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The Covid 19 Vaccine: Confusion, Difficulties, Dangers

by Robert G. Marshall

Description

In this heavily researched study, Robert G. Marshall explores the uncertainties of the Covid 19 virus, the quest for an effective vaccine, the shortcuts that are being considered, the moral issues involved in rushing a vaccine and in enforced vaccination, the relevant legal history, and the opportunities we have to influence public authorities for the common good. Note that an audio version of this study is available here. (author bio)

Larger Work

Original

Publisher & Date

Trinity Communications, 2020

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NOTE: If you prefer to listen to this commentary in audio form: Listen here.


The United States and governments overseas are considering imposing the following policies to address the spread of the Covid 19 disease:

  • Mandatory vaccination with fast-tracked never-before-approved vaccines which could permanently alter genes/cells;
  • Vaccines developed using tissue from aborted children;
  • Human testing of vaccines without prior animal testing in violation of the 1947 Nuremberg Code signed by the United States, to protect persons;
  • Covid 19 vaccination to be required for employment, travel, or attendance of children at public or private schools;
  • Covid 19 vaccination of minors without parental consent;
  • Covid 19 tests used to impose quarantine even though tests may have up to 50% error rates;
  • Police use of cell phone location data to impose and monitor compliance with quarantine;
  • Non-disclosure of vaccine side effects or vaccine ingredients.

Many of these draconian plans have been recommended by medical experts and the politically well-connected, but citizens are still able to affect the outcome.

Covid 19 Morbidity and Mortality Estimates Sway Public Officials

On March 3, 2020 the director of the United Nation’s World Health Organization (WHO) noted: “Globally, about 3.4% of reported COVID-19 cases have died. By comparison, seasonal flu generally kills far fewer than 1% of those infected.” [1]

New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof on March 20, 2020 painted this word picture:

Dr. Neil M. Ferguson, a British epidemiologist who is regarded as one of the best disease modelers in the world, produced a sophisticated model with a worst case of 2.2 million deaths in the United States. I asked Ferguson for his best case. ‘About 1.1 million deaths,’ he said. When that’s a best-case scenario, it’s difficult to feel optimistic. [2]

On January 11, 2020 before person to person transmission of Covid 19 had been publicly acknowledged by Chinese authorities, Forbes Magazine writer Judy Stone, wrote, “It turns out that the Pandemic Preparedness Exercise at Johns Hopkins University last month was quite timely. It used a fictional “novel coronavirus” as a case study modeled after MERS and SARS.” [3] Stone noted that Event 201 was quite “realistic.” [4] Part of the “realism” at Event 201 was the estimate that with no vaccine available in their scenario there could be 65 million deaths within 18 months! [5]

Event 201 was a 3.5-hour pandemic tabletop exercise that simulated a series of dramatic, scenario-based facilitated discussions, confronting difficult, true-to-life dilemmas associated with response to a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible, pandemic. 15 global business, government, and public health leaders were players in the simulation exercise…[6]

A report on the virus from Imperial College in London “…warned that an uncontrolled spread of the disease could cause as many as 510,000 deaths in Britain…American officials said the report, which projected up to 2.2 million deaths in the United States from such a spread, also influenced the White House to strengthen its measures to isolate members of the public.” [7]

Covid 19 morbidity and mortality statistics, touted as fact by government and medical experts, convinced elected officials to quarantine citizens.

On January 23, 2020, the World Health Organization, “declined to categorize the coronavirus sweeping across China as a global health emergency, saying there is no evidence of human-to-human infection outside China.” [8]

A week later at a January 31, 2020 White House Press Conference, NIH director of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Anthony Fauci, stated that while there is a certainty about seasonal flu, “The issue now with [2019-nCoV] is that there’s a lot of unknowns.” [9]

As cases of Covid 19 expanded in mid-March roughly 310+ million people in at least 42 states Washington DC, Puerto Rico and countries around the world were strongly urged stay home except for employment, emergencies, groceries, and medical visits. [10]

Conflicting COVID 19 Information - Undermining Public Trust

Dr. Anthony Fauci, Director of NIAID, who has advised several Presidents, including Donald Trump, on probably consequences of epidemics, in late January, 2020, explained that “It’s [Covid 19] a very, very low risk to the United States ... It isn’t something the American public needs to worry about or be frightened about.…we have ways of preparing and screening of people coming in [from China]. And we have ways of responding - like we did with this one case in Seattle, Washington, who had traveled to China and brought back the infection.” [11]

Dr. Fauci responded in a mid-March interview with Laura Ingram on FOX, “We don’t have a vaccine for HIV/AIDS, but we have spectacularly effective treatment. People who invariably would have died years ago right now are leading essentially normal lives.…SARS disappeared.…the degree of efficiency, of transmissibility of this is really unprecedented in anything that I’ve seen…in transmitting from one person to another. Those kinds of viruses don’t just disappear.” [12]

By May 2, after hundreds of millions of Americans had stayed in home confinement, Dr. Fauci had warned, "‘I'm almost certain it will come back, because the virus is so transmissible and it's globally spread’…Americans could be in for ‘a bad fall and a bad winter’ if the country is unprepared.” [13]

Changing advice regarding wearing masks to stem the virus has added to public confusion. U. S. “public health officials and infectious disease specialists have given conflicting, confusing, and sometimes transparently disingenuous advice.…much of the bewildering guidance conflates the question of whether face masks work with the question of whether they should be reserved for high-risk, high-priority users in light of current shortages.” [14]

The Communist Chinese government has yet to explain the shutdown of domestic travel inside China while maintaining international travel to China through the end of March, and the mysterious origins of SARS-CoV-2. [15] Yet the General Director of the World Health Organization praised China for it “rigor” in dealing with the Wuhan Corona Virus. [16]

In mid-March, 2020, Dr. John P.A. Ioannidis, professor of medicine and epidemiology at Stanford Medical School, wrote, “The data collected so far on how many people are infected and how the epidemic is evolving are utterly unreliable.…We don’t know if we are failing to capture infections by a factor of three or 300.…we don’t know how long social distancing measures and lockdowns can be maintained without major consequences to the economy, society, and mental health…including financial crisis, unrest, civil strife, war, and a meltdown of the social fabric…” [17]

As of May 7, 2020 the reported worldwide mortality rate of COVID 19 ranged from 0.1 to 15.87 percent of identified cases. [18] If the vaccine death rate ends up being on the low end, would there be as much demand for a vaccine? Will the biology of the virus be understood sufficiently to find a truly safe and efficient vaccine?

Developing a Safe and Effective COVID 19 Vaccine

According to the Mayo Clinic, previous SARS vaccines tested in animals did improve survival, but did not prevent infection, and produced complications, including lung damage. An effective Covid -19 vaccine would have to protect persons from future infections, but the elderly persons who exhibit the worst symptoms usually derive less immunity than younger people from vaccines. The Mayo Clinic added, “Realistically, a vaccine will take 12 to 18 months or longer to develop and test in human clinical trials. And we don't know yet whether an effective vaccine is possible for this virus.” (emphasis added) [19]

Dr. David Nabarro, professor of global health at Imperial College in London and special envoy to the WHO for Covid-19, who supports the development of a Covid-19 vaccine, nevertheless acknowledged, “There are some viruses that we still do not have vaccines against.…We can’t make an absolute assumption that a vaccine will appear at all, or if it does appear, whether it will pass all the tests of efficacy and safety.” [20]

Dr. Alan Moy of the Pope John Paul II Institute suggests a 12 to 18 month development time may be exceptionally optimistic.

Academia and the pharmaceutical industry were not able to develop a vaccine after the SARS outbreak in 2002 and the MERS outbreak in 2012. Vaccine technology since 2012 has only modestly improved.…Some companies will be testing vaccines that use RNA and DNA, but there has yet to be an FDA approved vaccine based on this approach. Nucleic acid vaccines produce weak initial immune responses and theoretically will require boosters. [21] Johnson and Johnson's vaccine is based on adenovirus vectors that use an aborted fetal cell line (PER.C6). [22]

Adenovirus vector vaccines have been around for decades and failed to produce a vaccine against HIV…and has yet to produce a vaccine against seasonal influenza.” [23]

The vaccine also may not work if an individual has established immunity against adenovirus, which is one of the causes of the common cold. [24] This leaves the only remaining vaccine option based on producing a recombinant spike protein. A recombinant spike protein requires a cell, and the preferred cells of choice are human. The only human cells that the pharmaceutical industry currently uses are HEK293 and PER.C6, both derived from abortion. If these aborted fetal cells produce a sufficient immune response, and these vaccines are the only available choices, this will create moral challenges for some. [25]

President Trump’s “Operation Warp Speed,” seeks to secure 100 million Covid 19 vaccine doses by December, 2020 and 300 million doses by January 2021. [26] The New York Times reports vaccines against Varicella took 28 years to develop, FluMist 28 years, Human Papilloma virus 15 years, Rotavirus 15 years and Pediatric combination 11 years. [27]

Dr. Anthony Fauci is hopeful that a vaccine could be available in 12 to 18 months. Dr. Peter Horez, Dean of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston stated, “We've never accelerated a vaccine in a year to 18 months…It doesn't mean it's impossible, but it will be quite a heroic achievement.” [28]

Dr. Horez, states you “have to accumulate enough data in humans that the vaccines actually work and that they are safe…And I don’t see how you accumulate that data by the end of the year.…With a vaccine, where you inject something into a healthy person to prevent them from getting sick, you don’t want an emergency use authorization out there for something you don’t know is safe and effective…”[29]

Dr. Horez noted, “I’m predicting there will be at least three or four vaccines that will be out and may vary depending on use and local needs.” [30]

Vaccines that Depend Upon Abortion

Renowned French scientist, Louis Pasteur, working on chicken cholera, established that prophylactic vaccination could protect persons against certain diseases. [31] Pasteur’s work was greatly expanded in the 20th century to protect children and adults against previously widespread and often debilitating or fatal diseases.

Many modern vaccines are produced by collecting samples of an actual virus which is grown and altered to make a weakened version of the disease. This attenuated or weakened virus is put into a serum and then injected by a needle so the body recognizes the weakened virus and develops anti-bodies to fight the invader virus which trains the immune system to fight off the disease if later exposed to it. Vaccines for chicken pox, measles, mumps, German measles, and influenza are made this way. This is called a live vaccine and cannot be given to persons with a weakened immune system. Lifetime immunity can usually be achieved with one or two injections.

Vaccines for Hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza inactivate the virus and can be given to persons with a weakened immune system. The inactivated vaccine takes more injections than the “live vaccine” to build up immunity. [32] There are two formulations for influenza vaccine: LAIV (live vaccine, administered through nose) and TIV, (inactivated and injected).

The virus must be grown in living cells in a tissue culture or growth medium for the virus, such as chicken eggs, rabbit and monkey embryos, hamster ovaries and insects among other sources. Regrettably some vaccines have also been developed using cells originally derived from children who were intentionally aborted.

A third type of vaccine, a “subunit vaccine,” works to develop immunity against a viral protein, which “hopefully will provide immunity against the whole virus.…Subunit vaccines provide a weak initial immune response and require multiple boosters over several weeks. …“ Subunit vaccines produce viral proteins indirectly ... Subunit vaccines were attempted after the SARS and MERS outbreak but they failed…” [33]

Rubella Vaccines derived from Aborted Children

In the 1960’s tissue from an aborted child was used to develop, “…a cell strain called WI-38 using lung cells from an aborted fetus ... many viruses, including rubella, grew well in the WI-38, and…proved to be free of contaminants and safe to use for human vaccines.” [34]

Mrs. Debbie Vinnedge, Executive Director of Children of God for Life, a group opposed to the development of abortion related vaccines, points to a Merck Company product description footnote for their Measles, Mumps, Rubella vaccine, which acknowledges the aborted child origins of its WI-38 cell line MMR vaccine. [35]

Vinnedge points to an effort in Great Britain in the 1970’s by the Medical Research Council which produced MRC-5, a cell line from lung tissue derived from a 14 week old preborn child, and noted that European informed consent laws at that time were rather lax so there is a question of whether the mother who underwent abortion for “psychiatric” reasons gave sufficient informed consent to “donate” her aborted child for vaccine research reasons. [36]

A third strain of vaccines derived from abortion is the PER C6 version developed in 1985. “The PER.C6 cell line is derived from human embryonic retinal cells, originally from the retinal tissue of an 18 week old fetus aborted in 1985…” [37] There are other vaccines produced using tissue or cells from aborted children as well.

The FDA identifies approved vaccines which are or are not derived from aborted babies for Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Polio, HIB, Shingles and Rabies. [38]

Attorneys General Urge Use of Aborted Children for Covid 19 Vaccine

On March 26, 2020, fifteen state Attorneys General wrote to President Trump urging him to reverse his June 2019 ban on the use of fetal tissue in order to:

…accelerate vaccine development to combat COVID-19…Research using fetal tissue has led to the development of other vaccines to combat diseases like poliovirus, rubella, measles, and rabies.…
Fetal tissue…for…HIV/AIDS and Alzheimer’s.…in studying the transmission of the Zika virus from mother to baby through the placenta using humanized mouse models. According to the American Medical Association, “[f]etal tissue has also been used to…develop transplant therapies for…parkinsonism. [39]

That fifteen Attorney Generals did not mention the FDA-approved vaccines that did not use cells from aborted babies is very concerning.

On April 13, 2020, 131 Congressmen disputed the Attorneys General claims. They first noted that: “Aborted fetal tissue from ongoing abortions…has never been used in the production of a single vaccine.…the few attempted transplants of aborted fetal tissue have resulted in making things worse, not better.…Adult stem cells – derived without destroying embryos and without abortion – are already showing great promise.” [40]

The Charlotte Lozier Institute (March 19, 2020) had taken issue with the claim that abortion is necessary to produce a Covid 19 vaccine, noting that, “Already, over 60 potential treatments are under investigation – none of which need aborted fetal tissue to fight coronavirus.” [41]

CLI researcher Tara Sander Lee, PhD shredded the abortion vaccine claims before a House of Representatives subcommittee on December 13, 2018:

Some researchers argue that they ‘need’ human fetal tissue to generate the BLT (bone marrow, fetal liver, fetal thymus) humanized mouse model…But…similar stem cells can be obtained from ethical sources other than fetal liver, such as umbilical cord blood, bone marrow…alternatives exist to the use of human fetal bones for generating humanized mouse models of multiple myeloma.
…Greater than 98% of research articles published on Zika do not use fetal tissue. Rather, adult blood cells recently led to a breakthrough in vaccine development for Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a virus affecting brain development in a way similar to Zika.…a new successful Ebola vaccine was produced using monkey viro cells and the new shingles vaccine is grown in CHO cells (hamster). [42]

The Vatican and Abortion-linked Vaccines

On June 4, 2003 Mrs. Deborah Vinnedge, Executive Director of Children of God for Life wrote to His Eminence, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, seeking a clarification on whether abortion related vaccines may be licitly used for disease protection when the civil law requires vaccination imposed on children for school attendance.

The Pontifical Academy for Life (PAL) responded in 2005, as follows:

The first fundamental distinction to be made is that between formal and material cooperation. Formal cooperation is carried out when the moral agent cooperates with the immoral action of another person, sharing in the latter's evil intention.…when a moral agent cooperates with the immoral action of another person, without sharing his/her evil intention, it is a case of material cooperation.…
Formal cooperation is always morally illicit because it represents a form of direct and intentional participation in the sinful action of another person. Material cooperation can sometimes be illicit…but when immediate material cooperation concerns grave attacks on human life, it is always to be considered illicit, given the precious nature of the value in question.…
…there are three categories of people who are involved in the cooperation in evil…a) those who prepare the vaccines using human cell lines coming from voluntary abortions; b) those who participate in the mass marketing of such vaccines; c) those who need to use them for health reasons.…
…the form of passive material cooperation…carried out by the producers of these vaccines, if they do not denounce and reject publicly the original immoral act (the voluntary abortion), and if they do not dedicate themselves together to research and promote alternative ways, exempt from moral evil, for the production of vaccines for the same infections.…if it should occur, is equally illicit.
…those who need to use such vaccines…for their children, in spite of knowing their origin (voluntary abortion), carry out a form of very remote mediate material cooperation, and thus very mild, in the performance of the original act of abortion, and a mediate material cooperation, with regard to the marketing of cells coming from abortions, and immediate, with regard to the marketing of vaccines produced with such cells. The cooperation is therefore more intense on the part of the authorities and national health systems that accept the use of the vaccines.
Therefore, doctors and fathers of families have a duty to take recourse to alternative vaccines (if they exist), putting pressure on the political authorities and health systems so that other vaccines without moral problems become available. They should take recourse…to the use of conscientious objection with regard to the use of vaccines produced by means of cell lines of aborted human foetal origin. Equally, they should oppose by all means (in writing, through the various associations, mass media, etc.) the vaccines which do not yet have morally acceptable alternatives, creating pressure so that alternative vaccines are prepared, which are not connected with the abortion of a human foetus, and requesting rigorous legal control of the pharmaceutical industry producers.
As regards the diseases against which there are no alternative vaccines which are available and ethically acceptable, it is right to abstain from using these vaccines if it can be done without causing children, and indirectly the population as a whole, to undergo significant risks to their health.…The moral reason is that the duty to avoid passive material cooperation is not obligatory if there is grave inconvenience.…
To summarize…
  • there is a grave responsibility to use alternative vaccines and to make a conscientious objection with regard to those which have moral problems;
  • …the lawfulness of the use of these vaccines should not be misinterpreted as a declaration of the lawfulness of their production, marketing and use, but is to be understood as being a passive material cooperation and, in its mildest and remotest sense, also active, morally justified as an extrema ratio due to the necessity to provide for the good of one's children and of the people who come in contact with the children (pregnant women);
  • …such cooperation occurs in a context of moral coercion of the conscience of parents, who are forced to choose to act against their conscience or otherwise, to put the health of their children and of the population as a whole at risk. This is an unjust alternative choice, which must be eliminated as soon as possible. [43]

The 2005 PAL response is not a directive to parents that they should vaccinate their children using abortion derived vaccines. Former editor of the Catholic Boston Pilot, Phil Lawler, noted that, “parents could be justified in choosing vaccination. That statement did not say that this choice was preferable, let alone mandatory.” [44]

Dr. Jeffrey Mirus explains the differences in impermissible formal cooperation with evil and remote material co-operation with evil which is not immoral:

Consider paying taxes, paying for utility services, maintaining Internet access, signing up for a cell phone plan, shopping in grocery stores or drug stores, and so on. In all of these cases and many more, the money we spend will be used to promote a wide variety of evils, from providing electrical service to a gang of thieves to fostering the distribution of contraceptives and pornography.
Such remote material cooperation with evil is very difficult to avoid in any given case, and impossible to avoid overall in the course of life. As such, it is not sinful as long as we do not transform it into formal cooperation by intending or approving the evils involved. [45]

On June 20, 2008, the Vatican’s Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith proposed, and Pope Benedict XVI accepted, Dignitas Personae, which addressed the use of various vaccines for disease prevention. As applied to the circumstances of medical researchers and persons who would use vaccines the document noted:

…for the production of vaccines or other products, cell lines are at times used which are the result of an illicit intervention against the life or physical integrity of a human being. The connection to the unjust act may be either mediate or immediate…All of this gives rise to various ethical problems with regard to cooperation in evil and with regard to scandal.…
…The corpses of human embryos and fetuses, whether they have been deliberately aborted or not, must be respected just as the remains of other human beings.…the moral requirements must be safeguarded that there be no complicity in deliberate abortion and that the risk of scandal be avoided…
…there is a duty to refuse to use such “biological material” even when there is no close connection between the researcher and the actions of those who performed the artificial fertilization or the abortion, or when there was no prior agreement with the centers in which the artificial fertilization took place. This duty springs from the necessity to remove oneself, within the area of one’s own research, from a gravely unjust legal situation and to affirm with clarity the value of human life.…
Of course…there exist differing degrees of responsibility. …Thus…danger to the health of children could permit parents to use a vaccine which was developed using cell lines of illicit origin, while keeping in mind that everyone has the duty to make known their disagreement and to ask that their healthcare system make other types of vaccines available.…in organizations where cell lines of illicit origin are being utilized, the responsibility of those who make the decision to use them is not the same as that of those who have no voice in such a decision.
In the context of the urgent need to mobilize consciences in favour of life, people in the field of healthcare need to be reminded that ‘their responsibility today is greatly increased.’ [46]

The preceding Vatican statements established and delineated the operative principles of authentic Catholic moral-ethical teaching and summarize the immutable Natural Law respect for the human person.

Decision Makers Will Guide Development of COVID 19 Vaccines

Dr, Alan Moy of the John Paul II Medical Research Institute states that developing a safe, ethical and effective vaccine for COVID 19 is more problematic using cells derived from aborted children than non-human abortion sources:

The donated human tissue must be reproducible and of high quality. These requirements cannot be achieved from abortions. Medical records from abortions are scarce, inadequate and incomplete.…There are over 1 million annual newborn deliveries. Accurate medical records can be obtained. The tissue is reproducible.…where new cell lines can be produced in a matter of few weeks .…Newborn stem cells are rarely contaminated with pathogens. Medical records are accurate and tissue is always obtained with proper informed consent. Thus…to create human cell lines from abortion…is a poor choice. [47]

Pro-life Catholic and Christian religious leaders as well as spokesmen for pro-life medical, legal and advocacy organizations wrote to FDA Commissioner Dr. Stephen Hahn on April 17, 2020 strongly urging him to not lend government assistance to the development of a COVID 19 vaccine that is in any way linked to using tissue from aborted children. [48]

Thankfully, President Trump has been very responsive to Pro-life requests. In 2019, his Administration suspended federal funding of previously approved HHS research contracts which used tissue derived from elective abortions despite opposition of a prominent fetal research scientist, who complained that, “Anything we do at this point could save hundreds of thousands of lives. If you wait, it’s too late.” [49]

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) declined to renew a contract with the University of California involving tissue from elective abortions. The June 5, 2019 DHHS press release noted:

Promoting the dignity of human life from conception to natural death is one of the very top priorities of President Trump’s administration. The audit and review helped inform the policy process that led to the administration’s decision to let the contract with UCSF expire and to discontinue intramural research – research conducted within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) – involving the use of human fetal tissue from elective abortion. Intramural research that requires new acquisition of fetal tissue from elective abortions will not be conducted. [50]

President Trump is serious about placing protection of human life ahead of political interests or his own re-election. Dr. Anthony Fauci, who has advised President Trump on addressing the Wuhan Corona Virus crisis from the beginning, was reported as affirming:

“The first and only time that I went in and said we should do mitigation strongly, the response was, ‘yes, we’ll do it,‘”…Fauci said…he didn’t know the date he and Deborah Birx went to [President] Trump to make a formal recommendation but insisted that [President] Trump listened to the advice from public health experts…[51]

President Donald Trump obviously knew that, “presidents who ran for reelection while the economy was booming, including Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan, kept their jobs. Meanwhile, Presidents George H.W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford and Herbert Hoover lost their reelection bids amid U.S. economic struggles.…The nation’s 3.5% unemployment rate in November matched 50-year lows.” [52]

President Trump set aside a high probability he would be re-elected based on the strong economy in order to reduce the medical experts’ assessment that 2.2 million American lives could be lost without severe measures including closing schools, churches, businesses, travel, etc. to reduce opportunities for infection. A crippled economy would, of course, reduce the President’s chance to be re-elected.

CDC and Misplaced Trust -- Polio Vaccine Development

During 1954, the Salk vaccine was developed and prematurely launched in 1955 after the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP), the CDC and state health departments suppressed adverse outcome reports that the Salk vaccine (Sv) was causing more polio than it was preventing. Then Oak Park, Illinois Health Director, Dr. Herbert Ratner, initially declined to implement the Salk polio vaccination program after documenting cases of child polio caused from vaccination with the Salk vaccine.

On April 12, 1955 results from the 1954 Polio field trials were broadcast worldwide from Ann Arbor, Michigan claiming that the vaccine worked, was safe, effective and potent. Press releases said it was 80 to 90% effective. In fact, Dr. Ratner found it was 60 to 70% effective against the most common type of polio, Type I. The NFIP had contracted in 1954 with five commercial vaccine companies to make 27 million doses of the vaccine costing $9 million dollars. [53]

Parents of first and second graders in all public and private schools were told their children should be vaccinated. They were eager to protect their children from Polio, having grown up with the knowledge that four term President Franklyn D. Roosevelt, who served during the Great Depression and World War II, had contracted Polio himself. Pictures of “Iron Lungs” that assisted Polio victims to breathe were common images in newspapers and magazines. In 1957 a US Postage stamp was issued with drawings of two children featuring a polio theme. [54]

By roughly two weeks later, 10.9 million polio vaccine doses had been administered mostly to school children. On April 26, six cases of paralytic Polio were reported in California and Illinois following Salk vaccine vaccination, all from the same manufacturer (Cutter) and lot number. Other reports of polio came from Idaho and Utah. On April 27, the US Surgeon General Leonard Scheel, MD, asked Cutter to withdraw its vaccine. On April 28 Dr. Scheel convened a nationwide Polio Surveillance Unit (PSU). [55]

On May 7, 1955 it became evident that other polio vaccine manufacturers were having similar problems, and all vaccinations were suspended until May 27, 1955 after which vaccine producers had to follow new manufacturing and safety tests. On November 11, another filtration step was required to remove clumps of protein in the vaccine that enclosed the live virus. But unsafe left over Polio vaccine doses, from before November 11, 1955, were used in early 1956, starting another round of vaccine-caused polio. The USPHS never ordered the withdrawal of the less safe 1955 vaccine for the “safer” 1956 vaccine version. [56]

Dr. Ratner noted that the reduced effectiveness of the “improved” vaccine was not acknowledged until 1959. He pointed out that the unused vaccine from 1956 and 1957 piled up on shelves leading the persuasive Basil O’Connor, president of the NFIP, to lobby state legislatures to mandate the polio vaccination for children. A participant at Surgeon General Scheel’s “experts” meeting held April 27, 1955, reported:

much of the discussion was implicitly concerned with the hot water in which the Cutter cases had dumped the government. If word ever got out that the Public Health Service had actually done something damaging to the health of the American people, the consequences would be terrible.…They could not…cancel all vaccinations without giving the public the idea that the vaccine should never have been licensed in the first place. [57]

As the editor of the Bulletin of the American Association of Public Health Physicians, Dr. Ratner wrote a “devil’s advocate” article explaining the problems with the Salk vaccine. This act resulted in Ratner’s removal as editor at a subsequent AAPHP board meeting. [58]

Dr. Ratner said that the USPHD Poliomyelitis CDC Surveillance Unit aided Salk vaccine promotion:

but instead of using the tools of epidemiology to safeguard the life and health of the people, it used the tools to make failure look like success.…a reluctant and nervous USPHS was browbeaten into maintaining the overpublicized program because it was overshadowed…by the dynamic Basil O’Connor…a dominant national medical figure…[59]

Ratner called this episode a turning point in modern American medicine with long range consequences. He points to the:

Asian Flu vaccine program of 1957 when the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) foisted off on doctors and the public 50 million doses of poor potency vaccine to combat mild epidemic which had almost run its course. The promotions’ main purpose seemed to have been to protect the financial interests of vaccine manufacturers. The lack of courage to correct an earlier decision is also illustrated by the Swine Flu vaccine program of 1976. Here a widely promoted and widespread immunization program was still continued for months even after it became evident that a Swine Flu epidemic would not materialize. The vaccine subsequently resulted in paralytic side effects in significant numbers of recipients. [60]

Ratner pointed out the change in terminology for defining polio that was published in the Communicable Disease Summary for the USPHS for the week ending in on April 20, 1955, which purported to reduce the number of polio cases attributed to the Salk Vaccine, reduce the incidence of reportable harmful effects, and increase the number of beneficial effects of the Sv. [61] While reputations may be improved by manipulations on paper, health cannot be.

Dr. Ratner explained that the millions of children and adults who received the Salk vaccine from 1954 to 1961 were unwittingly inoculated with live Simian virus 40, because the polio vaccine was cultured from monkey kidney tissues. He contended that Simian Virus 40 would play a role in developing future cancers. In May, 1961 it was discovered that injecting money kidney tissue extracts into hamsters induced cancerous tumors.

That, “SV40 was found in the Salk vaccine came as a surprise because the Salk vaccine was thought to be a killed virus vaccine. It turns out, however, that SV40 was more resistant than poliovirus to inactivation by formaldehyde.…that the DNA of it nucleic acid can combine with the RNA of host cell, that it can hybridize with other viruses, that it can enter a latent ‘virogenic state’ and be reactivated…government virologists and administrators did what they could to suppress or minimize the discovery. The distinguished government researcher [Dr. Bernice Eddy] who had isolated SV40 from the Salk vaccine was even persecuted and demoted by her superiors for sharing her findings with other scientists.” [62]

The vaccine’s effects of SV 40 took more than a quarter of a century to make its ill effects known. Some of the Covid 19 candidate vaccines operate by restructuring the DNA of cells by use of RNA, which could possibly be altered permanently with adverse consequences to future generations:

…Potential side effects could include chronic inflammation…Other concerns include the possible integration of plasmid DNA into the body’s host genome, resulting in mutations, problems with DNA replication, triggering of autoimmune responses, and activation of cancer-causing genes.
The array of side effects identified also raises ethical concerns for the establishment of clinical trials for DNA vaccines. In general, pharmaceutical companies can border on exploitative in their use of developing countries’ populations in research. [63]

Who is overseeing the Covid 19 vaccine scientists and drug manufacturers? And who is holding them accountable?

Kenya’s Catholic Bishops Question Vaccines

Tetanus is a disease caused by bacteria found worldwide in dirt and in manure from animals. It enters the human body through a cut, puncture wound, burn or a break in the skin. The Tetanus bacteria produce a poison affecting the nervous system causing seizures and strong muscle spasms. Tetanus is also called “lockjaw,” because left untreated, it can cause the neck and jaw muscles to “lock,” making it hard to open the mouth or swallow. From 10% to 20% of cases Tetanus can cause respiratory failure or other health problems leading even to death.

Tetanus cannot be directly spread between persons, but mostly occurs in persons who have not been vaccinated for Tetanus. Immunity may require a “booster” shot. In the U.S. “Tetanus became nationally reportable in 1947. Reported tetanus cases have declined more than 95%, and deaths from tetanus have declined more than 99% in the United States since 1947.” [64] Worldwide, Tetanus kills from 213,000 – 293,000 persons yearly. It is responsible for 5–7% of all neonatal deaths and 5% of maternal deaths globally. [65]

Poorer nations often depend on the World Health Organization or richer countries for help in eradicating Tetanus. Risking biting the hand that feeds them, in 2014 the Kenyan Catholic Bishops questioned a Tetanus program supported by WHO, UNICEF and the Kenyan government on grounds that it was really a surreptitious population control program, not simply an effort to eradicate Tetanus.

The Kenyan Catholic Bishops Conference does not oppose vaccination per se, but:

…raised questions on whether the tetanus vaccine was linked to a population control program that has been reported in some countries, where a similar vaccine was laced with Beta-HCG hormone which causes infertility and multiple miscarriages in women.…The Catholic Church struggled and acquired several vials of the vaccine, which we sent to Four unrelated Government and private laboratories in Kenya and abroad.…all the tests showed that the vaccine used in Kenya in March and October 2014 was indeed laced with the Beta-HCG hormone.
…we are shocked at the level of dishonesty and casual manner in which such a serious issue is being handled by the Government.…we are dismayed by attempts to intimidate and blackmail medical professionals who have corroborated information about the vaccine, with threats of disciplinary action.…we shall not waver in calling upon all Kenyans to avoid the tetanus vaccination campaign laced with Beta-HCG. [66]

The Kenyan Bishop’s statement was signed by His Eminence John Cardinal Njue and roughly two dozen Kenyan bishops.

Some, including the Kenyan government, UNICEF and WHO dismissed the results of the test, and also claimed through UNICEF spokesman James Elder that the Beta-HCG hormone may have been an accidental contamination in the vaccines, and that certain levels of HCG hormone were ‘within normal values’ for healthy men and women.” [67] Kevin Donovan, Director of the Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics at Georgetown University, said, “There are aspects of this that need to be raising red flags because of history and because of the way it was all being done. But raising red flags doesn’t mean that there’s something that actually has occurred.” [68]

Lifesite News agreed there was a stealth plan to sterilize Kenyan women by a vaccine ostensibly administered only to protect against Tetanus. [69]

The liberal National Catholic Reporter thought the Bishops’ concerns were misplaced, citing James Elder from UNICEF:

“The vaccines supplied through UNICEF and WHO are safe. Recent independent testing supported by the Government of Kenya and the Kenya Conference of Catholic Bishops doctors confirmed this. The Government of Kenya has a strict monitoring system for the safety of life saving commodities, including vaccines. …unsubstantiated assertions…put children and women at risk from vaccine-preventable diseases….” [70]

The UNICEF spokesman addressed a question about safety, even though the Catholic Bishops did not directly raise the issue of safety. The bishops had objected to the surreptitious sterilization effort directed at Kenyan women without proper informed consent, a point the UNICEF representative craftily dodged.

In 2015, Georgetown University’s Kevin Donovan was hopeful that an independent test could verify the presence or absence of hCG.” [71]

In 2017, the results of an independent examination and evaluation of the entire Kenyan Bishops’ challenge of the tainted Tetanus vaccine, was published. Researchers were from the University of Louisiana, University of British Columbia, a Canadian Research organization, and the Kenya Catholic Doctors Association. Their conclusion supported the bishop’s contentions:

…by 1976 WHO researchers had conjugated tetanus toxoid (TT) with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) producing a ‘birth-control’ vaccine.…WHO publications show a long-range purpose to reduce population growth in unstable ‘less developed countries.’ …In November 2014,…such a program was underway in Kenya. Three independent Nairobi accredited bio-chemistry laboratories tested samples from vials of the WHO tetanus vaccine…and found hCG where none should be present. In October 2014, 6 additional vials were…tested in 6 accredited laboratories. …hCG was found in half the samples.…Nairobi’s AgriQ Quest laboratory …found hCG in the same vaccine vials that tested positive earlier…Given that hCG was found in at least half the WHO vaccine samples known…to have been used in Kenya…the Kenya “anti-tetanus” campaign was reasonably called into question by the Kenya Catholic Doctors Association as a front for population growth reduction.…”
…all vaccine manufacturers and vaccine testing laboratories must be WHO certified, their responsibility for whatever has happened in the Kenyan immunization program can hardly be overemphasized. [72]

Civil Liberties and Vaccine Testing

Fallout from the WHO Tetanus vaccine manipulation in Kenya lasts to this day. Now that the Wuhan Covid 19 virus is spreading world-wide, Catholic bishops in Kenya, with good reason, have expressed concern that Africans will be used as guinea pigs for Covid 19 vaccine testing or therapies.

In response to recent neo-colonial comments from two French scientists that Africans should be the testing laboratory for COVID-19 treatments, Bishop Joseph Ndembu Mbatia Chair of the Kenyan Conference of Catholic bishops, stated, “Suggesting the trials can only be carried on Africans is to use the people in a way that is wrong.” Additionally, Bishop Mbatia stipulated that, “I do not support human trials for the drugs and vaccine at the moment. They should start with animals and, when it is known they work, then the drugs can be administered on humans.” [73]

Bishop Mbatia is following in the tradition of Pope Pius XII who also emphasized in 1952 the necessity of animal investigation for medical experimentation before conducting human trials. This position authentically interprets Natural Law and Church teaching. Pius XII stated:

You do not expect Us to discuss the medical questions which concern you. Those are your domain.…We wish to make Ourself the interpreter of the moral conscience of the research worker, the specialist and the practitioner and of the man and Christian who follows the same path.
The great postwar trials brought to light a terrifying number of documents testifying to the sacrifice of the individual in the "medical interests of the community." (para 25)…In the domain of your science it is an obvious law that the application of new methods to living men must be preceded by research on cadavers or the model of study and experimentation on animals. [74]

The principle that animal efficacy and safety trials should precede human drug trials was upheld by World War II Nuremburg Medical prosecutions conducted by the International Military Tribunal from December, 1946 to July, 1947 of 23 defendants, 20 of whom were medical personnel.

The American prosecutor, Telford Taylor, accused the Nazi defendants of violating the millennia old ethical norms of the sixth century BC Oath of Hippocrates, the basic premise of which was, “do no harm.” Defense attorneys argued, with some accuracy, that doctors in the victorious nations had regularly conducted experiments regarding malaria on prisoners without their consent such as had been done on 800 men in a number of state and federal prisons in the U. S. for malaria. They further argued that medical experiments were ordered by German civilian authorities for the purpose of how to best protect German aviators and others who would benefit from similar research. This, of course, provided a difficulty for prosecutors and in part necessitated the affirmation of a standard that could not allow a repetition of the Nazi offenses. [75]

The International Tribunal at Nuremberg promulgated ten conditions to govern the conduct of permissible medical experiments, two of which are especially relevant to the development of a Covid 19 vaccine:

The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results justify the performance of the experiment.” [76]

The memory of Nazi atrocities was fresh in the memory of members of the World War II generation who realized the necessity of erecting moral/legal safeguards to prevent repeating future outrages. Today, professional medical societies worldwide currently encourage or facilitate abortion and hospitals operate as part time killing factories of living children waiting to be born.

Ostensibly the federal government is supposed to be guided by the ethical principles outlined by the Belmont Report, issued as a result of testimony presented to the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects, from 1974-1978. Its basic principle was the venerable Hippocratic guidance to, “First Do No Harm.”

Today we see wide contemporary rejection of the Nuremberg standards:

…the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. [77]

True, profits could be undercut by adhering to ethical standards. Pius XII, in defending the Nuremberg Code requirement for first testing drugs on animals, was not giving outdated medical-scientific advice, he was enunciating moral guidance.

Covid 19 vaccine researchers are placing a premium on speed which apparently includes bypassing the normal approval process of first testing a vaccine for efficacy and safety in animals.

Vaccines based on Messenger RiboNucleic Acids, (mRNAs) would presumably transfer the instructions from inside our DNA to the cell machinery to make certain dummy-like corona proteins that the human body will hopefully learn to attack.

Jonathan Kimmelman, director of McGill University’s biomedical ethics unit, has noted, “Outbreaks and national emergencies often create pressure to suspend rights, standards and/or normal rules of ethical conduct. Often our decision to do so seems unwise in retrospect.” [78]

Scientists are unsure if the SARS-CoV-2 will mutate, which could affect how often a new vaccine will need to be developed.…“Nevertheless, the federal government is backing mRNA vaccines with serious cash. It has pledged to give nearly $500 million to Moderna alone for its COVID-19 vaccine. …the FDA has authorized both Moderna and BioNTech to begin vaccine trials in humans before safety-testing in animals was finished.” [79]

The NIH funding came just in time for cash strapped Moderna which had “accumulated losses of about $1.37 billion through the end of last September. Moderna has been burning about $100 million in losses per quarter.” [80]

Public acknowledgement of U.S. government collaboration with Moderna was a single paragraph in the prepared testimony from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services before the full U.S. Senate Health Committee:

The NIAID Vaccine Research Center has collaborated with the biotechnology company Moderna, Inc., to develop a vaccine candidate using a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine platform expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. On March 16, 2020, NIAID initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial of this experimental vaccine at the Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, and later added clinical sites at Emory University and the NIH Clinical Center. This trial was recently expanded to enroll older adults to better define the safety of and immune response to the vaccine across various age groups. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) funded the manufacture of the vaccine candidate for the Phase 1 trial, and BARDA [Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, a branch of HHS] plans to support advanced development of the candidate. [81]

HHS made no reference in its prepared testimony to Moderna’s absence of animal testing before conducting human trials. Had a U. S. Senator Googled “history of vaccine requirements in United States,” a search would link to a CDC site explaining the following:

Before vaccines are licensed by the FDA, they are tested extensively in the laboratory and with human subjects to ensure their safety. First, researchers use computers to predict how the vaccine will interact with the human immune system. Then researchers test the vaccine on animals including mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys. [Emphasis added] After the vaccine completes these laboratory tests successfully, the FDA approves its use in clinical studies on human subjects. [82]

The Senator might assume that CDC’s own posted vaccine safety requirements were being faithfully followed, but that Senator would be wrong.

Other apologists who urge speeding up the Covid 19 vaccine development are supporting “challenge trials,” which deliberately expose participants to infection to study diseases and the effect of vaccines partly in the hope that the normal phase three testing can be sidestepped. Phase three new drug testing normally takes from one to four years in which the drug is “tested on several thousand patients who have the condition or disease it's designed to treat.…because they're so lengthy, they're more likely to reveal long-term side effects than the earlier trials.” [83]

In 2016, scientists asked the National Institutes of Health for permission to develop a “human challenge model” for Zika virus infections. The NIH ethics panel rejected the request in January 2017, noting that infecting volunteers with Zika, which is harmless to most, would be too dangerous. [84]

A vaccine testing group, One Day Sooner, is recruiting “volunteers” to participate in Covid 19 “challenge” trials. They cite the experience of Dr. Edward Jenner who developed the Smallpox vaccine in 1796 by exposing a young boy to cowpox from the hand of a young girl to demonstrate that the cowpox vaccination would provide an immunity to Smallpox. But Jenner had already observed that contracting Cowpox provided immunity against subsequent exposure to Smallpox in other patients. [85] [86]

Unlike Smallpox, immunity from a future Covid 19 infection has not yet been established. Three physicians from the CDC very recently noted:

existing limited data on antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and related corona viruses, as well as one small animal model study, suggest that recovery from COVID might confer immunity against reinfection, at least temporarily. However, the immune response to COVID is not yet fully understood and definitive data on post infection immunity are lacking. [87]

Until immunity from from a subsequent Covid 19 infection is confirmed, how sure can we be that a Covid 19 vaccine would even work? This is a key question because if the virus mutates rapidly like other coronaviruses, then a vaccine would have limited efficacy.

Will a Covid 19 Vaccine Be Mandatory?

As of January 3, 2020, all 50 states have mandatory vaccine laws for school children in order to attend school and for certain age groups. All the statutes have various medical exemptions. Washington D.C. and 45 states allow religious exemptions for vaccination. Exemptions are allowed in 15 states for personal, moral, philosophical or other beliefs.

At least five states allow minor children to make their own health care decisions without parental consent or knowledge: Alabama at age 14, Alaska and Idaho have no minimum age, Oregon at age 15, and South Carolina at age 16. [88] These laws have implications for any possible Covid 19 vaccine.

In 2019, The New England Journal of Medicine opined that children from at least age 12 should be able to consent to vaccination without parental permission. This policy is allegedly needed because “adolescents need not be harmed by parental decisions that are based on misinformation or disinformation.…[and] facilitates access to a medically recommended and evidence based treatment.” [89]

The 1905 U.S. Supreme Court case, Jacobson v. Massachusetts, is the prevailing decision on mandatory vaccination. A challenge had been made to a Massachusetts law which allowed a local board of health to, "require and enforce the vaccination and revaccination of all the inhabitants thereof and shall provide them with the means of free vaccination. Whoever, being over twenty-one years of age and not under guardianship, refuses or neglects to comply with such requirement shall forfeit five dollars." [90]

The Court pointed to quarantine laws that kept American citizens on vessels until such time as the danger of yellow fever or another disease has passed. The Court held that:

Upon the principle of self-defense, of paramount necessity, a community has the right to protect itself against an epidemic of disease which threatens the safety of its members.…
While we do not decide and cannot decide that vaccination is a preventive of smallpox, we take judicial notice of the fact that this is the common belief of the people of the State…we hold that the statute in question is a health law…and proper exercise of the police power.
Since, then, vaccination…finds strong support in the experience of this and other countries, no court, much less a jury, is justified in disregarding the action of the legislature simply because, in its or their opinion, that particular method was—perhaps or possibly7mdash;not the best either for children or adults. [91]

The court also held that, compulsory vaccination, albeit with a Five dollar escape valve, has limits:

power of a local community to protect itself against an epidemic threatening the safety of all, might be exercised in particular circumstances and in reference to particular persons in such an arbitrary, unreasonable manner, or might go so far beyond what was reasonably required for the safety of the public, as to authorize or compel the courts to interfere for the protection of such persons. [92]

Mandatory vaccination of school children in the U S. was held constitutional in the 1922, Zucht v. King Supreme Court case where an ordinance passed by the City of San Antonio, Texas, provided that,

no child or other person shall attend a public school or other place of education without having first presented a certificate of vaccination…They also caused her to be excluded from a private school.

Pointing to the Massachusetts Jacobson case above, the Zucht Justices stated:

That case and others had also settled that a State may, consistently with the Federal Constitution, delegate to a municipality authority to determine under what conditions health regulations shall become operative…these ordinances confer not arbitrary power, but only that broad discretion required for the protection of the public health. [93]

Vaccination as a Condition of Employment

As of 2007, laws in 32 states granted health care facilities such as hospitals, clinics, residential child care homes, rehab centers and nursing homes authority to require employees to be vaccinated usually against measles, mumps and rubella with exceptions for medical contraindication, or religious or philosophical objection. [94]

Janice Hustvet challenged the vaccination requirement of the Allina Health System. Hustvet was fired after refusing to take the necessary steps to develop immunity to rubella per a job requirement to keep her job at a rehabilitation inpatient/outpatient facility where she served clients with disabilities. Hustvet, a fifteen-year employee, of a facility that was bought out by Allina Health System, went to federal court to contest her firing under the federal Americans with Disabilities Act and the Minnesota Human Rights Act.

The Federal Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit ruled on December 7, 2018 against Hustvet:

Allina terminated Hustvet’s employment because her job required her to work with potentially vulnerable clients and she refused to comply with Allina policy by completing the required health screen and becoming immunized to rubella.…The evidence shows she was terminated because of her failure to comply with this legitimate policy…. [95]

Public Health Emergencies and Mandatory Vaccinations

In the United States, the enforcement of mandatory vaccinations during an emergency has depended upon the conditions leading to the vaccination mandate.

In 1900, the City and County of San Francisco Board of Health imposed mandatory vaccination requirements for bubonic plague on persons of Chinese descent prohibiting travel by steamship to other ports in California unless documentation of vaccination was provided. The vaccines produced adverse health consequences. A Chinese individual sued. The court in Wong Wai v. Williamson concluded the vaccination requirement of Chinese-only persons to exit the City/County was racially discriminatory since the Board of Health had not demonstrated that Asians were more likely than others to contract or be susceptible to bubonic plague. [96]

A second federal case, Jew Ho v. Williamson, challenged the quarantine being applied only to Chinese persons. The court rejected the claim by San Francisco that nine deaths from the plague had resulted from the lack of vaccination by the Chinese plaintiffs. [97]

In 1991, Philadelphia had a measles outbreak centered in the Faith Tabernacle Congregation church which had about 1,000 children in its school. The deputy Health Commissioner, Dr. Ross, asked the pastor for permission to examine the children after being alerted by a grandparent that children at the school had developed rashes. The permission to examine the children was denied.

Dr. Ross and an assistant then visited homes of the children. Parents objected. Ross secured a court order to administer mandatory vaccinations without parental permission. The immunizations were administered as children lined up surrounded by crying parents. [98]

New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio in 2019 ordered mandatory vaccinations in Brooklyn’s Williamsburg neighborhood to stop the spread of a measles outbreak of 285 cases in an Orthodox Jewish community. The order affected all persons living in four ZIP codes and applied to all unvaccinated persons including children over 6 months old. Persons ignoring the order were subject to a $1,000 fine. [99]

Around the same time in New York’s Rockland County, 153 cases of measles were confirmed in another Hasidic Jewish Community. County officials there also banned unvaccinated students from school under their emergency powers. Court challenges were filed in both New York City and with a trial court in Rockland County. The court held that Rockland County failed to establish a bona fide emergency for mandating vaccination. In a different measles case in New York City the court held that the plaintiff did not meet the minimum threshold to challenge Mayor de Blasio’s measles vaccination mandate. [100]

Covid 19 Vaccines Endorsed by Globalists

With the exception of the worldwide Spanish Flu epidemic of 1918, Covid 19 has been treated very differently from prior pandemics of the mid-20th century to today.

The H2N2 Asian Flu (summer 1957-1958) killed 1.1 million worldwide and resulted in 116,000 deaths in the United States. Given the roughly 173,000,000 population of the United States at that time the death ratio was 67.1 per 100,000 population. [101] The 1968 pandemic, H3N2 influenza A virus killed about one million worldwide and 100,000 in the United States. The 1968 population of the United States was 200,700,000. That is a death rate of 50 per 100,000 population. [102] As of May 27, 2020 the Covid 19 death rate in the United States, which admittedly is a moving target, is 30.23 per 100,000 population. [103] [The U.S. Covid 19 mortality ratio includes outlier areas like New York State with a rate of 155/100,000 population.] [104]

The 1957-58 and 1968 flu epidemics did not shutdown the world’s economy nor were billions of persons on all continents required to “shelter-in-place.” Presumably Covid 19 was more contagious. Nor did the 1957-58 and 1968 influenzas which had greater death rates than Covid 19 lead to world-wide calls for the entire population of the Earth to be vaccinated. Covid 19 vaccines are currently being developed in a number of countries. As of late May, 2020 there were 10 candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation, and 114 vaccines in pre-clinical evaluation. [105]

The CDC reported for the week ending 5/22/20 that in the highest Covid 19 risk group: “For persons 65 and older, current hospitalization rates are within ranges of influenza rates observed at comparable time points during influenza seasons.” [106] If the Covid 19 Wuhan virus presented with the same rate of lethality as the 1957 Asian Flu, namely 67.1 deaths per 100,000 population, then 222,200 deaths, from Covid 19 could possibly still occur.

Still, the sense of urgency to “do something” about Covid 19 far outstrips previous responses to epidemics of much greater lethality. For example, 35 Members of the U. S. House of Representatives wrote on April 20, 2020 to Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar and FDA Commission Stephen Hahn, stating:

We recognize…the risks to human health of deploying a drug with effectiveness and side effects that are not fully known at the time of deployment, and the risks to test subjects in clinical trials.…
… Every week of delay in the deployment of a vaccine to the seven billion humans on Earth will cost thousands of lives. …we urge you to consider adopting…expedited procedures for testing, approval and use of COVID-19 vaccines.
We write to assure you that Congress understands that a more risk-tolerant development process is likely appropriate in the case of a COVID-19 vaccine.…In the case of accelerated human trials, justifiable risks may be taken…by challenge trials that involve deliberately infecting volunteers…
This could accelerate the emergency use and eventual licensure of vaccines…Our situation in this pandemic is analogous to war, in which there is a long tradition of volunteers risking their health and lives on dangerous missions for which they understand the risks and are willing to do so in order to help save the lives of others. [107]

I do not believe any of the Members of Congressional who signed this letter have volunteered to participate in Covid 19 vaccine challenge trials themselves.

Covid 19 Tracking Everyone

The 35 Members of Congress who signed the preceding letter are not alone in wanting to “offer” every member of the human race the opportunity to be vaccinated against Covid 19. Dr. Fauci and NIH colleagues recently wrote,

There is an unprecedented need to manufacture and distribute enough safe and effective vaccine to immunize an extraordinarily large number of individuals in order to protect the entire global community…The global need for vaccine and the wide geographic diversity of the pandemic require more than one effective vaccine approach. [108]

Microsoft founder Bill Gates, whose Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, “is the biggest funder of vaccines in the world,” stated:

Humankind has never had a more urgent task than creating broad immunity for coronavirus. Realistically, if we are going to return to normal, we need to develop a safe, effective vaccine. We need billions of doses, we need to get them out to every part of the world, and we need all of this to happen as quickly as possible…There’s simply no alternative. [109]

Civil libertarians question whether individuals will be “given” some kind of certificate of Covid 19 immunity to certify that the person does not carry or is not spreading the disease, thus allowing such persons to participate in normal social gatherings, travel, jobs etc. Further, could the massive worldwide vaccination effort produce permanent “Big Brother” tracking of individuals?

In a CNN TV interview, Dr. Fauci responded about Vaccine passports:

‘You know, that’s possible…I mean, it’s one of those things that we talk about when we want to make sure that we know who the vulnerable people are and not…This is something that’s being discussed. I think it might actually have some merit, under certain circumstances. [110]

For such a policy to work, the proposal would require very widespread antibody testing and “tracking” of persons, also called “contact tracing” or partner notification. Contact tracing,

is a primary means of disease control for infectious diseases with low prevalence.…the crucial question is whether one can find the contacts faster than they can spread the disease…and…is only useful up to a point because incremental increases in the level of contact tracing are likely to yield diminishing benefits. [111]

Contact tracing (or partner notification) has been used by state and federal public health officials for decades in the USA, mandatory for TB and some STD’s, recommended for HIV (AIDS), and has been used for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), foot-and-mouth-disease, smallpox, and Avian influenza. [112]

Already, state public health authorities are turning names of persons testing positive for Covid 19 over to the police, ostensibly to alert First Responders to take precautions for emergency calls. [113] Will police force people to shelter in place in their homes or hotels based on false positive Covid 19 tests which are not 100% accurate?

Former health officials under President Obama and George W. Bush and now President Trump are urging the Trump Administration to support a $46 billion dollar anti-Covid effort: $4.5 billion to use vacant hotels to house Covid 19 infected persons; $12 billion to hire 180,000 persons for contact tracing nationwide until a vaccine is available to the public; and $50 a day stipends for persons quarantined. [114]

Along these lines, Congressman Bobby Rush (D-IL) introduced with 64 co-sponsors HR 6666, a bill authorizing $100 Million for the CDC to test for and trace those infected with Covid 19:

…to fully mobilize coronavirus testing and contact tracing efforts. Grantees would include Community Health Centers, School Based Health Centers, academic medical centers, non-profits, and other entities who would hire and train individuals to operate mobile testing units…and conduct door-to-door outreach…[Emphasis Added.] [115]

Congressman Rush assures his constituents and citizens that HR 6666, “…does not authorize anyone to enter your home, for whatever reason, without your permission, nor does it allow the government to remove anyone from your home because of the coronavirus.” [116]

While the Congressman is telling the truth about the exact reach of his bill, he is not telling the whole story because the removal, quarantine and mandatory vaccination powers already exist at the State level and in the federal Code.

Bill Gates, Privacy and the Right to Life

Bill Gates has drawn fire from pro-life groups for his support of population control and the WHO/UNICEF anti-fertility tetanus vaccines. Vaccine critic and environmental attorney Robert Kennedy Jr., son of the late U.S. Attorney General and U. S. Senator Robert Kennedy (D-NY) and nephew of President Jack Kennedy, has been critical of Gates’ worldwide vaccine efforts in sync with Big Pharma. Gates has funded WHO, UNICEF, the NIH’s National Institutes of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, and vaccine apologists in academia, all of whom advocate for mandatory vaccination. [117]

Bill Gates, the second richest man in the world, (net worth of $106.5 billion as of 5/25/20) chairs with his wife, Melinda, the largest private foundation in the world and has awarded grants from his Foundation that are at cross purposes with pro-life principles, Robert Kennedy, Jr. and others. [118]

Bill Gates, recently interviewed by Reddit, observed:

Whenever there is a positive [Covid-19] test it should be seen to understand where the disease is and whether we need to strengthen the social distancing. South Korea did a great job on this including digital contact tracing.
Eventually we will have some digital certificates to show who has recovered or been tested recently or when we have a vaccine who has received it. [119]

The South Korean “digital contact tracing” program praised by Bill Gates consisted of health agency officials using cell phones, drivers’ licenses, credit cards and ever present video monitoring cameras on streets, government buildings and private businesses to track Covid 19 carriers and to broadcast their geographic movements. Places visited by Covid 19 disease carriers are posted on public health websites, social media and broadcast by text message in areas travelled by the Covid 19 suspect to alert others much like cell phone alerts in the USA are used to alert for a missing child. Cell phone apps, which constantly transmit location data, could easily be used by health authorities to see if a person is complying with their quarantine orders.

A New Yorker magazine writer described South Korea’s “Big Brother” contact tracing system:

…the approval of the police and other supervising agencies, can make use of cell-phone G.P.S. data, credit-card payment information, and travel and medical records.…the Epidemic Investigation Support System…automates the process, allowing investigators to get clearance and pull up patient trajectories in under a minute. [120]

Digital Vaccine tracking received a boost from Massachusetts Institute of Technology engineers who have developed a way to embed both a vaccine and a detectable record of a vaccination which can be read by cell phones with a special filter. A 2019 article describing this vaccine delivery and record keeping noted: “The work was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and came about because of a direct request from Microsoft founder and philanthropist Bill Gates himself…” [121]

Based on the above, it is not proof of paranoia or a conspiracy theory to say that Bill Gates is interested in close surveillance or digital monitoring of persons vaccinated for Covid 19.

The motto of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, “All Lives Have Equal Value,” does not ring true to prolife advocates, as it is contrary to Gates’ upbringing which he acknowledged in a Bill Moyers interview. He said, “My dad was head of Planned Parenthood. And it was very controversial to be involved with that. And it’s so fascinating.” [122]

Gates spoke at a 2010 Ted Talk, stating, “First, we've got population. The world today has 6.8 billion people. That's headed up to about nine billion. Now, if we do a really great job on new vaccines, health care, reproductive health services, we could lower that by, perhaps, 10 or 15 percent.” [123]

What do vaccines have to do with population control? Gates claims that vaccines insure the survival of more children, which provides a motive for having fewer children. His wife, Melinda Gates notes, “If a mother and father know their child is going to live to adulthood, they start to naturally reduce their population size.”  [124]

Earlier it was shown that WHO distributed Tetanus vaccine secretly tainted with anti-fertility components discovered by Kenya’s Catholic bishops. WHO denied it, but independent testing confirmed this fundamental violation of the principle of informed consent. WHO has been a long time Gates Foundation beneficiary.

For example, on February 5, 2020, the Gates Foundation announced a grant of $100,000,000 “to assist the World Health Organization (WHO) Chinese frontline responders and others at the global and national level.” [125] Then, on April, 4 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation contributed another $150 million to the Covid 19 vaccine effort. [126]

Politico noted that the $150 million donation was made, “hours after the billionaire philanthropist was briefly drawn into partisan sniping over President Donald Trump’s actions during the public health crisis,” to cut off U.S. funds to WHO for being soft on China and its Covid 19 polices. [127]

Covid 19 Vaccines—How Useful?

As of late May, 2020 death rates from Covid 19 in the United States range from Alaska, Hawaii and Montana 1/100,000; Oregon and Idaho 4/100,000; Texas and Tennessee 5/100,000; Kentucky and Wisconsin 9/100,000; California and Florida, 10/100,000; Virginia, Iowa and Washington State 14/100,000; Delaware 33/100,000; Pennsylvania 40/100,000; Rhode Island 57/100,000; Massachusetts 92/100,000; New Jersey 125/100,000; New York 150/100,000. [128]

Johns Hopkins University Medical School reports as of May 25, 2020, the following fatality rates with wide variations by country: [129]

Nepal - .01/100,000; Taiwan - .03/100,000; West Bank and Gaza - .07/100,000; India - .31/100,000; Guatemala - .34/100,000; Australia .41/100,000; New Zealand - .43/100,000; Korea - .52/100,000; Japan .66/100,000; Philippines .82/100,000; Ukraine 1.4/100,000; Columbia 1.51/100,000; Greece –; 1.6/100,000; Honduras 1.9/100,000; Lithuania – 2.26/100,000; Poland – 2.65/100,000; Serbia - 3.4/100,000 ; Norway – 4.42/100,000; Turkey – 5.31/100,000; Mexico – 6.05/100,000; Iran – 9.11/100,000; Germany – 10.02/100,000; Portugal – 12.94/100,000; Canada 17.96/100,000; United States 30.02/100,000; Sweden – 39.57/100,000; France – 42.49/100,000; Italy – 54.4/100,000; United Kingdom – 55.64/100,000; Spain – 57.43/100,000; Belgium – 81.53/100,000.

Countries with competent medical delivery systems and very low Covid 19 incidence will probably not rush to inoculate their entire population with a novel, rapidly developed mRNA vaccine which skipped minimum animal safety testing and or severely compressed or bypassed safety protocols, especially if the vaccine is found to permanently alter the human gene pool for generations to come.

And, can we be sure the U.S. Covid 19 case numbers are accurate? Are they overstated or understated? Who knows? Presidential health advisor and member of the Corona Virus Task Force, and head of the NIH Infectious Disease Institute, Dr. Anthony Fauci told a U. S. Senate Committee cases are understated: “I don’t know exactly what percent higher but almost certainly it is higher.” [130]

Another of President Trump’s Covid 19 advisors, Dr. Birx, who serves on the President’s Corona Task force, has said publicly that the American health care system uses a generous definition to decide if death is caused by Covid-19 and probably over-estimates:

‘In this country we’ve taken a very liberal approach to mortality…There are other countries that if you had a pre-existing condition, and let’s say the virus caused you to go to the I.C.U., and then have a heart or kidney problem — some countries are recording that as a heart issue or a kidney issue and not a Covid-19 death.’…
Dr. Birx was caught off guard in April when states began incorporating both confirmed and “probable” cases and deaths…[131]

Further complicating the trust factor, New York Times Magazine published a roughly 10,000 word article about an Emergency Room doctor who gave his life trying to save his Covid 19 patients. The only problem? There was no such ER doctor, as the Washington Post notes;

No, an unnamed 26-year-old physician did not die of covid-19 in New York City, as the New York Times Magazine alleged in a diary-style story on April 14. Written by ER doctor Helen Ouyang…The language winds its way along the border between rumor and fiction, though it appears to land on firm, factual ground: ‘He was only 26.’ In an editors’ note earlier this week, the New York Times Magazine corrected the record. [132]

Ghost Virus Testing

The “accuracy” of Covid 19 tests for medical personnel was examined in a Mayo Clinic publication:

If the COVID-19 infection rate among the 4 million doctors, nurses, and other clinicians providing direct patient care in the United States was even 10% (far below most national prevalence predictions), more than 40,000 false-negative results would be expected if every clinician were to receive a test. If the sensitivity of the test was only 70%, as cited in early reports, the number of false-negative results would triple to well over 100,000. Regardless of the exact total, every one of these healthcare workers could spread disease despite the seeming reassurance of a negative COVID-19 test. [133]

An article by University of Oxford researchers in the UK found that the distance in time from the date of infection affects the accuracy of Covid 19 tests:

The probability of a positive test decreases with the number of days past symptom onset; for a nasal swab, the percentage chance of a positive test declines from 94.39%…on day 0 to 67.15% …by day 10. By day 31, there is only a 2.38%…chance of a positive result…the sensitivity of the RT-PCR assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the time from the onset of symptoms in symptomatic individuals, and show how nasal swabs appear more sensitive than throat swabs. [134]

The CDC itself has acknowledged that anti-body tests for Covid 19 may only be 50% accurate:

For example, in a population where the prevalence is 5%, a test with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity will yield a positive predictive value of 49%. In other words, less than half of those testing positive will truly have antibodies. Alternatively, the same test in a population with an antibody prevalence exceeding 52% will yield a positive predictive greater than 95%, meaning that less than one in 20 people testing positive will have a false positive test result. [135]

How is a public health official to know which Covid 19 universe they reside in, the 5% or the 90% prevalence? This is especially critical as healthy citizens could possibly lose their personal liberty and be quarantined based on tests that are inaccurate roughly half of the time!

Flu Vaccine Increases Covid 19 Virus Risk

A Defense Department study published in October 2019 documented that the regular Flu shot can provide “significant protection…with most influenza viruses…and non-influenza virus coinfection,” nevertheless, the study found that the Flu shot may increase susceptibility to Corona Virus infection, though not necessarily to Covid 19 virus:

Receiving influenza vaccination may increase the risk of other respiratory viruses, a phenomenon known as virus interference. …This study aimed to investigate virus interference by comparing respiratory virus status among Department of Defense personnel based on their influenza vaccination status. …We compared vaccination status of 2880 people with non-influenza respiratory viruses to 3240 people with pan-negative results. …Examining virus interference by specific respiratory viruses showed mixed results. Vaccine derived virus interference was signifocantly associated with coronavirus… Examining non-influenza viruses specifically, the odds of…coronavirus…in vaccinated individuals were significantly higher when compared to unvaccinated individuals…OR [odds ratio] = 1.36 [emphasis added]. [136]

Suggested Citizen Action

The following cautionary mass vaccination warning appeared in Science magazine on March 17, 1972:

There can be few graver opportunities for man-made disaster than the mass immunization campaigns that are now routine in many countries. Should the vaccine preparations become contaminated with an undetected agent present in the host cells, such as a cancer-causing virus, a whole generation of vaccines could be put in jeopardy. This, of course, is no science fiction writer’s horror story – it has already happened once; millions of people have been injected with a monkey virus known as SV40 which was found in 1961 to be contaminating polio and adenovirus vaccines. The virus causes cancer in hamsters, no one yet knows what it may do in man. [137]

At present there are extremely influential individuals, powerful public agencies, media agents and drug companies seeking to vaccinate every man, woman and child on the planet ostensibly against the Covid 19 virus. Could there possibly be another agenda? The President and other elected officials need to hear reasoned objections to the Covid 19 vaccine runaway freight train presently ignoring conventional safety and testing procedures.

It is very clear that mandatory vaccines have been upheld in courts, are required for attending public and private schools, and even for obtaining employment. It is also very clear from American history and current state laws that there are exceptions to vaccination mandates.

These exceptions exist because knowledgeable and dedicated citizens have demanded them.

The Pontifical Academy for Life (PAL) strongly urged doctors and the heads of families to petition governmental officials to develop and approve safe and ethical vaccines including exercising conscientious objection for problematic vaccines if necessary to avoid harm “and requesting rigorous legal control of the pharmaceutical industry producers.”

Contact the office holders below to ensure that any Covid 19 vaccine complies with the following:

  • Animal tests must be conducted prior to human trials as the Nuremberg Code required in the wake of WW II Nazi War Crimes;
  • Tissues derived from aborted children must not be used;
  • Vaccine modification of human RNA or DNA should not be allowed;
  • Testing information submitted for marketing Covid 19 vaccines with summaries should be made available to the public at a reading level required for U.S. Military recruits;
  • Safety claims must be precisely identified with risk ratio of harm to benefit for patient;
  • Covid 19 vaccination should not be mandated, nor should there be legal penalties for failure to vaccinate;
  • Parental Consent for vaccination of minors must be maintained.

Contacts for:

President Trump and others need our prayers for the wisdom of Solomon as they work their way through the maze of moral, technical and other difficulties surrounding the development of a truly safe and ethical vaccine.


FOOTNOTES

[1] WHO, media briefing COVID-19, 3/3/20, https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---9-march-2020

[2] Nicholas Kristof, 3/20/20, The Best-Case Outcome for the Coronavirus, and the Worst https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/20/opinion/sunday/coronavirus-outcomes.html

[3] Judy Stone, Forbes, Wuhan Coronavirus Outbreak Shows The Importance of Sound Science, Sleuthing, And Cooperation, Jan 11, 2020, https://www.forbes.com/sites/judystone/2020/01/11/wuhan-coronavirus-outbreak-shows-the-importance-of-sound-science-sleuthing-and-cooperation/#5f6d6c9e1add

[4] Judy Stone, “How Prepared Are We For The Next Pandemic? Not Very, Experts Show,” Forbes, Dec 12, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/judystone/2019/12/12/how-prepared-are-we-for-the-next-pandemic-not-very-experts-show/#6c0fc1993524

[5] The Event 201 Scenario, https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/scenario.html

[6] Event 201, About the Event 201 Exercise, https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/about

[7] Mark Landler and Stephen Castle, Behind the Virus Report That Jarred the U.S. and the U.K. to Action, New York Times, 3/17/20, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/17/world/europe/coronavirus-imperial-college-johnson.html

[8] John Bacon, Coronavirus not a global health crisis, WHO says; China reports 8 more deaths, restricts 18M people, USA Today, January 23, 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/01/23/coronavirus-wuhan-china-quarantine-vaccine/4551112002/

[9] Rachael Rettner, How Does the New Coronavirus Compare with the Flu?, Scientific American, February 7, 2020.

[10] Sarah Mervosh, Denise Lu and Vanessa Swales, See Which States and Cities Have Told Residents to stay at Home, The New York Times, April 20, 2020.

[11] J. Edward Moreno, “Government health agency official: Coronavirus 'isn't something the American public need to worry about,” The Hill, 01/26/20

[12] Aaron Blake, “Fox News host Laura Ingraham’s interview with Anthony Fauci goes sideways,” The Washington Post, April 17, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/04/17/laura-ingraham-fauci-interview/

[13] Nicole Chavez, “Another wave of coronavirus will likely hit the US in the fall. Here's why and what we can do to stop it,” CNN, Sat May 2, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/02/health/coronavirus-second-wave-fall-season/index.html

[14] Jacob Sullum What's Up With All the Contradictory Advice About COVID-19 and Face Masks?, Reason, 4/1/2020, https://reason.com/2020/04/01/whats-up-with-all-the-contradictory-advice-about-covid-19-and-face-masks/printer/

[15] Sandip Sen, “How China locked down internally for COVID-19, but pushed foreign travel,” The Economic Times, 4/30/20, https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/blogs/Whathappensif/how-china-locked-down-internally-for-covid-19-but-pushed-foreign-travel/

[16] Roberto de Mattei, Coronavirus leaves us with many guesses but no concrete answers,” LifeSite News, May1, 2020, https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/coronavirus-leaves-us-with-many-guesses-but-no-concrete-answers

[17] Dr. John P.A. Ioannidis, STAT, “A fiasco in the making? As the coronavirus pandemic takes hold, we are making decisions without reliable data,” March 17, 2020, https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/a-fiasco-in-the-making-as-the-coronavirus-pandemic-takes-hold-we-are-making-decisions-without-reliable-data/

[18] Global Covid-19 Case Fatality Rates, Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford University,

March 17, 2020, updated 5/6/20, https://www.cebm.net/covid-19/global-covid-19-case-fatality-rates/

[19] COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccine: Get the facts. MAYO Clinic, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-vaccine/art-20484859

[20] Rob Picheta, “What happens if a coronavirus vaccine is never developed? It has happened before,” CNN, May 4, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/03/health/coronavirus-vaccine-never-developed-intl/index.html

[21] Dr. Alan Moy, (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5475249.

[22] Dr. Alan Moy, (https://www.jnj.com/johnson-johnson-announces-a-lead-vaccin...).

[23] Dr. Alan Moy, (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2234358) and

[24] Dr. Alan Moy, (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4682971)

[25] Dr. Alan Moy, “When will a COVID-19 vaccine be available for the public? Will there be a vaccine that does not use an aborted fetal cell?,” John Paul II Medical Research Institute, https://www.jp2mri.org/when-will-covid19-vaccine-be-avail

[26] Rob Crilly, “'Warp Speed': Trump ready to use DPA to produce 100M doses of coronavirus vaccine,” Washington Examiner, May 06, 2020, https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/warp-speed-trump-ready-to-use-dpa-to-produce-100-million-doses-of-coronavirus-vaccine

[27] Stuart A. Thompson, “How Long Will a Vaccine Really Take?,” New York Times, April 30, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/opinion/coronavirus-covid-vaccine.html

[28] Rob Picheta, “What happens if a coronavirus vaccine is never developed? It has happened before,” CNN, https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/03/health/coronavirus-vaccine-never-developed-intl/index.html

[29] Rob Crilly, “'Warp Speed': Trump ready to use DPA to produce 100M doses of coronavirus vaccine,” Washington Examiner, May 06, 2020, https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/news/warp-speed-trump-ready-to-use-dpa-to-produce-100-million-doses-of-coronavirus-vaccine

[30] Emily Judd, Al Arabiya English, 16 April 2020, Coronavirus vaccine: 7 insights from former US Science Envoy,” https://english.alarabiya.net/en/features/2020/04/16/Coronavirus-vaccine-7-insights-from-former-US-Science-Envoy.html?fbclid=IwAR0B5tAQ5RoQKEI6cUmITCi_ri3-0dP8b1f8gow-7zzb-soLCrdU-wQ7yuY

[31] George Rosen, A History of Public Health (expanded edition), The Johns Hopkins University Press, c. 1958, 1993, p. 304.

[32] Making Vaccines, How are Vaccines Made? Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, https://www.chop.edu/centers-progra ms/vaccine-education-center/making-vaccines/how-are-vaccines-made

[33] Alan Moy, MD, Frequently Asked Questions John Paul II Medical Research Institute https://www.jp2mri.org/can-you-explain-the-general-terms

[34] Human Cell Strains in Vaccine Development, https://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/human-cell-strains-vaccine-development

[35] MMR® II (MEASLES, MUMPS, and RUBELLA VIRUS VACCINE LIVE) Merck and Co., footnote No. 1, Plotkin, S.A.; Cornfeld, D.; Ingalls, T.H.: Studies of immunization with living rubella virus: Trials in children with a strain cultured from an aborted fetus, Am. J. Dis. Child. 110: 381-389, 1965. https://cogforlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/mmr2pi.pdf.

[36] Debbie Vinnedge, Aborted Fetal Cell Line Vaccines and the Catholic Family, a Moral and Historical Perspective, https://cogforlife.org/vaccines-abortions/

[37] Creative Biolabs, Process Development, PER.C6 Cell lines, https://www.gmp-creativebiolabs.com/per-c6-cell-lines_74.htm

[38] Michigan Right to Life, Vaccines, Abortion and Fetal Tissue, https://rtl.org/educational-materials/vaccines-abortion/.

[39] California Attorney General Xavier Becerra and AG’s from CN, DE, Wash DC, DE, HA, IA, MA, MI, MN, NV, NY, OR, VT, VA, WI; https://nvhealthresponse.nv.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Multi-State-Letter-re-Fetal-Tissue-Ban.pdf

[40] April 14, 2020 Letter from Congressman Doug Lambourn 5th District Colorado, Steve Scalise and 129 others to President Trump, https://lamborn.house.gov/sites/lamborn.house.gov/files/Fetal%20Tissue%20Letter.pdf

[41] Charlotte Lozier Institute Responds to Claim that Aborted Baby Parts Are Needed to Develop COVID-19 Treatment https://lozierinstitute.org/charlotte-lozier-institute-responds-to-claim-that-aborted-baby-parts-are-needed-to-develop-covid-19-treatment/

[42] Printed Testimony, Tara Sander Lee, Associate Scholar Charlotte Lozier Institute, Subcommittees on Healthcare, Benefits, and Administrative Rules and Government Operations for the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform "Exploring Alternatives to Fetal Tissue Research" December 13, 2018, https://republicans-oversight.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Sander-Lee-Testimony-HCBAR-GO-Fetal-Tissue-12.13.18.pdf

[43] Pontifical Academy for Life, June 9, 2005 letter from E.Sgreccia to Mrs. Deborah Vinnedge, https://www.immunize.org/talking-about-vaccines/vaticandocument.htm

[44] Phil Lawler, Conscious Objection to Vaccinations, Catholic Culture, 1/30/15.

[45] Dr. Jeff Mirus, Thinking morally about vaccinations: My turn!, Catholic Culture 2/04/15.

[46] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Instruction, Dignitas Personae, On Certain Bioethical Questions, The Sovereign Pontiff Benedict XVI, in the Audience granted to the undersigned Cardinal Prefect on 20 June 2008, William Cardinal Levada Prefect, Luis F. Ladaria, S.I. Titular Archbishop of Thibica Secretary, paragraphs 34, 35.

[47] Alan Moy, MD, Why aborted tissue is an unreliable source to produce human cell lines for bio-manufacturing, Frequently Asked Questions John Paul II Medical Research Institute, https://www.jp2mri.org/why-aborted-tissue-is-unreliable

[48] Catholic News Agency, Pro-Life Leaders call for Coronavirus Vaccine without Abortion Ties, https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/pro-life-leaders-call-for-coronavirus-vaccine-without-abortion-ties-24857

[49] Amy Goldstein, “Trump Ban on Fetal Tissue Research blocks coronavirus treatment efforts,” The Washington Post, 3/18/20

[50] Contact: HHS Press Office, 202-690-6343, [email protected], https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2019/06/05/statement-from-the-department-of-health-and-human-services.html

[51] Morgan Chalfant, “Fauci offers support for Trump,” The Hill, 04/13/20, https://thehill.com/homenews/administration/492599-fauci-offers-support-for-trump-saying-he-backed-social-distancing

[52] Jessica Bursztynsky, “Morgan Stanley: Don’t assume a strong US economy automatically means a Trump reelection in 2020,” CNBC, 1/7/20, https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/07/morgan-stanley-dont-assume-a-strong-economy-means-a-trump-reelection.html

[53] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, pp 268, 270.

[54] Polio Issue, USPS 3 cent stamp, Arago, People, Potage and the Post, https://arago.si.edu/category_2029409.html

[55] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, p. 271

[56] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, pp 272, 272.

[57] Richard Carter, Breakthrough: The Saga of Jonas Salk, New York Trident Press, 1965, p. 319; cited by Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, p. 274.

[58] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, p. 285.

[59] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, p. 280

[60] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, p. 281.

[61] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, pp 297, 298.

[62] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, “Monkey Viruses and the Salk Vaccine,” 260, 261.

[63] Audrey Zhang, “DNA Vaccines: Scientific and Ethical Barriers to the Vaccines of the Future,” Harvard College Global Health Review, November 15, 2011, https://www.hcs.harvard.edu/hghr/online/dna-vaccines/

[64] Tetanus, Surveillance, CDC, https://www.cdc.gov/tetanus/surveillance.html

[65] Disease Factsheet about Tetanus, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, An agency of the European Union https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/tetanus/facts

[66] Kenya Conference of Catholic Bishops, Press Statement by the Kenya Conference of Catholic Bishops, November 14, 2014, https://www.kccb.or.ke/home/news-2/press-statement-by-the-kenya-conference-of-catholic-bishops/

[67] Abby Ohlheiser, “The Tense Standoff Between Catholic Bishops and the Kenyan Government over Tetanus Vaccine,” The Washington Post, 11/14/14, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2014/11/14/the-tense-standoff-between-catholic-bishops-and-the-kenyan-government-over-tetanus-vaccines/

[68] Adelaid Mena, 'Red flags' in Kenyan vaccine controversy demand answers, 'Red flags' in Kenyan vaccine controversy demand answers, Catholic News Agency, 12/13/14, https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/red-flags-in-kenyan-vaccine-controversy-demand-answers-38780

[69] Steve Weatherbe, “‘A Mass Sterilization Exercise’: Kenyan doctors find anti-fertility agent in UN tetanus vaccine,” LifeSite News, 11/6/14, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/a-mass-sterilization-exercise-kenyan-doctors-find-anti-fertility-agent-in-u

[70] Beth Griffin, “WHO, UNICEF deny Kenyan bishops' claim that they supplied sterility-causing tetanus vaccines,” National Catholic Reporter, March 9, 2019, https://www.ncronline.org/news/world/who-unicef-deny-kenyan-bishops-claim-they-supplied-sterility-causing-tetanus-vaccines

[71] Adelaid Mena, 'Red flags' in Kenyan vaccine controversy demand answers, 'Red flags' in Kenyan vaccine controversy demand answers Catholic News Agency, 12/13/14, https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/red-flags-in-kenyan-vaccine-controversy-demand-answers-38780

[72] John W. Oller, Christopher A. Shaw, Lucija Tomljenovic, Stephen K. Karanja, Wahome Ngare, Felicia M. Clement, Jamie Ryan Pillette, “HCG Found in WHO Tetanus Vaccine in Kenya Raises Concern in the Developing World,” Open Access Library Journal, Vol. 4, e3937, ISSN Online: 2333-9721 ISSN Print: 2333-9705, Published: October 27, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103937

[73] Fredrick Nzwili, Some Kenyan Catholic bishops urge caution on COVID-19 clinical trials, Catholic News Service, May 7, 2020, https://cruxnow.com/church-in-africa/2020/05/some-kenyan-catholic-bishops-urge-caution-on-covid-19-clinical-trials/

[74] Pope Pius XII, An Address to the First International Congress on the Histopathology of the Nervous System - September 14, 1952, https://www.ncbcenter.org/resources/church-documents-bioethics/pope-pius-xii/

2. “ You do not expect Us to discuss the medical questions which concern you. Those are your domain.…We wish to make Ourself the interpreter of the moral conscience of the research worker, the specialist and the practitioner and of the man and Christian who follows the same path.…13. As for the patient, he is not absolute master of himself, of his body or of his soul. He cannot, therefore, freely dispose of himself as he pleases.…Because he is a user and not a proprietor, he does not have unlimited power to destroy or mutilate his body and its functions…18. Where does the doctor find a moral limit in research…The limit is the same for the doctor as for the patient because…the doctor as a private individual disposes only of the rights given him by the patient and because the patient can give only what he himself possesses.…22.…‘Is there any moral limit to the "medical interests of the community’…Can public authority, on which rests responsibility for the common good, give the doctor the power to experiment on the individual in the interests of science and the community in order to discover and try out new methods and procedures when these experiments transgress the right of the individual to dispose of himself?…24.…many people have been of the opinion…that the answer must be in the affirmative. To give weight to their contention they cite the fact that the individual is subordinated to the community, that the good of the individual must give way to the common good and be sacrificed to it.…research and scientific investigation profits the individual in the long run.…25. The great postwar trials brought to light a terrifying number of documents testifying to the sacrifice of the individual in the "medical interests of the community."…

26. At this point is the interest of the individual subordinated to the community's medical interests, or is there here a transgression, perhaps in good faith, against the most elementary demands of the natural law, a transgression that permits no medical research?…37. In the domain of your science it is an obvious law that the application of new methods to living men must be preceded by research on cadavers or the model of study and experimentation on animals.

[75] Evelyne Shuster, PhD, Fifty Years Later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code, The New England Journal of Medicine, 11/13/97, p, 1438.

[76] BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 7 December 1996, No 7070 Volume 313: Page 1448; The Nuremberg Code (1947) In: Mitscherlich A, Mielke F. Doctors of infamy: the story of the Nazi medical crimes. New York: Schuman, 1949: xxiii-xxv

[77] Ray Greek, et. al., “The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling Ray Greek, et al., BMC Medical Ethics 2012, 13:16, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6939/13/16

[78] Eric Boodman, Researchers rush to test coronavirus vaccine in people without knowing how well it works in animals,” STAT, 3/11/20, https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/11/researchers-rush-to-start-moderna-coronavirus-vaccine-trial-without-usual-animal-testing/

[79] Leah Rosenbaum, “Fueled By $500 Million In Federal Cash, Moderna Races To Make A Billion Doses Of An Unproven Cure,” Forbes, 5/8/20, https://www.forbes.com/sites/leahrosenbaum/2020/05/08/fueled-by-500-million-in-federal-cash-moderna-races-to-make-1-billion-doses-of-an-unproven-cure/#705d619f79dc

[80] Jon C. Ogg, “Moderna Commits to $500 Million Capital Raise, With More Possible,” 247Wall Street, 2/10/ 20, https://247wallst.com/healthcare-business/2020/02/10/moderna-commits-to-500-million-capital-raise-with-more-possible/

[81] Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health Robert R. Redfield, M.D., Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Admiral Brett P. Giroir, M.D., Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Stephen M. Hahn, M.D., Commissioner of Food and Drugs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES “COVID-19: Safely Getting Back to Work and Back to School” Witnesses appearing before the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee, 5/12/20.

[82] CDC, History of Vaccine Safety, Monitoring Vaccine Safety: Pre-Licensure https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/ensuringsafety/history/index.html

[83] Motley Fool Staff, What is Phase Three Drug Testing? https://www.fool.com/knowledge-center/what-is-phase-3-drug-testing.aspx

[84] Helen Branswell, “Infect volunteers with Covid-19 in the name of research? A proposal lays bare a minefield of issues,” STAT, 5/1/2020, https://www.statnews.com/2020/05/01/infect-volunteers-with-covid-19-in-the-name-of-research-a-proposal-lays-bare-a-minefield-of-issues/

[85] George Rosen, A History of Public Health (expanded edition), The Johns Hopkins University Press, c. 1958, 1993, p. 164.

[86] In 1721 there was an outbreak of smallpox in New England. Puritan clergy supported vaccination which at that time was called variolation, a main proponent of which practice was Cotton Mather. At that time, Variolation carried with it a 2% death rate compared to 15% for those contracting smallpox.

French wit and philosopher, François Voltaire, wrote about variolation in his Letter XI. “From time immemorial the women of Circassia have been in the habit of giving smallpox to their children, even six months old, by making an incision in the arm and inserting into the incision a pustule that they have carefully removed from the body of another child. is pustule works in the arm where it is inserted like yeast in a piece of dough; it ferments and spreads its own qualities through the blood-stream.” Circassia is a region on the north shore of the Black Sea. Courtesy Val Finnell, MD., MPH.

[87] Robert D. Kirkcaldy, MD,MPH, USCDC, Brian A. King, PhD, MPH USCDC, John T. Brooks, MD USCDC, COVID-19 and Post infection Immunity Limited Evidence, Many Remaining Questions, JAMA, published online, 5/11/2020, https://jamanetwork.com/

[88] Michael Ollove, Teens of ‘Anti-Vaxxers’ Can Get Their Own Vaccines, Some States Say, PEW Trusts, STATELINE ARTICLE, June 24, 2019, https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2019/06/24/teens-of-anti-vaxxers-can-get-their-own-vaccines-some-states-say

[89] Ross D. Silverman, J.D., M.P.H., Douglas J. Opel, M.D., M.P.H., and Saad B. Omer, M.B., B.S., M.P.H., Ph.D, Vaccination over Parental Objection — Should Adolescents Be Allowed to Consent to Receiving Vaccines? The New England Journal of Medicine 381;2, July 11, 2019, p. 106.

[90] Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11 (1905)

[91] Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 27, 35, 36 (1905)

[92] Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 28 (1905)

[93] ZUCHT, BY HER NEXT FRIEND, ETC. v. KING ET AL, 260 U. S. 174 (1922) at 175, 176.

[94] Megan C. Lindley et al., Assessing State Immunization Requirements for Healthcare Workers and Patients, 2 AM. J. PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, 459-465 (2007

[95] U. S. Court of Appeals for the Eight Circuit, No. 17-2963 Janice Hustvet, Plaintiff – Appellant v. Allina Health System, Defendant – Appellee, Appeal from United States District Court for the District of Minnesota, p. 17.

[96] WONG WAI v. WILLIAMSON et al., 103 F. 384 (N.D.Cal. 1900), United States Circuit Court, N.D. California. July 3, 1900; Felice Batlan, LAW IN THE TIME OF CHOLERA: DISEASE, STATE POWER, AND QUARANTINES PAST AND FUTURE, Temple Law Review, Volume 80, p. 107, 108.

[97] Jew Ho v. Williamson, 103 F. 10, 12 (N.D. Cal. 1900); Jared P. Cole, Legislative attorney, Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority, Library of Congress Legislative Research Division, October 9, 2014, p. 10.

[98] Anders Kelto, Why a Court Once Ordered Kids Vaccinated Against Their Parents’ Will, National Public Radio, 2/19/2015

[99] STAT, “NY City ordered all religious schools and day care programs to exclude unvaccinated children or be closed” Associated Press, New York City orders mandatory vaccines for some amid measles outbreak, 4/9/19, https://www.statnews.com/2019/04/09/new-york-city-mandatory-vaccines-measles/

[100] Wendy E. Parmet, Measles, emergency powers, and the allure of the ‘old’ public health. STAT, 2/26/19, https://www.statnews.com/2019/04/26/measles-emergency-powers-public-health/

[101] CDC Influenza (Flu) 1957-58 Pandemic (H2N2 Virus), https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1957-1958-pandemic.html

[102] CDC Influenza (Flu) 1968 Pandemic (H3N2 Virus), https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1968-pandemic.html

[103] Johns Hopkins University, Corona Virus Resource Center, Cases and Mortality by Country, https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality

[104] Statica, New York State mortality per 100,000, https://www.statista.com/statistics/1109011/coronavirus-covid19-death-rates-us-by-state/

[105] World Health Organization, Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines, https://www.who.int/who-documents-detail/draft-landscape-of-covid-19-candidate-vaccines

[106] CDC, COVID View, A Weekly Surveillance Summary of U. S. Covid 19 weekly Activity, week ending May 16, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/pdf/covidview-05-22-2020.pdf

[107] Rep. Bill Foster, Rep. Donna Shalala, 33 other Reps., 4/20/10 letter to HHS Secretary and FDA Commissioner, https://schweikert.house.gov/sites/schweikert.house.gov/files/Ltr%20to%20HHS%20%20FDA%20on%20Rapid%20Vaccine%20Deployment%20for%20COVID-19%20-%20Signed.pdf

[108] Lawrence Corey, John R. Mascola, Anthony S. Fauci, Francis S. Collins, A strategic approach to COVID-19 vaccine R&D, Science 11 May 2020, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/05/15/science.abc5312

[109] Bill Gates, Gates Notes, “What you Need to Know About the COVID-19 Vaccine,” https://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/What-you-need-to-know-about-the-COVID-19-vaccine

[110] Quint Forgey, Politico, “Fauci: Coronavirus immunity cards for Americans are ‘being discussed,’” 4/10/20, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/04/10/fauci-coronavirus-immunity-cards-for-americans-are-being-discussed-178784

[111] Benjamin Armbruster, Margaret L. Brandeau, “Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough,” Springer Science + Business Media, Published online: 3 October 2007, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18074967/?from_term=contact+tracing++tb&from_pos=8

[112] Benjamin Armbruster, Margaret L. Brandeau, “Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough,” Springer Science + Business Media, Published online: 3 October 2007, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18074967/?from_term=contact+tracing++tb&from_pos=8

[113] April Glaser and Jon Schuppe, “Tested positive for coronavirus? Health workers may share your address with police,” NBC News, April 20, 2020 https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/tested-positive-coronavirus-health-workers-may-share-your-address-police-n1178696; Matthew Guariglia, Telling Police Where People With COVID-19 Live Erodes Public Health, Electronic Frontier Foundation, April 15, 2020, https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2020/04/telling-police-where-people-covid-19-live-erodes-public-health, See Alabama, Florida, Massachusetts, and North Carolina

[114] Franco Ordonaz, “Ex-Officials Call For $46 Billion For Tracing, Isolating In Next Coronavirus Package,” NPR-WAMU, April 27, 2020, https://www.npr.org/2020/04/27/845165404/ex-officials-call-for-46-billion-for-tracing-isolating-in-next-coronavirus-packa

[115] Congressman Bobby L. Rush, “Rush Introduces Bipartisan Legislation to Fund $100 Billion Coronavirus Testing and Contact Tracing Effort,” https://rush.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/rush-introduces-bipartisan-legislation-to-fund-100-billion-coronavirus

[116] Congressman Bobby L. Rush, “Rush Introduces Bipartisan Legislation to Fund $100 Billion Coronavirus Testing and Contact Tracing Effort,” https://rush.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/rush-introduces-bipartisan-legislation-to-fund-100-billion-coronavirus

[117] Global Health Leaders Launch Decade of Vaccines Collaboration | Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

https://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2010/12/Global-Health-Leaders-Launch-Decade-of-Vaccines-Collaboration; United Nations Population Fund Hails the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's $57 Million Grant to Protect African Youth Against AIDS, https://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2000/04/United-Nations-Population-Fund; International Planned Parenthood Federation Expands Programs With $1.7 Million Gift From Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, https://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/1999/10/International-Planned-Parenthood-Federation991013; Bill Gates at NIH in 2018: “The NIH teamed with the Bill Gates and Melinda Gates Foundation to hold their fifth annual consultative workshop on global health. The workshop took place on December 11, 2018 in Bethesda, MD. Some of the topics discussed were a universal flu vaccine…https://www.flickr.com/photos/nihgov/45825529505

[118] “The World’s Billionaire List, the richest in 2020,” Forbes, https://www.forbes.com/profile/bill-gates/?list=billionaires#521405e0689f

[119] Bill Gates, Reddit Ask Me Anything session on COVID-19, Gates Notes: 31 questions and answers about COVID-19, 3/19/2020, https://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/A-coronavirus-AMA

[120] Max S. Kim, Seoul’s Radical Experiment in Digital Contact Tracing, The New Yorker, April 17, 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/seouls-radical-experiment-in-digital-contact-tracing

[121] Karen Weintraub, “Invisible Ink Could Reveal whether Kids Have Been Vaccinated,” Scientific American, 12/18/19, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/invisible-ink-could-reveal-whether-kids-have-been-vaccinated/

[122] Transcript: Bill Moyers Interviews Bill Gates, PBS, May 9, 2003, http://www.pbs.org/now/transcript/transcript_gates.html

[123] Innovating to Zero, TED 2010 Talk, Bill Gates, Transcript of Video at 4:21 seconds. https://www.ted.com/talks/bill_gates_innovating_to_zero/transcript?language=en

[124] Matthew Herper, With Vaccines, Bill Gates Changes The World Again,” Forbes, 11/2/11, https://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2011/11/02/the-second-coming-of-bill-gates/#65f341c413fd

[125] Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Dedicates Additional Funding to the Novel Coronavirus Response https://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2020/02/Bill-and-Melinda-Gates-Foundation-Dedicates-Additional-Funding-to-the-Novel-Coronavirus-Response

[126] Twenty years in the making: The foundation’s response to COVID-19, The Optimist, Gates Foundation, https://www.gatesfoundation.org/TheOptimist/Articles/coronavirus-mark-suzman-funding-announcement-2/?utm_source=MG&utm_medium=TW&linkId=86637421

[127] Quint Forgey, Bill Gates hikes coronavirus contribution after bashing Trump for defunding WHO, Politico, 4/16/20, https://www.politico.com/news/2020/04/16/bill-gates-coronavirus-contribution-trump-who-189984

[128] Death rates from coronavirus (COVID-19) in the United States as of May 25, 2020, by state(per 100,000 people) https://www.statista.com/statistics/1109011/coronavirus-covid19-death-rates-us-by-state/

[129] Johns Hopkins University Medical School, Corona Virus Resource Center, Cases and Mortality by Country, Mortality Analysis, updated May 25, 2020 https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality

[130] Noah Weiland, et. al., New York Times, Trump Suggests Virus Death Count Is Inflated. Most Experts Doubt It,” May 22, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/22/us/politics/coronavirus-trump-death-toll.html

[131] Noah Weiland, Maggie Haberman and Abby Goodnough, “Trump Suggests Virus Death Count Is Inflated. Most Experts Doubt It,” New York Times, May 22, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/22/us/politics/coronavirus-trump-death-toll.html

[132] Eric Wemple, “New York Times Magazine appends editor’s note to covid-19 diary story, The Washington Post, 5/28/20 https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/05/28/new-york-times-magazine-appends-editors-note-covid-19-diary-story/

[133] West CP, Montori VM, Sampathkumar P, COVID-19 Testing: The Threat of False-Negative Results, Mayo Clinic Proceedings (2020), https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151274/pdf/main.pdf

[134] Paul Wikramaratna, Robert S Paton , Mahan Ghafari & José Lourenço, Department of Zoology, Univ. of Oxford, UK., “Estimating false-negative detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR,” https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.05.20053355

[135] CDC, Interim Guidelines for COVID-19 Antibody Testing, Testing Strategies, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antibody-tests-guidelines.html

[136] Greg G. Wolff, “Influenza vaccination and respiratory virus interference among Department of Defense personnel during the 2017–2018 influenza season,” Published by Elsevier Ltd., Vaccine. 2020 Jan 10; 38(2): 350–354, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126676/

[137] Herbert Ratner, Nature, the Physician and the Family, Selected Writings of Herbert Ratner, M. D., ed., Mary Tim Baggott, M. D., Author House, Bloomington, Indiana, 2nd Edition, 2007, p 263.

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