 149
1881 384*
1882 151, 185*
1883 185*,186*, 419*
1884 185*, 383, 419*
1885 185*, 419*
1886 197*
1888 42
1889 43*, 581*, 583
1897 393*
1898 393*
1899 398*
1900 398*
1901 398*
1902 396*
1905 164*
1906 164*
1907 164*, 166*
1908 164*, 169*
1909 164*
1910 164*, 168*, 418*
1911 164*, 433*
1912 164*, 165*
1913 167*, 189*
1914 189*
1915 189*
1916 189*
1917 189*, 191*
1928 201*
1929 201*, 202*
1930 153*, 201*
1931 105*, 201*
1932 201*
1933 201*
1934 144*, 201*
1935 201*
1936 201*
1937 201*
1938 201*
1939 193*, 201*,581*
1940 193*, 201*
1941 193*, 194*, 201*
1942 193*, 201*
1955 140*
1956 140*
1957 141*
1958 141
1959 142*
1960 141*
1970 20*
2011 583*
2034 79*
2037 80*
2039 83*
2062 22
2070 22
2105 422
2106 421*
2107 423*
2108 421*, 422*
2109 422*
2184 284*
2185 284
2186 285
2187 285*, 286
2188 286
2204 220*
2206 213*
2209 214*
2210 213*
2211 252*
2212 206*, 390*, 391*, 582*
2213 390*
2221 239*
2223 239*
2224 213*
2228 238*
2229 240*
2235 132*, 396*
2236 409*
2237 388*
2241 298*
2242 399*
2243 401
2244 47*, 51*
2245 50*, 424*,
2246 426*
2258 112*
2259 112*
2260 112*
2261 112*
2265 500*
2266 402*, 403*
2267 405
2269 341
2271 233*
2272 233*
2273 233*
2297 513*
2304 495*
2306 496
2307 497*
2308 497*
2309 497*, 500
2310 497*, 502*
2311 497*, 503*
2312 497*
2313 497*, 503*
2314 497*, 509*
2315 497*, 508
2316 497*, 508*
2317 495*, 497*
2333 224
2334 111*
2357 228*
2358 228*
2359 228*
2366 230*
2367 232*
2368 234*
2370 233*
2372 234*
2375 235*
2376 235*
2377 235*
2378 235*
2379 218
2384 225*
2385 225
2390 227*
2402 177*
2403 177*
2404 177*
2405 177*
2406 177*
2411 201*
2419 3, 63
2420 68*
2421 87*
2422 104*
2423 81*
2424 340*
2425 201*, 349*
2426 201*, 331*
2427 201*, 263*, 317
2428 201*, 272*
2429 201*, 336, 336*
2430 201*, 304*, 306*
2431 201*, 351*, 352*
2432 201*, 344*
2433 201*, 288*
2434 201*, 302
2435 201*, 304
2436 201*, 289*
2437 201*, 373*
2438 194*, 201*, 341, 373*
2439 201*
2440 201*, 372*
2441 201*, 375
2442 83*, 201*
2443 183, 201*
2444 184*, 201*
2445 184, 201*
2446 184*, 201*
2447 184, 201*
2448 183*,184, 201*
2449 201*
2464 198*
2465 198*
2466 198*
2467 198*
2468 198*
2469 198*
2470 198*
2471 198*
2472 198*
2473 198*
2474 198*
2475 198*
2476 198*
2477 198*
2478 198*
2479 198*
2480 198*
2481 198*
2482 198*
2483 198*
2484 198*
2485 198*
2486 198*
2487 198*
2494 415
2495 561
2510 20*
2832 201*

Congregations

Congregation for the Clergy

General Directory for Catechesis (15 August 1997)
17 529*
18 521*
30 529*
54 529*

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Declaration Persona Humana (29 December 1975)
8 228*
Instruction Libertatis Conscientia (22 March 1986)
26 199
28 199*
32 149
63 64*
64 64*
72 81*, 82*, 85*, 160
73 185*, 194*
75 137
79 401
80 64*
85 185*
86 185*
90 175
94 241
97 59
99 198*

Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons (1 October 1986)
1-2 228*

Instruction Donum Vitae (22 February 1987)
553*
II,2,3,5 235*
II,7 235*

Instruction Donum Veritatis (24 May 1990)
16 80*
17 80*
23 80*

Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals on the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons (23 July 1992)
228*

Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002)
3 384*, 563*
4 570
5 397*
6 397*, 566, 571, 572
7 555*, 568

Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions Between Homosexual Persons (3 June 2003)
8 228
228*

Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the collaboration of men and women in the Church and in the world (31 May 2004)
147*

Congregation for Catholic Education

Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests (30 December 1988)
8 568*
20 89
21 91
22 93
23 94
24 96
25 98
26 102
27 104
29 160*
30 160*
31 160*
32 152*, 160*
33 160*
34 160*
35 106, 160*
36 160*
37 160*
38 160*, 194*
39 160*
40 160*, 189*
41 160*
42 160*
43 197
47 162*

Pontifical Councils

Pontifical Council for Social Communications

Communio et Progressio (23 May 1971)
126-134 415*

Aetatis Novae (22 February 1992)
11 415*

Ethics in Advertising (22 February 1997)
4-8 415*

Ethics in Communications (4 June 2000)
14 561*
20 416
22 416*
24 416*
33 562*

Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People

Refugees, a Challenge to Solidarity (2 October 1992)
6 298*

Pontifical Council for Culture - Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue

Jesus Christ, the Bearer of the Water of Life. A Christian Reflection on the "New Age" (2003)
463*

Pontifical Council for the Family

The Truth and Meaning of Human Sexuality: Guidelines for Education within the Family (8 December 1995)
243*

Family, Marriage and "De facto Unions" (26 July 2000)
23 228*

Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

The Church and Human Rights (10 December 1974)
70-90 159*

At the Service of the Human Community: an Ethical Approach to the International Debt Question (27 December 1986)
450*
I, 1 194*

The International Arms Trade: an Ethical Reflection (1 May 1994)
1, 6 500
1, 9-11 508*

Towards a Better Distribution of Land, the Challenge of Agrarian Reform (23 November 1997)
11 471*
13 300
27-31 180*
35 300*

The Church and Racism. Contribution of the Holy See to the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (29 August 2001)
21 236*
433*

Water, an Essential Element for Life. A Contribution of the Delegation of the Holy See on the occasion of the 3rd World Water Forum (Kyoto, 16-23 March 2003)
485*

Commission for Relations with Judaism

We Remember. A Reflection on the Shoah (16 March 1998)
506*

Pontifical Academy for Life

Reflections on Cloning (25 June 1997)
236*

Animal and Plant Biotechnology: New Frontiers and New Responsibilities (12 October 1999)
472*

Holy See

Charter of the Rights of the Family (24 November 1983)
Preamble D-E 214*
Preamble E 229, 238,
Art. 3, c 237
Art. 5 239*
Art. 5, b 241
Art. 8, a-b 247
Art. 9 247*
Art. 10 294*
Art. 10, a 250*
Art. 10, b 251*
Art. 12 298*

Canon Law

Code of Canon Law
208-223 159*
361 444*
747:2 71, 426*
793-799 239*
1136 239*

Church Writers

Augustine (Saint)

Confessions
1, 1: PL 32, 661 114
2, 4, 9: PL 32, 678 142*

Ambrose (Saint)

De Obitu Valentiniani Consolatio
62: PL 16, 1438 265*

Athanasius of Alexandria (Saint)

Life of Saint Anthony
c. 3: PG 26, 846 265*

Basil the Great (Saint)

Homilia in Illud Lucae, Destruam Horrea Mea
5: PG 31, 271 329, 329*

Regulae Fusius Tractatae
42: PG 31,
1023-1027 265*

Clement of Alexandria

What Rich Man Will Be Saved?
13: PG 9, 618 329

Hermas

The Shepherd, Liber Tertium, Allegory
I: PG 2, 954 329*

John Chrysostom (Saint)

Homilies on Acts
35, 3: PG 60, 258 265*

Homiliae XXI de Statuis ad Populum Antiochenum Habitae
2, 6-8: PG 49,
41-46 329*

Homilia « De Perfecta Caritate »
1, 2: PG 56,
281-282 582

Gregory the Great (Saint)

Regula Pastoralis
3, 21: PL 77, 87-89 184, 329*

Gregory of Nyssa (Saint)

De Vita Moysis
2, 2-3: PG 44,
327B-328B 135*

Irenaeus of Lyon (Saint)

Adversus Haereses
5, 32, 2:
PG 7, 1210 266*

Theodoret of Cyr

On Providence, Orationes
5-7: PG 83,
625-686 266*

Thérèse of the Child Jesus (Saint)

Act of Offering
583

Thomas Aquinas (Saint)

Commentum in Tertium Librum Sententiarum
d. 27, q. 1, a. 4 130

De Caritate
a. 9 581*

De regno. Ad regem Cypri
I, 1 393*
I, 10 390*

In Duo Praecepta Caritatis et in Decem Legis Praecepta Expositio
c. 1 140

Sententiae Octavi Libri Ethicorum
lect. 1 390*

Summa Theologiae
I, q. 75, a. 5 130*
I-II, q. 6 201*
I-II, q. 91, a. 2, c 140*
I-II, q. 93, a. 3,
ad 2um 398
I-II, q. 94, a. 2 167*
I-II, q. 96, a. 2 229*
I-II, q. 99 391*
II-II, q. 23, a. 3,
ad 1um 391*
II-II, q. 23, a. 8 207
II-II, q. 29, a. 3,
ad 3um 494*
II-II, qq. 47-56 548*
II-II, q. 49, a. 1 548*
II-II, q. 49, a. 3 548*
II-II, q. 49, a. 4 548*
II-II, q. 49, a. 6 548*
II-II, q. 49, a. 7 548*
II-II, q. 50, a. 1 548*
II-II, q. 50, a. 2 548*
II-II, q. 58, a. 1 201*
II-II, q. 104, a. 6,
ad 3um 400

References
from International Law

Charter of the United Nations (26 June 1945)
art. 2.4 438*

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
16.3 237*

Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990)
245*


[1] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 1: AAS 93 (2001), 266.

[2] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 11: AAS 83 (1991), 260.

[3] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2419.

[4] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 50-51: AAS 93 (2001), 303-304.

[5] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 571-572.

[6] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, 54: AAS 91 (1999), 790.

[7] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, 54: AAS 91 (1999), 790; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 24.

[8] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 55: AAS 83 (1991), 860.

[9] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 15: AAS 81 (1989), 414.

[10] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Christus Dominus, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 678.

[11] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965), 37.

[12] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 4: AAS 63 (1971), 403.

[13] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 92: AAS 58 (1966), 1113-1114.

[14] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 2: AAS 58 (1966), 818.

[15] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 1026.

[16] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 1027.

[17] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 10: AAS 58 (1966), 1032.

[18] John Paul II, Address at General Audience (19 October 1983), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 24 October 1983, p. 9.

[19] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 44: AAS 58 (1966), 1064.

[20] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 1026.

[21] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 1: AAS 57 (1965), 5.

[22] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 30: AAS 58 (1966), 1050.

[23] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1789, 1970, 2510.

[24] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2062.

[25] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2070.

[26] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 97: AAS 85 (1993), 1209.

[27] These laws are found in Ex 23, Deut 15, Lev 25.

[28] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente, 13: AAS 87 (1995), 14.

[29] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 13: AAS 58 (1966), 1035.

[30] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 4: AAS 58 (1966), 819.

[31] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 10: AAS 58 (1966), 1033.

[32] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 9: AAS 57 (1965), 12-14.

[33] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 7: AAS 80 (1988), 1666.

[34] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 7: AAS 80 (1988), 1665-1666.

[35] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 569.

[36] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 7: AAS 80 (1988), 1664.

[37] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 24: AAS 58 (1966), 1045.

[38] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034.

[39] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1043.

[40] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 5: AAS 58 (1966), 819.

[41] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1043.

[42] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1043.

[43] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1888.

[44] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: AAS 80 (1988), 565-566.

[45] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 28: AAS 58 (1966), 1048.

[46] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1889.

[47] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 37: AAS 58 (1966), 1055.

[48] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 36: AAS 58 (1966), 1054; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Apostolicam Actuositatem, 7: AAS 58 (1966), 843-844.

[49] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 36: AAS 58 (1966), 1054.

[50] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2244.

[51] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Verbum, 2: AAS 58 (1966), 818.

[52] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 844.

[53] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 844-845.

[54] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099.

[55] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 1: AAS 57 (1965), 5.

[56] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 5: AAS 57 (1965), 8.

[57] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 20: AAS 83 (1991), 267.

[58] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2245.

[59] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099.

[60] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 40: AAS 58 (1966), 1058.

[61] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2244.

[62] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 40: AAS 58 (1966), 1058.

[63] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Gaudium et Spes, 11: AAS 58 (1966), 1033.

[64] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 37: AAS 63 (1971), 426-427.

[65] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 11: AAS 71 (1979), 276: "The Fathers of the Church rightly saw in the various religions as it were so many reflections of the one truth, 'seeds of the Word', attesting that, though the routes taken may be different, there is but a single goal to which is directed the deepest aspiration of the human spirit".

[66] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 38: AAS 58 (1966), 1055-1056.

[67] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 39: AAS 58 (1966), 1057.

[68] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 39: AAS 58 (1966), 1057.

[69] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 13: AAS 71 (1979), 283-284.

[70] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 16-28: AAS 93 (2001), 276-285.

[71] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Mater, 37: AAS 79 (1987), 410.

[72] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 97: AAS 79 (1987), 597.

[73] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 1025-1026.

[74] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 40: AAS 58 (1966), 1057-1059; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 53-54: AAS 83 (1991), 859-860; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 1: AAS 80 (1988), 513-514.

[75] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 32: AAS 58 (1966), 1051.

[76] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 54: AAS 83 (1991), 859.

[77] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 13: AAS 59 (1967), 263.

[78] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 40: AAS 58 (1966), 1057-1059.

[79] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 14: AAS 71 (1979), 284.

[80] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2419.

[81] Cf. John Paul II, Homily at Pentecost for the First Centenary of Rerum Novarum (19 May 1991): AAS 84 (1992), 282.

[82] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi 9, 30: AAS 68 (1976), 10-11; John Paul II, Address to the Third General Conference of Latin American Bishops, Puebla, Mexico (28 January 1979), III/4-7: AAS 71 (1979), 199-204; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 63-64, 80: AAS 79 (1987), 581-582, 590-591.

[83] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 8: AAS 71 (1979), 270.

[84] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 48: AAS 57 (1965), 53.

[85] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Evangelii Nuntiandi, 29: AAS 68 (1976), 25.

[86] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Evangelii Nuntiandi, 31: AAS 68 (1976), 26.

[87] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 54: AAS 83 (1991), 860.

[88] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 570-572.

[89] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799.

[90] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 54: AAS 83 (1991), 860.

[91] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2420.

[92] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 42: AAS 58 (1966), 1060.

[93] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 570-572.

[94] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 54: AAS 83 (1991), 860.

[95] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 14: AAS 58 (1966), 940; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 27, 64, 110: AAS 85 (1993), 1154-1155, 1183-1184, 1219-1220.

[96] John Paul II, Message to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2 December 1978): AAS 71 (1979), 124.

[97] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799.

[98] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi, 34: AAS 68 (1976), 28.

[99] Code of Canon Law, canon 747, § 2.

[100] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 3: AAS 73 (1981), 583-584.

[101] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 571.

[102] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 571.

[103] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 572.

[104] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 59: AAS 83 (1991), 864-865.

[105] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio: AAS 91 (1999), 5-88.

[106] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 14: AAS 58 (1966), 940.

[107] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 13, 50, 79: AAS 85 (1993), 1143-1144, 1173-1174, 1197.

[108] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 59: AAS 83 (1991), 864.

[109] In this regard, the foundation of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences is significant; in the motu proprio establishing the Academy one reads: "Social science research can effectively contribute to improving human relations, as has been shown by the progress achieved in various sectors of society especially during the century now drawing to a close. This is why the Church, ever concerned for man's true good, has turned with growing interest to this field of scientific research in order to obtain concrete information for fulfilling the duties of her Magisterium": John Paul II, Motu Proprio Socialium Scientiarum (1 January 1994): AAS 86 (1994), 209.

[110] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 54: AAS 83 (1991), 860.

[111] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 59: AAS 83 (1991), 864.

[112] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 12: AAS 57 (1965), 16.

[113] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2034.

[114] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 3-5: AAS 63 (1971), 402-405.

[115] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2037.

[116] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Donum Veritatis, 16-17, 23: AAS 82 (1990), 1557-1558, 1559-1560.

[117] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 53: AAS 83 (1991), 859.

[118] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 13: AAS 59 (1967), 264.

[119] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 4: AAS 63 (1971), 403-404; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 570-572; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2423; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 72: AAS 79 (1987), 586.

[120] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 25: AAS 58 (1966), 1045-1046.

[121] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099-1100; Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 196-197.

[122] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 190; Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 23 (1931), 196-197; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 42: AAS 58 (1966), 1079; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 570-572; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 53: AAS 83 (1991), 859; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith,
Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 72: AAS 79 (1987), 585-586.

[123] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 14: AAS 71 (1979), 284; cf. John Paul II, Address to the Third General Conference of Latin American Bishops, Puebla, Mexico (28 January 1979), III/2: AAS 71 (1979), 199.

[124] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 42: AAS 59 (1967), 278.

[125] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi, 9: AAS 68 (1976), 10.

[126] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 42: AAS 59 (1967), 278.

[127] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2039.

[128] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2442.

[129] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 15: AAS 81 (1989), 413; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965), 37.

[130] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 43: AAS 58 (1966), 1061-1064; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 81: AAS 59 (1967), 296-297.

[131] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 453.

[132] Beginning with the Encyclical Pacem in Terris of John XXIII, the recipient is expressly identified in this manner in the initial address of such documents.

[133] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 3: AAS 80 (1988), 515; Pius XII, Address to Participants in a Convention of the Catholic Action movement (29 April 1945), in Discorsi e Radiomessaggi di Pio XII, vol. VII, 37-38; John Paul II, Address at the international symposium "From Rerum Novarum to Laborem Exercens: towards the year 2000" (3 April 1982): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, V, 1 (1982), 1095-1096.

[134] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 3: AAS 80 (1988), 515.

[135] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 72: AAS 79 (1987), 585-586.

[136] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 3: AAS 80 (1988), 515.

[137] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850-851.

[138] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 42: AAS 63 (1971), 431.

[139] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 179; Pius XII, in his Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 197, speaks of "Catholic social doctrine" and, in the Encyclical Letter Menti Nostrae of 23 September 1950: AAS 42 (1950), 657, of "the Church's social doctrine". John XXIII retains the expression "the Church's social doctrine" (Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 [1961] , 453; Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 [1963] , 300-301) and also uses "Christian social doctrine" (Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 [1961] , 453) or even "Catholic social doctrine" (Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 [1961] , 454).

[140] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 97-144.

[141] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 3: AAS 73 (1981), 583-584; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 1: AAS 80 (1988), 513-514.

[142] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2421.

[143] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 97-144.

[144] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 20, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 24.

[145] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno, 39 AAS 23 (1931), 189; Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 198.

[146] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799.

[147] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799.

[148] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 56: AAS 83 (1991), 862.

[149] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 60: AAS 83 (1991), 865.

[150] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 60: AAS 83 (1991), 865.

[151] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 143; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 56: AAS 83 (1991), 862.

[152] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 177-228.

[153] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 186-189.

[154] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 21, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 24.

[155] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Non Abbiamo Bisogno: AAS 23 (1931), 285-312.

[156] The official German text can be found in AAS 29 (1937), 145-167.

[157] Pius XI, Address to Belgian Radio Journalists (6 September 1938), in John Paul II, Address to international leaders of the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith (22 March 1984): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 26 March 1984, pp. 8, 11.

[158] The official Latin text can be found in AAS 29 (1937), 65-106.

[159] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Divini Redemptoris: AAS 29 (1937), 130.

[160] Cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Messages: on peace and the international order, 1939, AAS 32 (1940), 5-13; 1940, AAS 33 (1941), 5-14; 1941, AAS 34 (1942), 10-21; 1945, AAS 38 (1946), 15-25; 1946, AAS 39 (1947), 7-17; 1948, AAS 41 (1949), 8-16; 1950, AAS 43 (1951), 49-59; 1951, AAS 44 (1952), 5-15; 1954, AAS 47 (1955), 15-28; 1955, AAS 48 (1956), 26-41; on the order within nations, 1942, AAS 35 (1943), 9-24; on democracy, 1944, AAS 37 (1945), 10-23; on the function of Christian civilization, 1 September 1944, AAS 36 (1944), 249-258; on making a return to God in generosity and brotherhood, 1947, AAS 40 (1948), 8-16; on the year of the great return and of great forgiveness, 1949, AAS 42 (1950), 121-133; on the depersonalization of man, 1952, AAS 45 (1953), 33-46; on the role of progress in technology and peace among peoples, 1953, AAS 46 (1954), 5-16.

[161] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 22, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 25.

[162] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 22, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 25.

[163] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 267-269, 278-279, 291, 295-296.

[164] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 401-464.

[165] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 23, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 26.

[166] Cf. John XXIII Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 415-418.

[167] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 257-304.

[168] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris, Title: AAS 55 (1963), 257.

[169] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 301.

[170] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 294.

[171] Cf. Cardinal Maurice Roy, Letter to Paul VI and Document on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of Pacem in Terris, L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 19 April 1973, pp. 1-8.

[172] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes: AAS 58 (1966), 1025-1120.

[173] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 24, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 28.

[174] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 1026.

[175] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 40: AAS 58 (1966), 1058.

[176] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 24: AAS 58 (1966), 1045.

[177] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 25: AAS 58 (1966), 1045.

[178] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 24, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 29.

[179] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae: AAS 58 (1966), 929-946.

[180] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 76-80: AAS 59 (1967), 294-296.

[181] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio: AAS 59 (1967), 257-299.

[182] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 25, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 29.

[183] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 21: AAS 59 (1967), 267.

[184] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 42: AAS 59 (1967), 278.

[185] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 90: AAS 58 (1966), 1112.

[186] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens: AAS 63 (1971), 401-441.

[187] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens: AAS 73 (1981), 577-647.

[188] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis: AAS 80 (1988), 513-586.

[189] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 26, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 32.

[190] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 26, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 32.

[191] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 568.

[192] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus: AAS 83 (1991), 793-867.

[193] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 10: AAS 83 (1991), 805.

[194] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 27, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 33.

[195] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 4: AAS 58 (1966), 1028.

[196] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 1: AAS 80 (1988), 514; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2422.

[197] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1042.

[198] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 14: AAS 71 (1979), 284.

[199] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1931.

[200] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 35, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 39.

[201] Pius XII, Radio Message of 24 December 1944, 5: AAS 37 (1945), 12.

[202] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 11: AAS 83 (1991), 807.

[203] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 453, 459.

[204] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 357.

[205] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 356, 358.

[206] Catechism of the Catholic Church, title of Chapter 1, Section 1, Part 1; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 34: AAS 87 (1995), 440.

[207] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 35: AAS 87 (1995), 440-441; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1721.

[208] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034.

[209] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 369.

[210] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 35: AAS 87 (1995), 440.

[211] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2334.

[212] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 371.

[213] Cf. John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 6, 8, 14, 16, 19-20: AAS 86 (1994), 873-874, 876-878, 899-903, 910-919.

[214] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 50-51: AAS 58 (1966), 1070-1072.

[215] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 19: AAS 87 (1995), 421-422.

[216] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2258.

[217] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 27: AAS 58 (1966), 1047-1048; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2259-2261.

[218] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio, proem: AAS 91 (1999), 5.

[219] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 373.

[220] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 34: AAS 87 (1995), 438-440.

[221] Saint Augustine, Confessions, I, 1: PL 32, 661: "Tu excitas, ut laudare te delectet; quia fecisti nos ad te, et inquietum est cor nostrum, donec requiescat in te".

[222] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1850.

[223] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 404.

[224] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 2: AAS 77 (1985), 188; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1849.

[225] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 15: AAS 77 (1985), 212-213.

[226] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 16: AAS 77 (1985), 214. The text explains moreover that there is a law of descent, which is a kind of communion of sin, in which a soul that lowers itself through sin drags down with it the Church and, in some way, the entire world; to this law there corresponds a law of ascent, the profound and magnificent mystery of the communion of saints, thanks to which every soul that rises above itself also raises the world.

[227] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 16: AAS 77 (1985), 216.

[228] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1869.

[229] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 36: AAS 80 (1988), 561-563.

[230] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 37: AAS 80 (1988), 563.

[231] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 10: AAS 77 (1965), 205.

[232] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1042.

[233] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 26-39: AAS 63 (1971), 420-428.

[234] Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus: AAS 31 (1939), 463.

[235] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 13: AAS 83 (1991), 809.

[236] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 27: AAS 63 (1971), 421.

[237] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 14: AAS 71 (1979), 284.

[238] Cf. Fourth Lateran Ecumenical Council, Chapter 1, De Fide Catholica: DS 800, p. 259; First Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dei Filius, c. 1: De Deo rerum omnium Creatore: DS 3002, p. 587; First Vatican Ecumenical Council, canons 2, 5: DS 3022, 3025, pp. 592, 593.

[239] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 48: AAS 85 (1993), 1172.

[240] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 14: AAS 58 (1966), 1035; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 364.

[241] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 14: AAS 58 (1966), 1035.

[242] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 14: AAS 58 (1966), 1036; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 363, 1703.

[243] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 15: AAS 58 (1966), 1036.

[244] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 365.

[245] Saint Thomas Aquinas, Commentum in tertium librum Sententiarum, d. 27, q. 1, a. 4: "Ex utraque autem parte res immateriales infinitatem habent quodammodo, quia sunt quodammodo omnia, sive inquantum essentia rei immaterialis est exemplar et similitudo omnium, sicut in Deo accidit, sive quia habet similitudinem omnium vel actu vel potentia, sicut accidit in Angelis et animabus"; cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I, q. 75, a. 5: Ed. Leon. 5, 201-203.

[246] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046-1047.

[247] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 27: AAS 58 (1966), 1047.

[248] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2235.

[249] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 24: AAS 58 (1966), 1045; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 27, 356 and 358.

[250] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1706.

[251] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1705.

[252] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 17: AAS 58 (1966), 1037; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1730-1732.

[253] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 34: AAS 85 (1993), 1160- 1161; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 17: AAS 58 (1966), 1038.

[254] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1733.

[255] Cf. Gregory of Nyssa, De Vita Moysis, II, 2-3: PG 44, 327B-328B: "unde fit, ut nos ipsi patres quodammodo simus nostri ... vitii ac virtutis ratione fingentes".

[256] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 13: AAS 83 (1991), 809-810.

[257] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1706.

[258] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 35: AAS 85 (1993), 1161-1162.

[259] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1740.

[260] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 75: AAS 79 (1987), 587.

[261] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1749-1756.

[262] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 86: AAS 85 (1993), 1201.

[263] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 44, 99: AAS 85 (1993), 1168-1169, 1210-1211.

[264] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 61: AAS 85 (1993), 1181-1182.

[265] Cf. Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 50: AAS 85 (1993), 1173-1174.

[266] Saint Thomas Aquinas, In Duo Praecepta Caritatis et in Decem Legis Praecepta Expositio, c. 1: "Nunc autem de scientia operandorum intendimus: ad quam tractandan quadruplex lex invenitur. Prima dicitur lex naturae; et haec nihil aliud est nisi lumen intellectus insitum nobis a Deo, per quod cognoscimus quid agendum et quid vitandum. Hoc lumen et hanc legem dedit Deus homini in creatione": Divi Thomae Aquinatis, Doctoris Angelici, Opuscola Theologica, vol. II: De re spirituali, cura et studio P. Fr. Raymundi Spiazzi, O.P., Marietti ed., Taurini - Romae 1954, p. 245.

[267] Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 91, a. 2, c: Ed. Leon. 7, 154: "partecipatio legis aeternae in rationali creatura lex naturalis dicitur".

[268] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1955.

[269] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1956

[270] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1957.

[271] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1958.

[272] First Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dei Filius, c. 2: DS 3005, p. 588; cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Humani Generis: AAS 42 (1950), 562.

[273] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1960.

[274] Cf. Saint Augustine, Confessions, 2, 4, 9: PL 32, 678: "Furtum certe punit lex tua, Domine, et lex scripta in cordibus hominum, quam ne ipsa quidem delet iniquitas".

[275] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1959.

[276] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 51: AAS 85 (1993), 1175.

[277] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 19-20: AAS 87 (1995), 421-424.

[278] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 13: AAS 58 (1966), 1034-1035.

[279] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1741.

[280] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 87: AAS 85 (1993), 1202-1203.

[281] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1934.

[282] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 29: AAS 58 (1966), 1048-1049.

[283] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 16: AAS 63 (1971), 413.

[284] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris, 47-48: AAS 55 (1963), 279- 281; Paul VI, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations (4 October 1965), 5: AAS 57 (1965), 881; John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 13: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 9-10.

[285] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 84: AAS 58 (1966), 1107-1108.

[286] Cf. Paul VI, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations, 5: AAS 57 (1965), 881; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 43-44: AAS 59 (1967), 278-279.

[287] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 50: AAS 81 (1989), 489.

[288] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Mulieris Dignitatem, 11: AAS 80 (1988), 1678.

[289] John Paul II, Letter to Women, 8: AAS 87 (1995), 808.

[290] John Paul II, Sunday Angelus (9 July 1995): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 12 July 1995, p. 1; cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the Collaboration of Men and Women in the Church and in the World: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11/18 August 2004, pp. 5-8.

[291] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 22: AAS 73 (1981), 634.

[292] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 22: AAS 73 (1981), 634.

[293] John Paul II, Message for the International Symposium on the Dignity and Rights of the Mentally Disabled Person, 5 January 2004, 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 21 January 2004, p. 6.

[294] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1879.

[295] Cf. Pius XII, Radio Message of 24 December 1942, 6: AAS 35 (1943), 11-12; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 264-265.

[296] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1880.

[297] The natural social disposition of men and women also makes it evident that the origin of society is not found in a "contract" or "agreement", but in human nature itself; and from this arises the possibility of freely creating different agreements of association. It must not be forgotten that the ideologies of the social contract are based on a false anthropology; consequently, their results cannot be - and in fact they have not been - profitable for society or for people. The Magisterium has declared such opinions as openly absurd and entirely disastrous: cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Libertas Praestantissimum: Acta Leonis XIII, 8 (1889), 226-227.

[298] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 32: AAS 79 (1987), 567.

[299] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 25: AAS 58 (1966), 1045-1046.

[300] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 26: AAS 80 (1988), 544-547; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099-1100.

[301] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1882.

[302] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 929-930.

[303] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 41: AAS 58 (1966), 1059-1060; Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 32, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, pp. 36-37.

[304] John Paul II, Address to the 34th General Assembly of the United Nations (2 October 1979), 7: AAS 71 (1979), 1147-1148; for John Paul II, this Declaration "remains one of the highest expressions of the human conscience of our time": Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 8.

[305] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 27: AAS 58 (1966), 1047-1048; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1930.

[306] Cf. John XIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 259; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1079.

[307] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 278-279.

[308] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 259.

[309] John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 3: AAS 91 (1999), 379.

[310] Paul VI, Message to the International Conference on Human Rights, Teheran (15 April 1968): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 2 May 1968, p. 4.

[311] John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 3: AAS 91 (1999), 379.

[312] John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 3: AAS 91 (1999), 379.

[313] John Paul II, Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace, 2: AAS 90 (1998), 149.

[314] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 259-264.

[315] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046-1047.

[316] Cf. Paul VI, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations (4 October 1965), 6: AAS 57 (1965), 883-884; Paul VI, Message to the Bishops Gathered for the Synod (26 October 1974): AAS 66 (1974), 631-639.

[317] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 47: AAS 83 (1991), 851-852; cf. also Address to the 34th General Assembly of the United Nations (2 October 1979), 13: AAS 71 (1979) 1152-1153.

[318] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 2: AAS 87 (1995), 402.

[319] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 27: AAS 58 (1966), 1047-1048; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 80: AAS 85 (1993), 1197-1198; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 7-28: AAS 87 (1995), 408-433.

[320] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 2: AAS 58 (1966), 930-931.

[321] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 17: AAS 71 (1979), 300.

[322] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 259-264; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046-1047.

[323] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 264.

[324] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 264.

[325] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 33: AAS 80 (1988), 557-559; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 21: AAS 83 (1991), 818-819.

[326] John Paul II, Letter on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the outbreak of the Second World War, 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 4 September 1989, p. 2.

[327] John Paul II, Letter on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the outbreak of the Second World War, 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 4 September 1989, p. 2.

[328] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (9 January 1988), 7-8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 25 January 1988, p. 7.

[329] John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 9.

[330] John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 9.

[331] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 47: AAS 83 (1991), 852.

[332] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 17: AAS 71 (1979), 295-300.

[333] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 23: AAS 63 (1971), 418.

[334] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 54: AAS 83 (1991), 859-860.

[335] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 41: AAS 58 (1966), 1060.

[336] Cf. John Paul II, Address to Officials and Advocates of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota (17 February 1979), 4: Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, II, 1 (1979), 413-414.

[337] Cf. Code of Canon Law, canons 208-223.

[338] Cf. Pontifical Commission "Iustitia et Pax", The Church and Human Rights, 70-90, Vatican City 1975, pp. 45-54.

[339] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollecitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 572.

[340] Paul VI, Motu Proprio Iustitiam et Pacem (10 December 1976): L'Osservatore Romano, 23 December 1976, p. 10.

[341] Cf. Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 29-42, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, pp. 35-43.

[342] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 453.

[343] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 72: AAS 79 (1987), 585.

[344] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 1 AAS 80 (1988), 513-514.

[345] Cf. Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 47, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 47.

[346] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1905-1912; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 417-421; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 272-273; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-435.

[347] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1912.

[348] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 272.

[349] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1907.

[350] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046-1047.

[351] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 421.

[352] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 417; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-435; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1913.

[353] Saint Thomas Aquinas places "knowledge of the truth about God" and "life in society" at the highest and most specific level of man's "inclinationes naturales" (Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 94, a. 2: Ed. Leon. 7, 170: "Secundum igitur ordinem inclinationum naturalium est ordo praeceptorum legis naturae ... Tertio modo inest homini inclinatio ad bonum secundum naturam rationis, quae est sibi propria; sicut homo habet naturalem inclinationem ad hoc quod veritatem cognoscat de Deo, et ad hoc quod in societate vivat").

[354] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 197.

[355] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1910.

[356] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 74: AAS 58 (1966), 1095-1097; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 17: AAS 71 (1979), 295-300.

[357] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 133-135; Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 200.

[358] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1908.

[359] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 843-845.

[360] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090.

[361] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 31: AAS 83 (1991), 831.

[362] Cf. Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 199-200.

[363] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 525.

[364] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 42: AAS 80 (1988), 573.

[365] Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 199.

[366] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 22: AAS 59 (1967), 268.

[367] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Libertatis Conscientia, 90: AAS 79 (1987), 594.

[368] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 31: AAS 83 (1991), 832.

[369] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 71: AAS 58 (1966), 1092-1093; cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 103-104; Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum: AAS 33 (1941), 199; Pius XII, Radio Message of 24 December 1942: AAS 35 (1943), 17; Pius XII, Radio Message of 1 September 1944: AAS 36 (1944), 253; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 428-429.

[370] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 6: AAS 83 (1991), 800-801.

[371] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 102.

[372] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 14: AAS 73 (1981), 613.

[373] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090-1092; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2402-2406.

[374] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 102.

[375] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 22-23: AAS 59 (1967), 268-269.

[376] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 430-431; John Paul II, Address to the Third General Conference of Latin American Bishops, Puebla, Mexico (28 January 1979), III/4: AAS 71 (1979), 199-201.

[377] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 191-192, 193-194, 196-197.

[378] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090.

[379] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: AAS 83 (1991), 832.

[380] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 837.

[381] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090-1092.

[382] Cf. Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Towards a Better Distribution of Land. The Challenge of Agrarian Reform (23 November 1997), 27-31: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, pp. 28-31.

[383] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 27-34, 37: AAS 80 (1988), 547-560, 563-564; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 843-845.

[384] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Third General Conference of Latin American Bishops, Puebla, Mexico (28 January 1979), I/8: AAS 71 (1979), 194-195.

[385] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 42: AAS 80 (1988), 572- 573; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 32: AAS 87 (1995), 436-437; John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente, 51: AAS 87 (1995), 36; John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 49-50: AAS 93 (2001), 302-303.

[386] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2448.

[387] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2443.

[388] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1033.

[389] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2444.

[390] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2448.

[391] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2447.

[392] Saint Gregory the Great, Regula Pastoralis, 3, 21: PL 77, 87: "Nam cum qualibet necessaria indigentibus ministramus, sua illis reddimus, non nostra largimur; iustitiae potius debitum soluimus, quam misericordiae opera implemus".

[393] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Apostolicam Actuositatem, 8: AAS 58 (1966), 845; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2446.

[394] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2445.

[395] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 101-102, 123.

[396] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1882.

[397] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 15: AAS 80 (1988), 529; cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 203; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 439; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 65: AAS 58 (1966), 1086-1087; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 73, 85-86: AAS 79 (1987), 586, 592-593; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1883-1885.

[398] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 49: AAS 83 (1991), 854-856; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 15: AAS 80 (1988), 528-530.

[399] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 203; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1883.

[400] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 854.

[401] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854.

[402] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 22, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 417, 433-435; Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 40, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, pp. 41-42.

[403] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 75: AAS 58 (1966), 1097-1099.

[404] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1913-1917.

[405] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 423-425; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 14: AAS 73 (1981), 612-616; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 836-838.

[406] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 44-45: AAS 80 (1988), 575-578.

[407] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 278.

[408] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850-851.

[409] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1917.

[410] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 30-31: AAS 58 (1966), 1049-1050; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 47: AAS 83 (1991), 851-852.

[411] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 44-45: AAS 83 (1991), 848-849.

[412] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 15: AAS 80 (1988), 528-530; Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message of 24 December 1952: AAS 45 (1953), 37; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 47: AAS 63 (1971), 435-437.

[413] There can be associated to the concept of interdependence the classical theme of socialization, repeatedly examined by the Church's social doctrine; cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 415-417; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 42: AAS 58 (1966), 1060-1061; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 14-15: AAS 73 (1981), 612-618.

[414] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 11-22: AAS 80 (1988), 525-540.

[415] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1939-1941.

[416] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1942.

[417] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 36, 37: AAS 80 (1988), 561-564; cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Paenitentia, 16: AAS 77 (1985), 213-217.

[418] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: AAS 80 (1988), 565-566.

[419] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: AAS 80 (1988), 566; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 8: AAS 73 (1981), 594-598; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 57: AAS 83 (1991), 862-863.

[420] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 17, 39, 45: AAS 80 (1988), 532-533, 566-568, 577-578. International solidarity too is required by the moral order; peace in the world depends in large part on this: cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 83-86: AAS 58 (1966), 1107- 1110; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 48: AAS 59 (1967), 281; Pontifical Commission "Iustitia et Pax", At the Service of the Human Community: an Ethical Approach to the International Debt Question (27 December 1986), I, 1, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1986, p. 11; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1941, 2438.

[421] Solidarity, though not yet with that explicit name, is one of the basic principles of Rerum Novarum (cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 [1961] , 407). "What we nowadays call the principle of solidarity ... is frequently stated by Pope Leo XIII, who uses the term 'friendship', a concept already found in Greek philosophy. Pope Pius XI refers to it with the equally meaningful term 'social charity'. Pope Paul VI, expanding the concept to cover the many modern aspects of the social question, speaks of a 'civilization of love' " (John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 10: AAS 83 [1991] , 805). Solidarity is one of the basic principles of the entire social teaching of the Church (cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 73: AAS 79 [1987] , 586). Starting with Pius XII (cf. Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus: AAS 31 [1939] , 426-427), the term solidarity is used ever more frequently and with ever broader meaning: from that of "law" in the same encyclical to that of "principle" (cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 [1961] , 407), that of "duty" (cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 17, 48: AAS 59 [1967] , 265-266, 281) and that of "value" (cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: AAS 80 [1988] , 564-566), and finally that of "virtue" (cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38, 40: AAS 80 [1988] , 564-566, 568-569).

[422] Cf. Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 38, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, pp. 40-41.

[423] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 32: AAS 58 (1966), 1051.

[424] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 568: "Solidarity is undoubtedly a Christian virtue. In what has been said so far it has been possible to identify many points of contact between solidarity and charity, which is the distinguishing mark of Christ's disciples (cf. Jn 13:35)".

[425] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 569.

[426] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1886.

[427] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046-1047; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 265-266..

[428] Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 43, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, p. 44.

[429] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 36: AAS 58 (1966), 1053-1054.

[430] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 1025-1026; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 13: AAS 59 (1967), 263-264.

[431] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2467.

[432] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 265-266, 281.

[433] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 61: AAS 58 (1966), 1081-1082; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 35, 40: AAS 59 (1967), 274-275, 277; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 44: AAS 80 (1988), 575-577. For social reform, "the primary task, which will affect the success of all the others, belongs to the order of education": Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 99: AAS 79 (1987), 599.

[434] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 16: AAS 58 (1966), 1037; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2464-2487.

[435] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 17: AAS 58 (1966), 1037-1038; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1705, 1730; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 28: AAS 79 (1987), 565.

[436] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1738.

[437] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 26: AAS 79 (1987), 564-565.

[438] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 42: AAS 83 (1991), 846. This statement is made in the context of economic initiative, but it appears correct to apply it also to other areas of personal activity.

[439] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 17: AAS 83 (1991), 814-815.

[440] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 289-290.

[441] Cf. Saint Thomas, Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 6: Ed. Leon. 6, 55-63.

[442] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1807; cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 58, a. 1: Ed. Leon. 9, 9-10: "iustitia est perpetua et constans voluntas ius suum unicuique tribuendi".

[443] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 282-283.

[444] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2411.

[445] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1928-1942, 2425-2449, 2832; Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Divini Redemptoris: AAS 29 (1937), 92.

[446] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 2: AAS 73 (1981), 580-583.

[447] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 568; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1929.

[448] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 10: AAS 96 (2004), 121.

[449] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 568.

[450] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 568.

[451] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 265-267.

[452] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 10: AAS 96 (2004), 120.

[453] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Dives in Misericordia, 14: AAS 72 (1980), 1223.

[454] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Dives in Misericordia, 12: AAS 72 (1980), 1216.

[455] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Dives in Misericordia, 14: AAS 72 (1980), 1224; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2212.

[456] Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 23, a. 8: Ed. Leon. 8, 72; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1827.

[457] Paul VI, Address to the Food and Agriculture Association on the twenty-fifth anniversary of its foundation (16 November 1970): Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, vol. VIII, p. 1153.

[458] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 12: AAS 58 (1966), 1034.

[459] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1605.

[460] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 40: AAS 81 (1989), 469.

[461] The Holy Family is an example of family life: "May Nazareth remind us what the family is, what the communion of love is, its stark and simple beauty, its sacred and inviolable character; may it help us to see how sweet and irreplaceable education in the family is; may it teach us its natural function in the social order. May we finally learn the lesson of work": Paul VI, Address at Nazareth (5 January 1964): AAS 56 (1964), 168.

[462] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 17: AAS 86 (1994), 906.

[463] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48: AAS 58 (1966), 1067-1069

[464] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Apostolicam Actuositatem, 11: AAS 58 (1966), 848.

[465] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 40: AAS 81 (1989), 468.

[466] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 39: AAS 83 (1991), 841.

[467] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 39: AAS 83 (1991), 841.

[468] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 7: AAS 86 (1994), 875; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2206.

[469] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 47: AAS 58 (1966), 1067; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2210.

[470] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2224.

[471] Cf. Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, Preamble, D-E, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 6.

[472] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 45: AAS 74 (1982), 136-137; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2209.

[473] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48: AAS 58 (1966), 1067-1068.

[474] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48: AAS 58 (1966), 1067.

[475] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1603.

[476] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48: AAS 58 (1966), 1067.

[477] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1639.

[478] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1603.

[479] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 13: AAS 74 (1982), 93-96.

[480] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 19: AAS 74 (1982), 102.

[481] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48, 50: AAS 58 (1966), 1067-1069, 1070-1072.

[482] Cf. John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 11: AAS 86 (1994), 883-886.

[483] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 50: AAS 58 (1966), 1070-1072.

[484] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2379.

[485] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 12: AAS 74 (1982), 93: "For this reason the central word of Revelation, 'God loves his people', is likewise proclaimed through the living and concrete word whereby a man and a woman express their conjugal love. Their bond of love becomes the image and the symbol of the covenant which unites God and his people (cf. Hos 2:21; Jer 3:6-13; Is 54). And the same sin which can harm the conjugal covenant becomes an image of the infidelity of the people to their God: idolatry is prostitution (cf. Ezek 16:25), infidelity is adultery, disobedience to the law is abandonment of the spousal love of the Lord. But the infidelity of Israel does not destroy the eternal fidelity of the Lord, and therefore the ever faithful love of God is put forward as the model of the faithful love which should exist between spouses (cf. Hos 3)".

[486] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 13: AAS 74 (1982), 93-94.

[487] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48: AAS 58 (1966), 1067-1069.

[488] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 47: AAS 74 (1982), 139; the quotation in the text is taken from Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965), 37.

[489] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 48: AAS 74 (1982), 140; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1656-1657, 2204.

[490] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 18: AAS 74 (1982), 100-101.

[491] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 11: AAS 86 (1994), 883.

[492] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 43: AAS 74 (1982), 134.

[493] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 43: AAS 74 (1982), 134.

[494] John Paul II, Message to the Second World Assembly on Ageing, Madrid (3 April 2002): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 24 April 2002, p. 6; cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 27: AAS 74 (1982), 113-114.

[495] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 48: AAS 58 (1966), 1067-1069; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1644-1651.

[496] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2333.

[497] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2385; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1650-1651, 2384.

[498] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 20: AAS 74 (1982), 104.

[499] The respect owed to the sacrament of Marriage, as well as to the married couples themselves, their families and the faith community, forbids pastors regardless of motivation and pretext - even pastoral - from setting up any kind of ceremony for the divorced who wish to remarry. Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 20: AAS 74 (1982), 104.

[500] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 77, 84: AAS 74 (1982), 175-178, 184-186.

[501] Cf. John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 14: AAS 86 (1994), 893-896; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2390.

[502] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2390.

[503] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Letter on the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons (1 October 1986), 1-2: AAS 79 (1987), 543-544.

[504] John Paul II, Address to the Tribunal of the Roman Rota (21 January 1999), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 10 February 1999, p. 3.

[505] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Document on Some Considerations Concerning the Response to Legislative Proposals on the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons (23 July 1992): L'Osservatore Romano, 24 July 1992, p. 4; cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration Persona Humana (29 December 1975), 8: AAS 68 (1976), 84-85.

[506] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2357-2359.

[507] Cf. John Paul II, Address to Spanish Bishops on their Ad Limina Visit (19 February 1998), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 March 1998, p. 5; Pontifical Council for the Family, Family, Marriage and "De facto Unions" (26 July 2000), 23, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2000, pp. 40-43; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions Between Homosexual Persons (3 June 2003), Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2003.

[508] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions Between Homosexual Persons (3 June 2003), 8, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2003, p. 9.

[509] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 71: AAS 87 (1995), 483; Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 96, a. 2 ("Utrum ad legem humanam pertineat omnia vitia cohibere"): Ed. Leon. 7, 181.

[510] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 81: AAS 74 (1982), 183.

[511] Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family (24 November 1983), Preamble, E, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 6.

[512] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1652.

[513] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 6: AAS 86 (1994), 874; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2366.

[514] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 11: AAS 86 (1994), 884.

[515] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 39: AAS 83 (1991), 842.

[516] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 92: AAS 87 (1995), 505-507.

[517] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 13: AAS 86 (1994), 891.

[518] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 93: AAS 87 (1995), 507-508.

[519] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 50: AAS 58 (1966), 1070-1072; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2367.

[520] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae, 10: AAS 60 (1968), 487; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 50: AAS 58 (1966), 1070-1072.

[521] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae, 14: AAS 60 (1968), 490-491.

[522] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 51: AAS 58 (1966), 1072-1073; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2271-2272; John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 21: AAS 86 (1994), 919-920; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 58, 59, 61-62: AAS 87 (1995), 466-468, 470-472.

[523] Cf. John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 21: AAS 86 (1994), 919-920; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 72, 101: AAS 87 (1995), 484-485, 516-518; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2273.

[524] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 51: AAS 58 (1966), 1072-1073; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae, 14: AAS 60 (1968), 490-491; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 32: AAS 74 (1982), 118-120; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2370; Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Casti Connubii (31 December 1930): AAS 22 (1930), 559-561.

[525] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae, 7: AAS 60 (1968), 485; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 32: AAS 74 (1982), 118-120.

[526] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae, 17: AAS 60 (1968), 493-494.

[527] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Humanae Vitae, 16: AAS 60 (1968), 491-492; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 32: AAS 74 (1982), 118-120; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2370.

[528] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 50: AAS 58 (1966), 1070-1072; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2368; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 37: AAS 59 (1967), 275-276.

[529] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2372.

[530] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2378.

[531] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Donum Vitae (22 February 1987), II, 2, 3, 5: AAS 80 (1988), 88-89, 92-94; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2376-2377.

[532] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Donum Vitae (22 February 1987), II, 7: AAS 80 (1988), 95-96.

[533] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2375.

[534] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy for Life (21 February 2004), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 3 March 2004, p. 7.

[535] Cf. Pontifical Academy for Life, Reflections on Cloning: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997; Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, The Church and Racism. Contribution of the Holy See to the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, 21, Vatican Press, Vatican City 2001, p. 22.

[536] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Eighteenth International Congress of the Transplantation Society (29 August 2000), 8: AAS 92 (2000), 826.

[537] John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 10: AAS 86 (1994), 881.

[538] Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 3 c, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 9. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (10 December 1948) affirms that "the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State" (article 16,3).

[539] Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, Preamble, E, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 6.

[540] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Gravissimum Educationis, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 731-732; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 52: AAS 58 (1966), 1073-1074; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 37, 43: AAS 74 (1982), 127-129; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1653, 2228.

[541] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 43: AAS 74 (1982), 134-135.

[542] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Gravissimum Educationis, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 731-732; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 61: AAS 58 (1966), 1081-1082; Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 5, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, pp. 10-11; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2223. The Code of Canon Law devotes canons 793- 799 and canon 1136 to this right and duty of parents.

[543] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 36: AAS 74 (1982), 127.

[544] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 36: AAS 74 (1982), 126; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2221.

[545] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 5: AAS 58 (1966), 933; John Paul II, Message for the 1994 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 86 (1994), 159-160.

[546] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 40: AAS 74 (1982), 131.

[547] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Gravissimum Educationis, 6: AAS 58 (1966), 733-734; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2229.

[548] Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 5 b, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 11; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dignitatis Humanae, 5: AAS 58 (1966), 933.

[549] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 94: AAS 79 (1987), 595-596.

[550] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Gravissimum Educationis, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 729.

[551] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 43: AAS 74 (1982), 134-135.

[552] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 52: AAS 58 (1966), 1073-1074.

[553] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 37: AAS 74 (1982), 128; cf. Pontifical Council for the Family, The Truth and Meaning of Human Sexuality: Guidelines for Education within the Family (8 December 1995), Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1995.

[554] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 26: AAS 74 (1982), 111-112.

[555] John Paul II, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations (2 October 1979), 21: AAS 71 (1979), 1159; cf. John Paul II, Message to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the occasion of the World Summit for Children (22 September 1990): AAS 83 (1991), 358-361.

[556] John Paul II, Address to the Committee of European Journalists for the Rights of the Child (13 January 1979): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 22 January 1979, p. 5.

[557] Cf. Convention on the Rights of the Child, which came into force in 1990 and which the Holy See has ratified.

[558] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1996 World Day of Peace, 2-6: AAS 88 (1996), 104-107.

[559] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 44: AAS 74 (1982), 136; cf. Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 9, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 13.

[560] Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 8 a-b, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 12.

[561] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 601.

[562] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 104.

[563] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600-602.

[564] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 200; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 67: AAS 58 (1966), 1088-1089; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[565] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 105; Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 193-194.

[566] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625- 629; Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 10 a, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 14.

[567] Cf. Pius XII, Allocution to Women on the Dignity and Mission of Women (21 October 1945): AAS 37 (1945), 284-295; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 23: AAS 74 (1982), 107-109; Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 10 b, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 14.

[568] Cf. John Paul II, Letter to Families Gratissimam Sane, 17: AAS 86 (1994), 903-906.

[569] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625- 629; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 23: AAS 74 (1982), 107-109.

[570] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 45: AAS 74 (1982), 136.

[571] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2211.

[572] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 46: AAS 74 (1982), 137-139.

[573] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 6: AAS 73 (1981), 591.

[574] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 1: AAS 71 (1979), 257.

[575] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 8: AAS 71 (1979), 270.

[576] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2427; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 27: AAS 73 (1981), 644-647.

[577] Cf. Saint John Chrysostom, Homily on Acts, in Acta Apostolorum Homiliae 35,3: PG 60, 258.

[578] Cf. Saint Basil, Regulae Fusius Tractatae 42: PG 31, 1023-1027; Saint Athanasius, Life of Saint Antony, ch. 3: PG 26, 846.

[579] Cf. Saint Ambrose, De Obitu Valentiniani Consolatio, 62: PL 16, 1438.

[580] Cf. Saint Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses, 5, 32, 2: PL 7, 1210-1211.

[581] Cf. Theodoret of Cyr, On Providence, Orationes 5-7: PG 83, 625-686.

[582] John Paul II, Address during his Pastoral Visit to Pomezia, Italy (14 September 1979), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 1 October 1979, p. 4.

[583] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 2: AAS 73 (1981), 580-583.

[584] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 1: AAS 73 (1981), 579.

[585] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 3: AAS 73 (1981), 584.

[586] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 6: AAS 73 (1981), 589-590.

[587] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 6: AAS 73 (1981), 590.

[588] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 6: AAS 73 (1981), 592; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2428.

[589] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 31: AAS 83 (1991), 832.

[590] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 200.

[591] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 16: AAS 73 (1981), 619.

[592] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 4: AAS 73 (1981), 586.

[593] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 12: AAS 73 (1981), 606.

[594] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 12: AAS 73 (1981), 608.

[595] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 13: AAS 73 (1981), 608-612.

[596] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 194-198.

[597] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 109.

[598] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 195.

[599] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: AAS 83 (1991), 833.

[600] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 43: AAS 83 (1991), 847.

[601] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 11: AAS 73 (1981), 604.

[602] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (6 March 1999), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 March 1999, p. 3.

[603] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 844.

[604] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 14: AAS 73 (1981), 616.

[605] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 9: AAS 58 (1966), 1031-1032.

[606] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 14: AAS 73 (1981), 613.

[607] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 43: AAS 83 (1991), 847.

[608] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32 AAS 83 (1991), 832-833.

[609] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625- 629; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 9: AAS 83 (1991), 804.

[610] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 67: AAS 58 (1966), 1088-1089.

[611] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2184.

[612] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2185.

[613] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2186.

[614] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2187.

[615] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Dies Domini, 26: AAS 90 (1998), 729: "In celebrating Sunday, both the 'first' and the 'eighth' day, the Christian is led towards the goal of eternal life".

[616] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 110.

[617] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2188.

[618] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2187.

[619] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 26: AAS 58 (1966), 1046-1047; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 9, 18: AAS 73 (1981), 598-600, 622-625; John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (25 April 1997), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 14 May 1997, p. 5; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 8: AAS 91 (1999), 382-383.

[620] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 128.

[621] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600-602.

[622] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 103; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 14: AAS 73 (1981), 612-616; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 31: AAS 83 (1991), 831-832.

[623] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 16: AAS 73 (1981), 618-620.

[624] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 18: AAS 73 (1981), 623.

[625] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 43: AAS 83 (1991), 848; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2433.

[626] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 17: AAS 73 (1981), 620-622.

[627] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2436.

[628] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 66: AAS 58 (1966), 1087-1088.

[629] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 12: AAS 73 (1981), 605-608.

[630] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 853.

[631] Paul VI, Address to the International Labour Organization (10 June 1969), 21: AAS 61 (1969), 500; cf. John Paul II, Address to the International Labour Organization (15 June 1982), 13: AAS 74 (1982), 1004-1005.

[632] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 16: AAS 83 (1991), 813.

[633] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600.

[634] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600- 602; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 23: AAS 74 (1982), 107-109.

[635] Cf. Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 10, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 13-14.

[636] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 628.

[637] John Paul II, Letter to Women, 3: AAS 87 (1995), 804.

[638] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 24: AAS 74 (1982), 109-110.

[639] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1996 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 88 (1996), 106-107.

[640] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 129.

[641] John Paul II, Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 90 (1998), 153.

[642] John Paul II, Message to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the occasion of the World Summit for Children (22 September 1990): AAS 83 (1991), 360.

[643] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2001 World Day of Peace, 13: AAS 91 (2001), 241; Pontifical Council "Cor Unum" - Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People, Refugees: a Challenge to Solidarity, 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1992, p. 10.

[644] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2241.

[645] Cf. Holy See, Charter of the Rights of the Family, art. 12, Vatican Polyglot Press, Vatican City 1983, p. 14; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 77: AAS 74 (1982), 175-178.

[646] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 66: AAS 58 (1966), 1087-1088; John Paul II, Message for the 1993 World Day of Peace, 3: AAS 85 (1993), 431-433.

[647] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 21: AAS 73 (1981), 634.

[648] Cf Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 23: AAS 59 (1967), 268-269.

[649] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Towards a Better Distribution of Land. The Challenge of Agrarian Reform (23 November 1997), 13: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, p. 18.

[650] Cf. Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Towards a Better Distribution of Land. The Challenge of Agrarian Reform (23 November 1997), 35: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, p. 33.

[651] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[652] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[653] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 629.

[654] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 15: AAS 83 (1991), 812.

[655] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 18: AAS 73 (1981), 622-625.

[656] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[657] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[658] Cf. Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 135; Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 186; Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Sertum Laetitiae: AAS 31 (1939), 643; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 262-263; Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 68: AAS 58 (1966), 1089-1090; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 629-632; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 7: AAS 83 (1991), 801-802.

[659] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[660] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2434; cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 198-202: "The Just Wage" is the title of Chapter Four (nos. 65-76) of Part Two.

[661] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 67: AAS 58 (1966), 1088-1089.

[662] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 131.

[663] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2435.

[664] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 68: AAS 58 (1966), 1089-1090; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 629-632; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2430.

[665] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 632.

[666] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2435.

[667] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 629.

[668] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 630.

[669] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 630.

[670] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2430.

[671] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 68: AAS 58 (1966), 1090.

[672] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 631.

[673] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the International Conference for Union Representatives (2 December 1996), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 December 1996, p. 8.

[674] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 8: AAS 73 (1981), 597.

[675] John Paul II, Message to the Participants in the International Symposium on Work (14 Sepember 2001), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 October 2001, p. 3.

[676] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (27 April 2001), 2: AAS 93 (2001), 599.

[677] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 10: AAS 73 (1981), 600-602.

[678] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2427.

[679] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 35: AAS 58 (1966), 1053; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 19: AAS 59 (1967), 266-267; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 20: AAS 73 (1981), 629-632; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 28: AAS 80 (1988), 548-550.

[680] Cf. John Paul II, Message to the Participants in the International Symposium on Work (14 September 2001), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 October 2001, p. 3.

[681] John Paul II, Greeting after the Mass for the Jubilee of Workers (1 May 2000), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 10 May 2000, p. 4.

[682] John Paul II, Homily at the Mass for the Jubilee of Workers (1 May 2000), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 10 May 2000, p. 5.

[683] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 25-27: AAS 73 (1981), 638-647.

[684] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 31: AAS 80 (1988), 554-555.

[685] Cf. The Shepherd of Hermas, Liber Tertium, Allegory I: PG 2, 954.

[686] Clement of Alexandria, Homily What Rich Man Will Be Saved?, 13: PG 9, 618.

[687] Cf. Saint John Chrysostom, Homiliae XXI de Statuis ad Populum Antiochenum Habitae, 2, 6-8: PG 49, 41-46.

[688] Saint Basil the Great, Homilia in Illud Lucae, Destruam Horrea Mea, 5: PG 31, 271.

[689] Cf. Saint Basil the Great, Homilia in Illud Lucae, Destruam Horrea Mea, 5: PG 31, 271.

[690] Cf. Saint Gregory the Great, Regula Pastoralis, 3, 21: PL 77, 87. Title of § 21: "Quomodo admonendi qui aliena non appetunt, sed sua retinent; et qui sua tribuentes, aliena tamen rapiunt".

[691] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 190-191.

[692] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 63: AAS 58 (1966), 1084.

[693] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2426.

[694] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 568-569.

[695] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 36: AAS 80 (1988), 561.

[696] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 65: AAS 58 (1966), 1086-1087.

[697] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 32: AAS 80 (1988), 556-557.

[698] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 844.

[699] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 15-16: AAS 92 (2000), 366-367.

[700] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 28: AAS 80 (1988), 548.

[701] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 42: AAS 83 (1991), 845-846.

[702] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2429; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 63: AAS 58 (1966), 1084-1085; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 15: AAS 80 (1988), 528-530; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 17: AAS 73 (1981), 620-622; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 413-415.

[703] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 15: AAS 80 (1988), 529; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2429.

[704] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 16: AAS 83 (1991), 813-814.

[705] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: AAS 83 (1991), 833.

[706] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: AAS 83 (1991), 833.

[707] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 43: AAS 83 (1991), 847.

[708] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 422-423.

[709] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35 AAS 83 (1991), 837.

[710] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2424.

[711] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 837.

[712] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 43: AAS 83 (1991), 846-848.

[713] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 38: AAS 83 (1991), 841.

[714] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2269.

[715] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2438.

[716] John Paul II, Catechesis at General Audience (4 February 2004), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 February 2004, p. 11.

[717] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 17: AAS 80 (1988), 532.

[718] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: AAS 83 (1991), 833.

[719] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2432.

[720] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 837.

[721] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 32: AAS 83 (1991), 832-835.

[722] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625-629.

[723] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 838.

[724] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 840.

[725] Concerning the utilization of resources and goods, the Church's social doctrine offers its teaching regarding the universal destination of goods and regarding private property; cf. Chapter Four, Part III of the present document.

[726] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 34: AAS 83 (1991), 835.

[727] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 40: AAS 83 (1991), 843.

[728] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 41: AAS 83 (1991), 843-845.

[729] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 41: AAS 63 (1971), 429-430.

[730] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 34: AAS 83 (1991), 835-836.

[731] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 40: AAS 83 (1991), 843; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2425.

[732] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 39: AAS 83 (1991), 843.

[733] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 15: AAS 83 (1991), 811-813.

[734] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 853; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2431.

[735] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 15: AAS 83 (1991), 811.

[736] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-853; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2431.

[737] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854.

[738] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854.

[739] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 30: AAS 58 (1966), 1049-1050.

[740] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 433-434, 438.

[741] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Divini Redemptoris: AAS 29 (1966), 103-104.

[742] Cf. Pius XII, Radio Message for the fiftieth anniversary of Rerum Novarum, 21: AAS 33 (1941), 202; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 49: AAS 83 (1991), 854-856; John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 45: AAS 74 (1982), 136-137.

[743] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 40: AAS 83 (1991), 843.

[744] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 839-840.

[745] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 839.

[746] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 839.

[747] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 839.

[748] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 37: AAS 83 (1991), 840.

[749] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, 20: AAS 91 (1999), 756.

[750] Cf. John Paul II, Address to members of the "Centesimus Annus - Pro Pontifice" Foundation (9 May 1998), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 27 May 1998, p. 6.

[751] John Paul II, Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace, 3: AAS 90 (1998), 150.

[752] Cf. Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, 61: AAS 59 (1967), 287.

[753] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 43: AAS 80 (1988), 574-575.

[754] Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, 57: AAS 59 (1967), 285.

[755] John Paul II, Message for the 2003 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 95 (2003), 343.

[756] Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, 59: AAS 59 (1967), 286.

[757] John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (27 April 2001), 4: AAS 93 (2001), 600.

[758] John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (11 April 2002), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 24 April 2002, p. 10.

[759] Cf. John Paul II, Address to members of the Italian Christian Workers' Associations (27 April 2002), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 12 June 2002, p. 11.

[760] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences (25 April 1997), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 14 May 1997, p. 5.

[761] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 58: AAS 83 (1991), 864.

[762] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 43-44: AAS 63 (1971), 431-433.

[763] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2440; Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, 78: AAS 59 (1967), 295; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 43: AAS 80 (1988), 574-575.

[764] Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, 14: AAS 59 (1967), 264.

[765] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2437-2438.

[766] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 13-14: AAS 92 (2000), 365-366.

[767] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 29: AAS 83 (1991), 828-829; cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 40-42: AAS 59 (1967), 277-278.

[768] John Paul II, Address at General Audience (1 May 1991): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 6 May 1991, p. 3. Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 9: AAS 80 (1988), 520-523.

[769] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 14: AAS 80 (1988), 526-527.

[770] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 39: AAS 83 (1991), 842.

[771] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2441.

[772] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 838-839.

[773] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1884.

[774] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 266-267, 281-291, 301-302; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 566-568.

[775] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 25: AAS 58 (1966), 1045-1046; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1881; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 3: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 8.

[776] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 25: AAS 58 (1966), 1045.

[777] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 258.

[778] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 450.

[779] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 74 AAS 58 (1966), 1095-1097.

[780] Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message of 24 December 1944: AAS 37 (1945), 13.

[781] Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message of 24 December 1944: AAS 37 (1945), 13.

[782] Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message of 24 December 1944: AAS 37 (1945), 13.

[783] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 266.

[784] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 283.

[785] John Paul II, Message for the 1989 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 81 (1989), 98.

[786] John Paul II, Message for the 1989 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 81 (1989), 101.

[787] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 273; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2237; John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 92 (2000), 362; John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly

of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 8.

[788] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 274.

[789] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 275.

[790] Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Sententiae Octavi Libri Ethicorum, VIII, lect. 1: Ed. Leon. 47, 443: "Est enim naturalis amicitia inter eos qui sunt unius gentis ad invicem, inquantum communicant in moribus et convictu. Quartam rationem ponit ibi: Videtur autem et civitates continere amicitia. Et dicit quod per amicitiam videntur conservari civitates. Unde legislatores magis student ad amicitiam conservandam inter cives quam etiam ad iustitiam, quam quandoque intermittunt, puta in poenis inferendis, ne dissensio oriatur. Et hoc patet per hoc quod concordia assimulatur amicitiae, quam quidem, scilicet concordiam, legislatores maxime appetunt, contentionem autem civium maxime expellunt, quasi inimicam salutis civitatis. Et quia tota moralis philosophia videtur ordinari ad bonum civile, ut in principio dictum est, pertinet ad moralem considerare de amicitia".

[791] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2212-2213.

[792] Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, De Regno. Ad Regem Cypri, I, 10: Ed. Leon. 42, 461: "omnis autem amicitia super aliqua communione firmatur: eos enim qui conueniunt uel per nature originem uel per morum similitudinem uel per cuiuscumque communionem, uidemus amicitia coniungi... Non enim conseruatur amore, cum parua uel nulla sit amicitia subiecte multitudinis ad tyrannum, ut prehabitis patet".

[793] "Liberty, equality, fraternity" was the motto of the French Revolution. "In the final analysis, these are Christian ideas", John Paul II affirmed during his first visit to France: Homily at Le Bourget (1 June 1980), 5: AAS 72 (1980), 720.

[794] Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 99: Ed. Leon. 7, 199- 205; Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 23, ad 1um: Ed. Leon. 8, 168.

[795] Paul VI, Message for the 1977 World Day of Peace: AAS 68 (1976), 709.

[796] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2212.

[797] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 259.

[798] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 73: AAS 58 (1966), 1095.

[799] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 269; Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Immortale Dei, in Acta Leonis XIII, V, 1885, 120.

[800] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1898; Saint Thomas Aquinas, De Regno. Ad Regem Cypri, I, 1: Ed. Leon. 42, 450: "Si igitur naturale est homini quod in societate multorum uiuat, necesse est in omnibus esse aliquid per quod multitudo regatur. Multis enim existentibus hominibus et unoquoque id quod est sibi congruum prouidente, multitudo in diuersa dispergetur nisi etiam esset aliquid de eo quod ad bonum multitudinis pertinet curam habens, sicut et corpus hominis et cuiuslibet animalis deflueret nisi esset aliqua uis regitiua communis in corpore, quae ad bonum commune omnium membrorum intenderet. Quod considerans Salomon dixit: 'Ubi non est gubernator, dissipabitur populus' ".

[801] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1897; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 279.

[802] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 74: AAS 58 (1966), 1096.

[803] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850- 851; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 271.

[804] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 74: AAS 58 (1966), 1095-1097.

[805] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 270; cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message of 24 December 1944: AAS 37 (1945), 15; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2235.

[806] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 449-450.

[807] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 450.

[808] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 269-270.

[809] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1902.

[810] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 258-259.

[811] Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus: AAS 31 (1939), 432-433.

[812] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 71: AAS 87 (1995), 483.

[813] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 70: AAS 87 (1995), 481- 483; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 258-259, 279-280.

[814] Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus: AAS 31 (1939), 423.

[815] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 70: AAS 87 (1995), 481- 483; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 97, 99: AAS 85 (1993), 1209- 1211; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 5-6, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, pp. 11-14.

[816] Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, I-II, q. 93, a. 3, ad 2um: Ed. Leon. 7, 164: "Lex humana intantum habet rationem legis, inquantum est secundum rationem rectam: et secundum hoc manifestum est quod a lege aeterna derivatur. Inquantum vero a ratione recedit, sic dicitur lex iniqua: et sic non habet rationem legis, sed magis violentiae cuiusdam".

[817] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 270.

[818] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1899-1900.

[819] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 74: AAS 58 (1966), 1095-1097; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1901.

[820] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2242.

[821] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 73: AAS 87 (1995), 486-487.

[822] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 74: AAS 87 (1995), 488.

[823] Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 104, a. 6, ad 3um: Ed. Leon. 9, 392: "principibus saecularibus intantum homo oboedire tenetur, inquantum ordo iustitiae requirit".

[824] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2243.

[825] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 31: AAS 59 (1967), 272.

[826] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Libertatis Conscientia, 79: AAS 79 (1987), 590.

[827] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2266.

[828] John Paul II, Address to the Italian Association of Judges (31 March 2000), 4: AAS 92 (2000), 633.

[829] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2266.

[830] John Paul II, Address to the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva (15 June 1982), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 26 July 1982, p. 3.

[831] John Paul II, Address to the Italian Association of Judges (31 March 2000), 4: AAS 92 (2000), 633.

[832] John Paul II, Address to the Italian Association of Judges (31 March 2000), 4: AAS 92 (2000), 633.

[833] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 27: AAS 87 (1995), 432.

[834] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2267.

[835] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2267.

[836] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 56: AAS 87 (1995), 464; cf. also John Paul II, Message for the 2001 World Day of Peace, 19: AAS 93 (2001), 244, where recourse to the death penalty is described as "unnecessary".

[837] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850.

[838] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850.

[839] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 70: AAS 87 (1995), 482.

[840] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 44: AAS 83 (1991), 848.

[841] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2236.

[842] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 42: AAS 81 (1989), 472-476.

[843] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 44: AAS 80 (1988), 575-577; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 48: AAS 83 (1991), 852-854; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 91 (1991), 381-382.

[844] John Paul II, Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 90 (1998), 152.

[845] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 41: AAS 81 (1989), 471-472.

[846] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 75: AAS 58 (1966), 1097-1099.

[847] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 260.

[848] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Inter Mirifica, 3: AAS 56 (1964), 146; Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi, 45: AAS 68 (1976), 35-36; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 37: AAS 83 (1991), 282-286; Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Communio et Progressio. 126-134: AAS 63 (1971), 638-640; Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Aetatis Novae, 11: AAS 84 (1992), 455-456; Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Ethics in Advertising (22 February 1997), 4-8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 16 April 1997, pp. I-II.

[849] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2494; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Inter Mirifica, 11: AAS 56 (1964), 148-149.

[850] Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Ethics in Communications (4 June 2000), 20, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2000, p. 22.

[851] Cf. Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Ethics in Communications (4 June 2000), 22, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2000, pp. 23-25.

[852] Cf. Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Ethics in Communications (4 June 2000), 24, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2000, pp. 26-28.

[853] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 134.

[854] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1910.

[855] Cf. Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 203; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1883-1885.

[856] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 49: AAS 83 (1991), 855.

[857] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 929.

[858] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 2: AAS 58 (1966), 930-931; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2106.

[859] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 931-932.

[860] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2108.

[861] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2105.

[862] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 2: AAS 58 (1966), 930-931; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2108.

[863] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 7: AAS 58 (1966), 935; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2109.

[864] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 6: AAS 58 (1966), 933-934; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2107.

[865] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 91 (1999), 380-381.

[866] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi Tradendae, 14: AAS 71 (1979), 1289.

[867] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2245.

[868] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 47: AAS 83 (1991), 852.

[869] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099.

[870] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 1: AAS 58 (1966), 1026.

[871] Cf. Code of Canon Law, canon 747, § 2; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2246.

[872] Cf. John Paul II, Letter to the Heads of State Signing the Final Helsinki Act (1 September 1980), 4: AAS 72 (1980), 1256-1258.

[873] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 1: AAS 57 (1965), 5.

[874] Cf. Pius XII, Address to Catholic Jurists on the Communities of States and Peoples (6 December 1953), 2: AAS 45 (1953), 795.

[875] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 42: AAS 58 (1966), 1060-1061.

[876] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 569.

[877] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 12: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 9.

[878] John XXIII, Encylical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 296.

[879] John XXIII, Encylical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 292.

[880] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1911.

[881] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Nostra Aetate, 5: AAS 58 (1966), 743-744; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 268, 281; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 63: AAS 59 (1967), 288; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 16: AAS 63 (1971), 413; Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, The Church and Racism. Contribution of the Holy See to the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Vatican Press, Vatican City 2001.

[882] Cf. John XXIII, Encylical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 279-280.

[883] Cf. Paul VI, Address to the United Nations (4 October 1965), 2: AAS 57 (1965), 879-880.

[884] Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus, 29: AAS 31 (1939), 438-439.

[885] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 292; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 52: AAS 83 (1991), 857-858.

[886] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter in Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 284.

[887] Cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message on a Just International Peace (24 December 1939), 5: AAS 32 (1940), 9-11; Pius XII, Address to Catholic Jurists on the Community of States and of Peoples (6 December 1953), 2: AAS 45 (1953), 395- 396; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 289.

[888] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 9-10: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 9.

[889] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 289-290; John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 15: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 10.

[890] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 15: AAS 80 (1988), 528-530.

[891] Cf. John Paul II, Address to UNESCO (2 June 1980), 14: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 23 June 1980, p. 11.

[892] John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 14: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 10; cf. also John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (13 January 2001), 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 January 2001, p. 2.

[893] John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 8.

[894] Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1941): AAS 34 (1942), 16.

[895] John Paul II, Address to the Fiftieth General Assembly of the United Nations (5 October 1995), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 October 1995, p. 8.

[896] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 277.

[897] Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus: AAS 31 (1939), 438-439; Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1941): AAS 34 (1942), 16-17; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 290, 292.

[898] John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (12 January 1991), 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 14 January 1991, p. 3.

[899] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 96 (2004), 116.

[900] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 96 (2004), 117; cf. also John Paul II, Message to the Rector of the Pontifical Lateran University (21 March 2002), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, 22 March 2002, p. 6.

[901] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 23: AAS 83 (1991), 820-821.

[902] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 18: AAS 83 (1991), 816.

[903] Cf. Charter of the United Nations (26 June 1945), art. 2.4; John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 96 (2004), 117.

[904] Cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1941): AAS 34 (1942), 18.

[905] Cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1945): AAS 38 (1946), 22; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 287-288.

[906] John Paul II, Address to the International Court of Justice, The Hague (13 May 1985), 4: AAS 78 (1986), 520.

[907] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 52: AAS 83 (1991), 858.

[908] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 9: AAS 96 (2004), 120.

[909] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 96 (2004), 118.

[910] Cf. John XIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 426, 439; John Paul II, Address to the 20th General Conference of FAO (12 November 1979), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 26 November 1979, p. 6; John Paul II, Address to UNESCO (2 June 1980), 5, 8: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 23 June 1980, pp. 9-10; John Paul II, Address to the Council of Ministers of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) (30 November 1993), 3, 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 8 December 1993, pp. 1-2.

[911] Cf. John Paul II, Message to Nafis Sadik, Secretary General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (18 March 1994): AAS 87 (1995), 191-192; John Paul II, Message to Gertrude Mongella, Secretary General of the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women (26 May 1995): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 31 May 1995, p. 2.

[912] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 84: AAS 58 (1966), 1107-1108.

[913] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 82: AAS 58 (1966), 1105; cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 293; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 78: AAS 59 (1967), 295.

[914] John Paul II, Message for the 2003 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 95 (2003), 344.

[915] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 294-295.

[916] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 51-55 and 77-79: AAS 59 (1967), 282-284, 295-296.

[917] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 43: AAS 80 (1988), 575.

[918] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 43: AAS 80 (1988), 575; cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 96 (2004), 118.

[919] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 58: AAS 83 (1991), 863-864.

[920] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 33, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 557-559, 566-568.

[921] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 26: AAS 80 (1988), 544-547.

[922] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 96 (2004), 118.

[923] Cf. Code of Canon Law, canon 361.

[924] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum: AAS 61 (1969), 476.

[925] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 499; cf. Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message (24 December 1945): AAS 38 (1946), 22.

[926] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 16: AAS 80 (1988), 531.

[927] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 36-37, 39: AAS 80 (1988), 561-564, 567.

[928] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 22: AAS 59 (1967), 268; Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 43: AAS 63 (1971), 431-432; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 32-33: AAS 80 (1988), 556-559; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 836-838; cf. also Paul VI, Address to the International Labour Organization (10 June 1969), 22: AAS 61 (1969), 500-501; John Paul II, Address to the Participants in the European Convention on the Church's Social Teaching (20 June 1997), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 23 July 1997, p. 3; John Paul II, Address to Italian Business and Trade-Union Leaders (2 May 2000), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 10 May 2000, p. 5.

[929] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 32: AAS 80 (1988), 556.

[930] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 33: AAS 83 (1991), 835.

[931] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 56-61: AAS 59 (1967), 285-287.

[932] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 44: AAS 59 (1967), 279.

[933] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 34: AAS 83 (1991), 836.

[934] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 58: AAS 83 (1991), 863.

[935] John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 14: AAS 92 (2000), 366; cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1993 World Day of Peace, 1: AAS 85 (1993), 429-430.

[936] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 33: AAS 80 (1988), 558; cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 47: AAS 59 (1967), 280.

[937] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 6: AAS 59 (1967), 260; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 28: AAS 80 (1988), 548-550.

[938] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 20-21: AAS 59 (1967), 267-268.

[939] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Third General Conference of Latin American Bishops, Puebla, Mexico (28 January 1979), I/8: AAS 71 (1979), 194-195.

[940] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 22: AAS 59 (1967), 268.

[941] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: AAS 80 (1988), 566.

[942] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 55: AAS 59 (1967), 284; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 44: AAS 80 (1988), 575-577.

[943] John Paul II, Message for the World Day of Peace 2000, 14: AAS 92 (2000), 366.

[944] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente, 51: AAS 87 (1995), 36; John Paul II, Message for the 1998 World Day of Peace, 4: AAS 90 (1998), 151-152; John Paul II, Address to the Conference of the Inter-Parliamentarian Union (30 November 1998): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, XXI, 2 (1998), 1162-1163; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 9: AAS 91 (1999),
383-384.

[945] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 35: AAS 83 (1991), 838; cf. also the document At the Service of the Human Community: an Ethical Approach to the International Debt Question, published by the Pontifical Commission "Iustitia et Pax" (27 December 1986), Vatican City 1986.

[946] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 15: AAS 58 (1966), 1036.

[947] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 15: AAS 58 (1966), 1036.

[948] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 33: AAS 58 (1966), 1052.

[949] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 34: AAS 58 (1966), 1052.

[950] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 34: AAS 58 (1966), 1053.

[951] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 34: AAS 58 (1966), 1053.

[952] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 35: AAS 58 (1966), 1053.

[953] Cf. John Paul II, Address given at Mercy Maternity Hospital, Melbourne (28 November 1986): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 9 December 1986, p. 13.

[954] John Paul II, Meeting with scientists and representatives of the United Nations University, Hiroshima (25 February 1981), 3: AAS 73 (1981), 422.

[955] John Paul II, Meeting with employees of the Olivetti workshops in Ivrea, Italy (19 March 1990), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 26 March 1990, p. 7.

[956] John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (3 October 1981), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 12 October 1981, p. 4.

[957] John Paul II, Address to the participants in a convention sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, for the bicentenary of its foundation (21 September 1982), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 4 October 1982, p. 3.

[958] John Paul II, Meeting with scientists and representatives of the United Nations University, Hiroshima (25 February 1981), 3: AAS 73 (1981), 422.

[959] John Paul II, Meeting with employees of the Olivetti workshops in Ivrea, Italy (19 March 1990), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 26 March 1990, p. 7.

[960] John Paul II, Homily during Mass at the Victorian Racing Club, Melbourne (26 November 1986), 11: Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, IX, 2 (1986), 1730.

[961] John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (23 October 1982), 6: Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, V, 3 (1982), 892-893.

[962] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 34: AAS 80 (1988), 559.

[963] John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 82 (1990), 151.

[964] John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 82 (1990), 150.

[965] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 37: AAS 83 (1991), 840.

[966] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 37: AAS 83 (1991), 840.

[967] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 37: AAS 83 (1991), 840.

[968] John Paul II, Address to the 35th General Assembly of the World Medical Association (29 October 1983): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 5 December 1986, p. 11.

[969] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 21: AAS 63 (1971), 416-417.

[970] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesimo Adveniens, 21: AAS 63 (1971), 417.

[971] John Paul II, Address to participants in a convention on "The Environment and Health" (24 March 1997), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 9 April 1997, p. 2.

[972] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 28: AAS 80 (1988), 548-550.

[973] Cf., for example, Pontifical Council for Culture - Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, Jesus Christ the Bearer of the Water of Life. A Christian Reflection on the "New Age", Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2003, p. 33.

[974] John Paul II, Address to participants in a convention on "The Environment and Health" (24 March 1997), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 9 April 1997, p. 2.

[975] John Paul II, Address to participants in a convention on "The Environment and Health" (24 March 1997), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 9 April 1997, p. 2.

[976] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 38: AAS 83 (1991), 841.

[977] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 34: AAS 80 (1988), 559-560.

[978] John Paul II, Address to participants in a convention on "The Environment and Health" (24 March 1997), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 9 April 1997, p. 2.

[979] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 40: AAS 83 (1991), 843.

[980] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 34: AAS 80 (1988), 559.

[981] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 34: AAS 80 (1988), 559.

[982] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in America, 25: AAS 91 (1999), 760.

[983] Cf. John Paul II, Homily in Val Visdende (Italy) for the votive feast of St. John Gualberto (12 July 1987): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, X, 3 (1987), 67.

[984] Paul II, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 17: AAS 59 (1967), 266.

[985] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 37: AAS 83 (1991), 840.

[986] John Paul II, Message for the 1990 World Day of Peace, 9: AAS 82 (1990), 152.

[987] John Paul II, Address to the European Commission and Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg (8 October 1988), 5: AAS 81 (1989), 685; cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 10: AAS 91 (1999), 384-385.

[988] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 10: AAS 91 (1999), 384-385.

[989] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 26: AAS 80 (1988), 546.

[990] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis,34: AAS 80 (1988), 559-560.

[991] John Paul II, Address to the Twenty-Fifth General Conference of FAO (16 November 1989), 8: AAS 82 (1990), 673.

[992] Cf. John Paul II, Address to a study group of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (6 November 1987): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, X, 3 (1987), 1018-1020.

[993] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 40: AAS 83 (1991), 843.

[994] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the participants at the Plenary Assembly of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (28 October 1994): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, XVII, 2 (1994), 567-568.

[995] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the participants at a Symposium on physics (18 December 1992): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, V, 3 (1982), 1631-1634.

[996] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of the Amazon, Manaus (10 July 1980): AAS 72 (1980), 960-961.

[997] Cf. John Paul II, Homily at the Liturgy of the Word with the Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon Valley (5 February 1985), 4: AAS 77 (1985), 897- 898; cf. also Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Towards a Better Distribution of Land. The Challenge of Agrarian Reform (23 November 1997), 11, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, p. 17.

[998] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of Australia (29 November 1986), 4: AAS 79 (1987), 974-975.

[999] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of Guatemala (7 March 1983), 4: AAS 75 (1983), 742-743; John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of Canada (18 September 1984), 7-8: AAS 77 (1988), 421-422; John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of Ecuador (31 January 1985), II,1: AAS 77 (1985), 861; John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of Australia (29 November 1986), 10: AAS 79 (1987), 976-977.

[1000] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Indigenous Peoples of Australia (29 November 1986), 4: AAS 79 (1987), 974-975; John Paul II, Address to Native Americans (14 September 1987), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 21 September 1987, p. 21.

[1001] Cf. Pontifical Academy for Life, Animal and Plant Biotechnology: New Frontiers and New Responsibilities, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1999.

[1002] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (23 October 1982), 6: Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, V, 3 (1982), 892-893.

[1003] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (3 October 1981): AAS 73 (1981), 668-672.

[1004] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (23 October 1982): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, V, 3 (1982), 889-893. John Paul II, Address to the participants in a convention sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, for the bicentenary of its foundation (21 September 1982): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, V, 3 (1982), 511-515.

[1005] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 69: AAS 58 (1966), 1090-1092; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 22: AAS 59 (1967), 268.

[1006] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 25: AAS 80 (1988), 543; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 16: AAS 87 (1995), 418.

[1007] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 25: AAS 80 (1988), 543-544.

[1008] John Paul II, Message to Nafis Sadik, Secretary General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (18 March 1994), 3: AAS 87 (1995), 191.

[1009] John Paul II, Message to Cardinal Geraldo Majella Agnelo on the occasion of the 2004 Brotherhood Campaign of the Brazilian Bishops' Conference (19 January 2004): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 March 2004, p. 3.

[1010] John Paul II, Message to Cardinal Geraldo Majella Agnelo on the occasion of the 2004 Brotherhood Campaign of the Brazilian Bishops' Conference (19 January 2004): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 March 2004, p. 3.

[1011] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2003 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 95 (2003), 343; Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Water, an Essential Element for Life. A Contribution of the Delegation of the Holy See on the occasion of the 3rd World Water Forum, Kyoto, 16-23 March 2003.

[1012] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 838-840.

[1013] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 36: AAS 83 (1991), 839.

[1014] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the UN Center, Nairobi, Kenya (18 August 1985), 5: AAS 78 (1986), 92.

[1015] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1986 World Day of Peace, 1: AAS 78 (1986), 278-279.

[1016] Cf. Paul VI, Message for the 1969 World Day of Peace: AAS 60 (1968), 771; John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 4: AAS 96 (2004), 116.

[1017] John Paul II, Message for the 1982 World Day of Peace 4: AAS 74 (1982), 328.

[1018] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966), 1101-1102.

[1019] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 51: AAS 83 (1991), 856-857.

[1020] Cf. Paul VI, Message for the 1972 World Day of Peace: AAS 63 (1971), 868.

[1021] Cf. Paul VI, Message for the 1969 World Day of Peace: AAS 60 (1968), 772; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 12: AAS 91 (1999), 386-387.

[1022] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Ubi Arcano: AAS 14 (1922), 686. In the Encyclical, reference is made to Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 29, a. 3, ad 3um: Ed. Leon. 8, 238; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966), 1101-1102.

[1023] Cf. Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 76: AAS 59 (1967), 294-295.

[1024] Cf. Paul VI, Message for the 1974 World Day of Peace: AAS 65 (1973), 672.

[1025] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2317.

[1026] John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (13 January 1997), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 15 January 1997, pp. 6-7.

[1027] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966), 1101; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2304.

[1028] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966), 1101.

[1029] John Paul II, Address at Drogheda, Ireland (29 September 1979), 9: AAS 71 (1979), 1081; cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi, 37: AAS 68 (1976), 29.

[1030] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (12 November 1983), 5: AAS 76 (1984), 398-399.

[1031] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2306.

[1032] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 77: AAS 58 (1966), 1100; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2307-2317.

[1033] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes,80: AAS 58 (1966), 1103-1104.

[1034] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 291.

[1035] Leo XIII, Address to the College of Cardinals: Acta Leonis XIII, 19 (1899), 270-272.

[1036] John Paul II, Meeting with Officials of the Roman Vicariate (17 January 1991): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 21 January 1991, p. 1; cf. John Paul II, Address to the Latin-Rite Bishops of the Arabian Peninsula (1 October 1990), 4: AAS 83 (1991), 475.

[1037] Cf. Paul VI, Address to Cardinals (24 June 1965): AAS 57 (1965), 643-644.

[1038] Benedict XV, Appeal to the Leaders of the Warring Nations (1 August 1917): AAS 9 (1917), 423.

[1039] John Paul II, Prayer for peace during General Audience (16 January 1991): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, XIV, 1 (1991), 121.

[1040] Pius XII, Radio Message (24 August 1939): AAS 31 (1939) 334; John Paul II, Message for the 1993 World Day of Peace, 4: AAS 85 (1993), 433-434; cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 288.

[1041] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes 79: AAS 58 (1966), 1102-1103.

[1042] John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 91 (1999), 385.

[1043] John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (13 January 2003), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 15 January 2003, p. 3.

[1044] Paul VI, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations (4 October 1965), 5: AAS 57 (1965), 881.

[1045] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 51: AAS 83 (1991), 857.

[1046] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 52: AAS 83 (1991), 858.

[1047] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 288-289.

[1048] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 291.

[1049] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2265.

[1050] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2309.

[1051] Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, The International Arms Trade. An ethical reflection (1 May 1994), ch. 1, 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1994, p. 13.

[1052] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966), 1103.

[1053] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 6: AAS 96 (2004), 117.

[1054] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966), 1102-1103; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2310.

[1055] Cf. John Paul II, Message to the Third International Meeting of Military Ordinaries (11 March 1994), 4: AAS 87 (1995), 74.

[1056] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2313.

[1057] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966), 1103; cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2311.

[1058] John Paul II, Sunday Angelus (7 March 1993), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 10 March 1993, p. 1; John Paul II, Address to the OSCE Council of Ministers (30 November 1993), 4: AAS 86 (1994), 751.

[1059] John Paul II, Address at General Audience (11 August 1999), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 25 August 1999, p. 6.

[1060] John Paul II, 1990 Message for Lent, 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 12 February 1990, p. 5.

[1061] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 91 (1999), 382; John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 92 (2000), 362.

[1062] John Paul II, Address at the Regina Coeli (18 April 1993), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 21 April 1993, p. 12; cf. Commission for Religious Relations with Judaism, We Remember. A Reflection on the Shoah (16 March 1998), Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1998.

[1063] John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 92 (2000), 363.

[1064] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (16 January 1993), 13: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 20 January 1993, p. 9; cf. John Paul II, Address to the International Conference on Nutrition sponsored by FAO and WHO (5 December 1992), 3: AAS 85 (1993), 922-923; John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 9: AAS 96 (2004), 120.

[1065] Cf. John Paul II, Sunday Angelus (14 June 1998): L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 June 1998, p. 1; John Paul II, Address to participants in the World Congress on Pastoral Promotion of Human Rights (4 July 1998), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 29 July 1998, p. 8; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 91 (1999), 382; cf. also Pius XII, Address at the Sixth International Congress of Criminal Law (3 October 1953): AAS 45 (1953), 730-744.

[1066] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (9 January 1995), 7: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 11 January 1995, p. 6.

[1067] John Paul II, Message for the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations (14 October 1985), 6: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 14 November 1985, p. 4.

[1068] Cf. Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, The International Arms Trade. An ethical reflection (1 May 1994), ch. 1, 9-11, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1994, p. 14.

[1069] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2316; John Paul II, Address to the World of Work, Verona, Italy (17 April 1988), 6: Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, XI, 1 (1988), 940.

[1070]  Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2315.

[1071] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 80: AAS 58 (1966), 1104; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2314; John Paul II, Message for the 1986 World Day of Peace, 2: AAS 78 (1986), 280.

[1072] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (13 January 1996), 7: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 17 January 1996, p. 2.

[1073] The Holy See is a party to juridical instruments dealing with nuclear, biological and chemical weapons in order to support such initiatives of the international community.

[1074] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 80: AAS 58 (1966), 1104.

[1075] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 91 (1999), 385-386.

[1076] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 91 (1999), 385-386.

[1077] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 91 (1999), 385-386.

[1078] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2297.

[1079] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 4: AAS 94 (2002), 134.

[1080] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966), 1102.

[1081] John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 94 (2002), 134.

[1082] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 8: AAS 96 (2004), 119.

[1083] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 8: AAS 96 (2004), 119.

[1084] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 8: AAS 96 (2004), 119.

[1085] John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 5: AAS 94 (2002), 134.

[1086] Cf. John Paul II, Address to Representatives from the World of Culture, Art and Science, Astana, Kazakhstan (24 September 2001), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 26 September 2001, p. 7.

[1087] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 95 (2002), 135-136.

[1088] Cf. "Decalogue of Assisi for Peace", 1, in the letter addressed by John Paul II to Heads of State and of Government on 24 February 2002: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 6 March 2002, p. 12.

[1089] John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 20: AAS 92 (2000), 369.

[1090] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1988 World Day of Peace, 3: AAS 80 (1988), 282-284.

[1091] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 9: AAS 96 (2004), 120.

[1092] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2002 World Day of Peace, 9: AAS 94 (2002), 136-137; John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 10: AAS 96 (2004), 121.

[1093] John Paul II, Letter on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the outbreak of the Second World War (27 August 1989), 2: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 4 September 1989, p. 1.

[1094] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1997 World Day of Peace, 3 and 4: AAS 89 (1997), 193.

[1095] Cf. Pius XII, Address to the Sixth International Congress on Criminal Law (3 October 1953): AAS 65 (1953), 730-744; John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (13 January 1997), 4: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 15 January 1997, p. 7; John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 7: AAS 91 (1999), 382.

[1096] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1997 World Day of Peace, 3, 4, 6: AAS 89 (1997), 193, 196-197.

[1097] John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Peace, 11: AAS 91 (1999), 385.

[1098] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 1992 World Day of Peace, 4: AAS 84 (1992), 323-324.

[1099] Paul VI, Message for the 1968 World Day of Peace: AAS 59 (1967), 1098.

[1100] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium, 10: AAS 56 (1964), 102.

[1101] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Constitution Lumen Gentium, 11: AAS 57 (1965), 15.

[1102] The eucharistic celebration begins with a greeting of peace, the greeting of Christ to his disciples. The Gloria is a prayer for peace for all the people of God on the earth. Prayer for peace is made through the anaphora at Mass: an appeal for the peace and unity of the Church, for the peace of the entire family of God in this life, for the advancement of peace and salvation in the world. During the communion rite the Church prays that the Lord will "grant us peace in our day" and remembers Christ's gift that consists of his peace, invoking "the peace and unity of his Kingdom". Before communion, the entire assembly exchanges a sign of peace and the assembly prays that the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world will "grant us peace". The eucharistic celebration concludes with the assembly being dismissed in the peace of Christ. There are many prayers that invoke peace for the world. In these, peace is sometimes associated with justice, for example, as in the opening prayer for the Eighth Sunday in Ordinary Time, in which the Church asks God to guide the course of world events in justice and peace, according to his will.

[1103] Paul VI, Message for the 1968 World Day of Peace: AAS 59 (1967), 1100.

[1104] Paul VI, Message for the 1976 World Day of Peace: AAS 67 (1975), 671.

[1105] Cf. Congregation for the Clergy, General Directory for Catechesis, 18, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, pp. 21-22.

[1106] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 11: AAS 83 (1991), 259-260.

[1107] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799.

[1108] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 799.

[1109] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 22: AAS 58 (1966), 1043.

[1110] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 52: AAS 83 (1991), 300; cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi, 20: AAS 68 (1976), 18-19.

[1111] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 11: AAS 83 (1991), 259-260.

[1112] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 35: AAS 81 (1989), 458.

[1113] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 800.

[1114] John Paul II; Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 11: AAS 83 (1991), 259.

[1115] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 51: AAS 63 (1971), 440.

[1116] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 57: AAS 83 (1991), 862.

[1117] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 48: AAS 80 (1988), 583-584.

[1118] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099-1100.

[1119] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 453; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus 54: AAS 83 (1991), 859-860.

[1120] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Pacem in Terris: AAS 55 (1963), 265-266.

[1121] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 60: AAS 81 (1989), 511.

[1122] Cf. Congregation for the Clergy, General Directory for Catechesis, 30, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, pp. 30-32.

[1123] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi Tradendae, 18: AAS 71 (1979), 1291-1292.

[1124] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi Tradendae, 5: AAS 71 (1979), 1281.

[1125] Cf. Congregation for the Clergy, General Directory for Catechesis, 54, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, p. 54.

[1126] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi Tradendae, 29: AAS 71 (1979), 1301-1302; cf. also Congregation for the Clergy, General Directory for Catechesis, 17, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 1997, p. 21.

[1127] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 8: AAS 58 (1966), 935.

[1128] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Vertatis Splendoris, 107: AAS 85 (1993), 1217.

[1129] Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 81: AAS 59 (1967), 296-297.

[1130] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 75: AAS 58 (1966), 1097-1098.

[1131] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 75: AAS 58 (1966), 1098.

[1132] 30 December 1988, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988.

[1133] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Declaration Nostra Aetate, 4: AAS 58 (1966), 742-743.

[1134] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 32: AAS 80 (1988), 556-557.

[1135] 27 October 1986; 24 January 2002.

[1136] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptoris Missio, 2: AAS 83 (1991), 250.

[1137] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 3: AAS 83 (1991), 795.

[1138] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 3: AAS 83 (1991), 796.

[1139] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965), 37.

[1140] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965), 37.

[1141] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 15: AAS 81 (1989), 415.

[1142] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 24: AAS 81 (1989), 433-435.

[1143] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099.

[1144] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 31: AAS 57 (1965), 37-38.

[1145] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifidelis Laici, 59: AAS 81 (1989), 509.

[1146] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1806.

[1147] The exercise of prudence calls for a progressive formation in order to acquire the necessary qualities: "memory" as the capacity to remember one's own past experience with objectivity, without falsification (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 49, a. 1: Ed. Leon. 8, 367); "docilitas" (docility) that allows one to learn from others and to profit from their experience on the basis of an authentic love for truth (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 49, a. 3: Ed. Leon. 8, 368- 369); "solertia" (diligence), that is, the ability to face the unexpected with objectivity in order to turn every situation to the service of good, overcoming the temptation of intemperance, injustice, and cowardice (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 49, a. 4: Ed. Leon. 8, 369-370). These cognitive dispositions permit the development of the necessary conditions for the moment of decision: "providencia" (foresight), which is the capacity of weighing the efficacy of a given conduct for the attainment of a moral end (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 49, a. 6: Ed. Leon. 8, 371) and "circumspectio" (circumspection), or the capacity of weighing the circumstances that contribute to the creation of the situation in which a given action will be carried out (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 49, a. 7: Ed. Leon. 8, 372). In the social context, prudence can be specified under two particular forms: "regnative" prudence, that is, the capacity to order all things for the greatest good of society (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 50, a. 1: Ed. Leon. 8, 374), and "political" prudence, which leads citizens to obey, carrying out the indications of authority (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 50, a. 2: Ed. Leon. 8, 375), without compromising their dignity as a human person (cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas Summa Theologiae, II-II, qq. 47-56: Ed. Leon. 8, 348-406).

[1148] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 30: AAS 81 (1989), 446-448.

[1149] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 62: AAS 81 (1989), 516-517.

[1150] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961) 455.

[1151] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles laici, 29: AAS 81 (1989), 443.

[1152] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099.

[1153] Cf. John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 454; John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 57: AAS 83 (1991), 862-863.

[1154] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 91: AAS 58 (1966), 1113.

[1155] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 37: AAS 81 (1989), 460.

[1156] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 218.

[1157] Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 218.

[1158] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction Donum Vitae, (22 February 1987): AAS 80 (1988), 70-102.

[1159] John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 39: AAS 81 (1989), 466.

[1160] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 39: AAS 81 (1989), 466.

[1161] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio, 42-48: AAS 74 (1982), 134-140.

[1162] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 43: AAS 58 (1966), 1062.

[1163] John Paul II, Address to UNESCO (2 June 1980), 7: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 23 June 1980, p. 9.

[1164] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 7: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 15.

[1165] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 59: AAS 58 (1966), 1079-1080.

[1166] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 50: AAS 83 (1991), 856.

[1167] Cf. John Paul II, Address to UNESCO (2 June 1980), 11: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 23 June 1980, p. 10.

[1168] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 60: AAS 58 (1966), 1081.

[1169] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 61: AAS 58 (1966), 1082.

[1170] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 24: AAS 83 (1991), 822.

[1171] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 24: AAS 83 (1991), 821-822.

[1172] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Inter Mirifica, 4: AAS 56 (1964), 146.

[1173] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio, 36-48: AAS 91 (1999), 33-34.

[1174] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 55: AAS 83 (1991), 861.

[1175] John Paul II, Message for the 1999 World Day of Social Communications, 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 3 February 1999, pp. 1-2.

[1176] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2495.

[1177] Cf. Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Ethics in Communications (4 June 2000), 14, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2000, pp. 14-16.

[1178] Cf. Pontifical Council for Social Communications, Ethics in Communications, 4 June 2000, 33, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2000, p. 40.

[1179] Cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 3: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 8.

[1180] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 41: AAS 80 (1988), 570.

[1181] John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 14: AAS 92 (2000), 366.

[1182] Cf. John Paul II, Message for the 2000 World Day of Peace, 17: AAS 92 (2000), 367-368.

[1183] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-436.

[1184] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 36: AAS 80 (1988), 561-563.

[1185] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 13.

[1186] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850.

[1187] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 74: AAS 58 (1966), 1095-1097.

[1188] Cf. Congregation for Catholic Education, Guidelines for the Study and Teaching of the Church's Social Doctrine in the Formation of Priests, 8, Vatican Polyglot Press, Rome 1988, pp. 13-14.

[1189] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 7: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, pp. 15-16.

[1190] Cf. John Paul II, Centesimus Annus, 46: AAS 83 (1991), 850-851.

[1191] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 4: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 9.

[1192] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 73: AAS 87 (1995), 486-487.

[1193] Cf. John Paul II, Post-Synodal Exhortation, Christifideles Laici, 39: AAS 81 (1989), 466-468.

[1194] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 76: AAS 58 (1966), 1099-1100.

[1195] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 11.

[1196] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 12.

[1197] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, pp. 12-13.

[1198] John Paul II, Address to the Diplomatic Corps (12 January 2004), 3: L'Osservatore Romano, English edition, 21 January 2004, p. 3.

[1199] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Doctrinal Note on Some Questions Regarding the Participation of Catholics in Political Life (24 November 2002), 6: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City 2002, p. 14.

[1200] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-435.

[1201] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-435.

[1202] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 50: AAS 63 (1971), 439-440.

[1203] Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 4: AAS 63 (1971), 403-404.

[1204] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 43: AAS 58 (1966), 1063.

[1205] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 43: AAS 58 (1966), 1063.

[1206] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 41: AAS 58 (1966), 1059.

[1207] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 451.

[1208] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 41: AAS 58 (1966), 1059.

[1209] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 41: AAS 58 (1966), 1059-1060.

[1210] Pius XII, Encyclical Letter Summi Pontificatus: AAS 31 (1939), 425.

[1211] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 55: AAS 83 (1991), 860-861.

[1212] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Veritatis Splendor, 98: AAS 85 (1993), 1210; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 24: AAS 83 (1991), 821-822.

[1213] John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 29: AAS 93 (2001), 285.

[1214] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 47: AAS 80 (1988), 580.

[1215] John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 541.

[1216] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 35: AAS 57 (1965), 40.

[1217] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 10: AAS 83 (1991), 805-806.

[1218] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 40: AAS 80 (1988), 568.

[1219] Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 38: AAS 58 (1966), 1055-1056; cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 42: AAS 57 (1965), 47-48; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 826.

[1220] Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1889.

[1221] Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter Rerum Novarum: Acta Leonis XIII, 11 (1892), 143; cf. Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter Pacem Dei: AAS 12 (1920), 215.

[1222] Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, QD De caritate, a. 9, c; Pius XI, Encyclical Letter Quadragesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), 206-207; John XXIII, Encyclical Letter Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), 410; Paul VI, Address to FAO (16 November 1970), 11: AAS 62 (1970), 837-838; John Paul II, Address to the Members of the Pontifical Commission "Iustitia et Pax" (9 February 1980), 7: AAS 72 (1980), 187.

[1223] Cf. Paul VI, Apostolic Letter Octogesima Adveniens, 46: AAS 63 (1971), 433-435.

[1224] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Decree Apostolicam Actuositatem, 8: AAS 58 (1966), 844-845; Paul VI, Encyclical Letter Populorum Progressio, 44: AAS 59 (1967), 279; John Paul II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Christifideles Laici, 42: AAS 81 (1989), 472-476; Catechsim of the Catholic Church, 1939.

[1225] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 15: AAS 71 (1979), 288.

[1226] John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Dives in Misericordia, 14: AAS 72 (1980), 1223.

[1227] John Paul II, Message for the 2004 World Day of Peace, 10: AAS 96 (2004), 121; cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Dives in Misericordia, 14: AAS 72 (1980), 1224; Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2212.

[1228] Saint John Chrysostom, Homilia De Perfecta Caritate, 1, 2: PG 56, 281-282.

[1229] Cf. John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte, 49-51: AAS 93 (2001), 302-304.

[1230] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Centesimus Annus, 5: AAS 83 (1991), 798-800.

[1231] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1889.

[1232] Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus, Act of Offering in Story of a Soul, tr. John Clarke (Washington, D.C.: ICS 1981, p. 277), as quoted in Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2011.


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