Catholic Culture Overview
Catholic Culture Overview

The Teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in Regard To the Apostles

by Nicholas Halligan, O.P.

Description

Fr. Halligan examines what St. Thomas Aquinas has written concerning the Apostles. The Angelic Doctor wrote no treatise on the Apostles, but he referred to them in many of his writings and stated their role, their qualities, their gifts. Father constructs the outline of St. Thomas' apostolology or theology of the Apostles.

Larger Work

The American Ecclesiastical Review

Pages

32-47

Publisher & Date

The Catholic University of America Press, January 1961

Vision Book Cover Prints

St. Paul in his Epistle to the Ephesians addresses beautiful words to those who have embraced the faith of Christ and entered the Church instituted by Him, the Church which Paul and the Apostles established so widely and so firmly among the Gentiles.1 The Doctor of the Gentiles tells his Ephesian converts that they are now not guests in the house of the Lord but members, not strangers in the city of God but full citizens. Although constituting the house of God, the new Christians have, of course, been built upon the Apostles and the Prophets, upon their teaching and faith, which in turn has its explanation and strength solely from its reference to Christ. These men of God preached not themselves but only Christ, the principal foundation of all salutary truth and revelation. For this reason the teaching of both the Old and New Testaments is necessary: that of the Prophets who foretold the future coming of the Messias, that of the Apostles who preached the fact of His redemptive advent—the one truth of Christ crucified for the salvation of all.

Our interest is drawn to the role of the Apostles themselves in the economy of salvation and in the mission of Christ. It was through them that the Messias chose to communicate and to spread His saving truth both to all the children of Israel and to the far greater multitude of those sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. Through them He wished to govern the faithful who would strive for sanctification and salvation, and by them He desired to continue in an unbloody manner His sacrifice on the Cross together with the bestowal of His graces and blessings. These men were in a special way singled out by the Savior to be the intimate recipients of His designs for mankind, the last to whom Almighty God would communicate His revelation for the human race.2 The Apostles have always been the giants of the Christian faith and revelation, whose stature is never again to be equalled in the course of time. In them the power of Christ has been clearly shown, since He chose these weak and insignificant men and made them into vessels of election and founders of the Church He instituted, outside of which there is no salvation.

We shall examine here what St. Thomas Aquinas has written concerning the Apostles. The Angelic Doctor wrote no treatise on the Apostles, but he referred to them in many of his writings and stated their role, their qualities, their gifts. It is thus possible to construct the outline of St. Thomas' apostolology or theology of the Apostles.

An "apostle" is one who is sent.3 He is sent by one having authority and something to communicate. The few men whom Christ selected, were sent by Him to teach all nations, to announce to all peoples without distinction the glad tidings of salvation through Christ. But Christ Himself was also One sent, the chief messenger sent by the Father to fulfill the divine promise of redemption made to mankind. Thus the principal apostle of the human race is Christ the Savior; the Twelve are secondary apostles.4

The Master said to His Apostles: "As the Father has sent me, so I also send you."5 With this mandate they were sent forth into the world, sent out of the same love and with the same fullness of authority as Christ Himself, taking His place, as it were.6 For this reason the dignity of Apostles of Jesus Christ is without peer in the Church.7 The chosen disciples would always be worthy bearers of their apostolic commission so long as they remained in His love and grace.8

The Apostles were not exceptional or outstanding men before they were chosen by Christ to follow Him. They were simple men9 and by worldly standards of no account, yet they were to be filled by Christ with spiritual greatness.10 They were called to the apostolate not from any merits of their own, but rather by the grace of God.11 Yet, they were to be commended because they had left all things to follow Christ without having heretofore witnessed any miracles.12 They had responded with dispatch to Christ's invitation to come and follow Him; they abandoned all that they had and dedicated themselves entirely to Him.13 This voluntary and complete association with Christ in His mission is the explanation of their excellence. For, as St. Thomas comments, to be God's cooperator is man's greatest dignity, and to be so enlightened as to enlighten others is to fulfill this dignity most clearly.14

Why Christ selected from among His disciples only twelve in number to be the intimate associates of His purpose on earth can only be surmised from the fittingness of the selection. St. Thomas makes one suggestion in his comments on St. John's Gospel. The fragments from the miraculous multiplication of loaves, which were collected from all parts of the crowd, filled twelve baskets. Similarly, the twelve Apostles—despised by the world but filled with spiritual riches—were by their preaching to gather all men from the four corners of the earth into the faith.15

Moreover, the manner of Christ's choice was not without its mystical allusions. The Apostles were generally called in twos, including brother combinations, as God had done in the Old Testament, e.g., Aaron and Moses. They were later sent out to preach in twos, to signify spiritual charity, which is stronger when it is founded on nature. The very names of those called by the Master were mystically meaningful. St. Thomas notes a few. The first three names recorded in Matthew reflect the vocation of the preacher: Simon—obedient one (to be able to draw others to obedience). Peter— discerning one (to know how to instruct others; therefore, prudence), Andrew—courageous (to withstand threats fearlessly). The next two descriptions are of James the Great—supplanter (the virtue of justice), and of John—virginity (the virtue of temperance), both of whom showed great piety toward their father Zebedee.16

Of the group of disciples that made up the original society of Jesus, the Apostles were the most distinguished.17 This was due, of course, to their vocation, which St. Thomas points out was threefold : they were called to intimacy with Christ; to the discipleship; and to a total adherence to Christ.18 Or, as he elsewhere puts it: to a knowledge, that is, an intimacy with Christ, and faith; to their office of fishers of men; and to the apostolate to which they were perfectly dedicated.19 Their vocation was thus to be ministers of God in the governance of His people, in their sanctification through dispensing the sacraments of grace and by converting men back to God and to salvation through their ministry and preaching.20 St. Thomas speaks of two calls of the Apostles, the first to an intimacy or familiarity with Christ, and the final call to discipleship when they left all things to follow Him.21

Apostles And The Church

The vocation of the Apostles was inseparably connected with the building up of the Mystical Body of Christ. They were the instruments used to bring men into obedience to the faith, not merely the Jews but also the Gentiles. St. Paul in a special way exemplified this mission. The Apostles spoke in the name and with the full authority of Christ and labored for His sake. Consequently, since by the command of Christ they were sent to all peoples, these latter were subject to the power and the authority of their apostolate.22

Thus the apostolic dignity is supreme in the Church.23 Being alone selected by Christ to go forth in His name and entrusted with the special care of His flock, the Apostles are the bases of the Church, the foundation of the entire edifice created by Christ.24 "The Apostles and their successors are God's vicars in governing the Church which is built on faith and the sacraments of faith."25 The seventy-two disciples of the Lord were commissioned secondarily by the Master; and priests, who are their successors, exercise their mission under the bishops.26 As a gloss on Romans 8:23 explains:

The state of the New Law is subject to change with regard to various places, times, and persons, according as the grace of the Holy Spirit dwells in man more or less perfectly. Nevertheless, we are not to look forward to a state wherein man is to possess the grace of the Holy Spirit more perfectly than he has possessed it hitherto, especially the Apostles who "received the first fruits of the Spirit," that is, "sooner and more abundantly than others."27

St. Thomas develops this theme still further throughout his writings. For him the Apostles hold a rank in grace and glory immediately after Christ and His Blessed Mother, and thus above all the Saints. The blood of the Savior wrought redemption and justification in their souls more profusely than in any other. This was due not to any merits of the apostolic band, but solely to the ordination of God who endowed them for a special dignity and role to which they were called: that they might restore all things in Christ. They were the first fruits of the Spirit received on Pentecost, first both in time and measure of grace. Now the Holy Spirit always provides His Church with good pastors. Such was eminently the case with the Apostles who were the supreme pastors placed over the Church. The singular graces which enveloped them shone most clearly in their wisdom, that is, in their knowledge of divine things, particularly of the Incarnation, and in their prudence in instructing men in the faith and revelation, and in directing their lives to holiness.28

The greatness of the effects of divine grace in the Apostles argues to a supereminent abundance of grace in them, being, as they were, the first fruits from among the believers.29 "He summoned His disciples; and from these He chose twelve, whom He also named apostles."30 These Twelve were privileged to receive the gifts of Christ Himself: fulness of grace and wisdom regarding the revealed mysteries and eloquence in announcing them, together with the prerogative of authority and power over the Master's flock.31 The text of the Angelic Doctor on the primacy of the Apostles among the saints of God is an adequate expression of his thought:

The Apostles, as more abounding in the Holy Spirit, are to be preferred above all the other saints, whatever the prerogative that shines forth in them—virginity, or doctrine, or martyrdom. But one might say that certain saints endured greater torments, and greater austerities for Christ than did the Apostles. But it should be realized that the greatness of merit principally and with respect to essential reward is considered according to charity. For essential reward consists in the joy one has of God. It is clear, however, that one more enjoys God the more one loves Him. Wherefore the Lord promises the blessed vision to the one who loves Him (John 14)…But as to the amount of deeds, man merits accidental reward, which is the joy from such deeds. Thus the Apostles performed the deeds they did from a greater charity whence they had a heart to do greater things if it were opportune. Yet if someone should say: one can just try to have equal charity with the Apostles, it can be said that man's charity is not from himself but from the grace of God, which is given to each man according to the measure of the giving of Christ, as is stated in Ephes. 4.

However, He gives to each one the grace proportioned to that for which he is chosen, just as to Christ as man was given the most excellent grace, because He was chosen for this, that His human nature be assumed into union with the divine person, and after Him the Blessed Mary has the greatest grace, who was chosen to be the mother of Christ. Among the rest, however, the Apostles were chosen for the greater dignity, namely, that receiving from Christ Himself immediately, they might hand down to others those things which pertain to salvation, and thus the Church would be in a certain manner founded upon them, according to Apoc. 21: "And the wall of the city has twelve foundation stones, and on them twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb." And thus it is said in I Cor. 12: "And God indeed has placed some in the Church, first apostles." And therefore God bestowed on them above the rest more abundant grace.32

Endowed so fully with grace by the Holy Spirit on Pentecost to fit them for their great office in the Church, it was fitting also that they always remain worthy and faithful ministers of Christ. Thus, so that they might never fall from the state of habitual grace, the Apostles were granted the special privilege of confirmation in grace.33 In their case it meant that de facto they would not sin. However, this great gift preserved the Apostles only from falling into mortal sins; they were still liable to sin venially from human frailty,34 for, "no matter how perfect a man is, he still needs to be further perfected and he contracts some uncleanesses."35

The above-described perfection of the Apostles may be objected to in two ways: the eulogy of Our Lord of John the Baptist, and the case of the martyrs. Our Lord had clearly stated:

But what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet… Amen I say to you, among those born of woman there has not risen a greater than John the Baptist; yet the least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.36

In view of the supreme position and role of the Apostles as described by St. Thomas, how then are these words to be understood that no man has risen greater than the Baptist? St. Thomas answers the difficulty in several ways. John the Baptist came to prepare the way for the advent of Christ Himself. This he did by gathering the people together to be baptized and by preaching to those assembled the imminent appearance of the Messias, thus foreshadowing the baptism of Christ.37 Now to baptize is not so great an office as to evangelize, which was the work of the Apostles as ministers of Christ. "Are the Apostles then greater than John?" St. Thomas queries. "Not in merit but in office in the New Testament. And according to this sense it is said below Matt. 11:11: 'the least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.' "38

The Baptist was called to a greater office than all of the previous precursors of the Old Testament; he was their superior in excellence and favor.39 All the prophecies concerning Christ began to be fulfilled in the preaching of John who stood in between the two Testaments. He was sent before Christ yet as though sent together with Christ. He was the angel of preparation mentioned in Malachy 3:1, and therefore more than a prophet. A prophet, unlike an angel, does not see the face of God. And so, as an angel gazes upon the face of the Father, John especially saw Christ.40

Using another example it can be said that in a procession those more intimately connected with the king precede his person. It was written of John: "Behold, I send my messenger before they face, who shall make ready thy way before thee."41 Thus John, being nearer to Christ in preparing His way than all the others in the long line of precursors, is more honorable.42 Yet the excellence of Moses over all the Old Testament prophets seems to belie the statement of Christ about the Baptist. The Angelic Doctor also answers this difficulty:

When Moses is preferred to the others, this must be understood of the prophets of the Old Testament, because then especially prophecy was in the state of expecting that Christ, to whom all prophecy is ordered, was about to come. John, however, pertains to the New Testament; wherefore Matt. 11:13 says: "For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John." Yet revelation has become more manifest in the New Testament; wherefore II Cor. 3:18 says: "But we all, with faces unveiled," where the Apostle prefers himself and the other Apostles to Moses. And yet it does not follow, if no one is greater than John the Baptist, that on this account no one was more excellent than he in the degree of prophecy: because, since prophecy is not a gift of grace which makes one holy, one can be better in prophecy and yet be less in merit.43

On the other hand, the least soul in heaven is greater than any wayfarer, even John the Baptist, as Christ pointed out. Moreover, those being incorporated as members in the Church of Christ, although less in time, are greater than the Baptist, whereas in merit he was surpassingly great.44

The second objection to the position of the Apostles is raised with respect to the martyrs, the heroes of the faith. Here again St. Thomas' distinction of essential and accidental reward must be recalled, as well as the measure of the giving of Christ being in relation to the dignity of the vocation. The greater the merit, the greater the reward; and so the Apostles merited and received more than the martyrs.45 The Apostles are the first born of the saints, since the gifts which they received first and more abundantly were derived through them by those who came after;46 just as fruit which matures first before all other is plumper and more pleasing.47

Apostolic Gifts

Among the many extraordinary gifts with which the Apostles were divinely endowed none pertained more indispensably to the nature of their apostolate, to their role as transmitters of revelation and witnesses of the faith to the very ends of the earth than the supernatural infused knowledge they possessed. In this respect the Apostles were instructed by Christ Himself and by the Holy Spirit who came down upon them.48 Being closer to Christ in His mission and thus more fully instructed by Him, and being the foundations upon which the faith of the Church has been built,49 "the Apostles were more cognizant of God's secrets than others who followed them, because they had the first fruits of the spirit (Rom. 8:23), before others in point of time and more abundantly."50

Revelation, which had been made to the prophets and the patriarchs, was not as clear as with the Apostles; moreover, it was communicated in a somewhat general form. With the Apostles the clear revealed doctrine was detailed,51 being received directly from Christ and not through the medium of angels or similitudes, not in figures or enigmas but clearly as befitting their office of "executors and dispensers" of this mystery and instructors of others.52 However, the full revelation which they had they could not communicate in full to others, but only as their listeners could understand it.53 And so, their marvellous knowledge was not so much evident in itself or in its extent as in its effects.54

Although the Apostles had the fullness of knowledge, yet they had not enjoyed this all during Christ's public ministry. The Master had told them:

Many things, yet I have to say to you, but you cannot bear them now. But when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will teach you all the truth. For he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he will hear he will speak, and the things that are to come he will declare to you. All things that the Father has are mine. That is why I have said that he will receive of what is mine, and will declare it to you.55

This the Holy Spirit accomplished on Pentecost.56 But this fullness of knowledge is to be understood only with regard to matters of faith and morals, that is, matters necessary for salvation, and the gifts associated with their spread by the Apostles. They were not instructed on all future events, such, for example, as "the times and dates which the Father has fixed by his own authority,"57 or the natural and positive sciences, such as arithmetic and geometry, although they were endowed with the wisdom and knowledge required by the teaching of the faith.58 The knowledge of the divine mysteries which they enjoyed was even hidden in some way from the angels and became known to the latter only through the preaching of the Apostles."59 We can therefore conclude that no knowledge of the faith will ever be had in the Church which will equal or surpass that possessed by the Apostles.60

Christ, who limited His own public ministry to a small area of the world, to a brief portion of His life on earth, and directly only to the Jews, spread His saving message and grace throughout the world through His Apostles, His chosen ministers, whom He equipped in a marvellous fashion forward mission: "And thus the divine power of Christ was especially shown in this, that He bestowed on the teaching of His disciples such a power that they converted the Gentiles to Christ, although these had heard nothing of Him," since "it is a sign not of lesser, but of greater power to do something by means of others rather than by oneself."61

The Apostles, being commissioned to teach all nations, were also aided supernaturally in the tremendous problem of communication by the gift of tongues.62 Unlettered men they were naturally unequipped for this task. Thus it befitted the perfection of their office and condition that they be gifted with a knowledge of the languages of the people to whom they preached, and that there be a mutual understanding in that local language.63 Yet "both Paul and the other Apostles were divinely instructed in the languages of all nations sufficiently for the requirements of the teaching of the faith. But as regards the grace and elegance of style which human art adds to language, the Apostle was instructed in his own, but not in a foreign tongue."64 And so Christ "gave to the Apostles the science of the Scriptures and of all tongues, which men can acquire by study or by custom, but not so perfectly."65

In addition to the great gifts of perfect knowledge of the faith and of tongues to spread that faith, the Apostles also had the power of miracles in order to facilitate the propagation of the faith and access to the Church, and to confirm their teaching.66 This is evident from the Scriptures.67 They possessed this power (as also prophetic gifts) even before the Resurrection, but not as abundantly and manifestly as with the coming of the Holy Spirit.68 The miraculous deeds they accomplished were at the instance of their prayer to God and the invocation of the name of Christ, and not ex opere operato after the manner of their action in the dispensing of the sacraments.69

Sacramental Life

Although the Church of Christ was founded upon the Apostles, they were nevertheless not the legislators or institutors of the New Law, but rather its ministers. Thus they had no power to institute sacraments, possessing no power of excellence over the sacraments. This would be to change the faith and the Church instituted by Christ.70 Sometimes, however, the obscurity respecting some aspects of the sacraments, e.g., the form, is due to the reluctance of the Apostles (from whom the institutions of Christ were received by the Church) to commit these things to writing, in order to avoid the derision of the Gentiles:71 "For the Apostles, in conferring the sacraments, observed many things which are not handed down in those Scriptures which are in general use."72

Because of the many references in the Scriptures, St. Thomas speaks more frequently of the Apostles and the sacrament of Confirmation. Sometimes the Apostles, by a special power given to them by Christ, conferred the Holy Spirit or sacramental grace without a special sacramental sensible matter, although they commonly employed chrism."73 Moreover, by a special revelation from Christ, they baptized in the name of Christ rather than of the three Persons.74 The commission of the Apostles to baptize was frequently accomplished by them through lesser ministers. The effort of the baptizer does not produce the effect of baptism (and so a greater or lesser minister makes no difference for the sacramental effect), whereas the wisdom and power of the preacher act mightily in the effect of his preaching. Thus the Apostles always preached personally.75

Regarding their own status as recipients of sacraments, the Apostles, according to St. Thomas, were baptized with the baptism of Jesus.76 They received the power of Orders before the Ascension of the Master but were confirmed after His departure, at Pentecost (the reason being that Order does not necessarily presuppose Confirmation) .77 The power to forgive sin, the secondary act of priestly power, they received after the Resurrection.78But, it must be kept in mind that, "although the power of binding and loosing was given to all the Apostles in common, nevertheless, in order to indicate some order in this power, it was given first of all to Peter alone, to show that this power must come down from him to the others."79

The Apostles were unique in receiving the sacrament of Confirmation from the Holy Spirit under the form of fire in order to indicate "with what fervor their hearts were to be moved so as to preach Christ everywhere among the people," and also because they "must look forward to be judged, and this is signified by fire."80 Thus fire, in the shape of a tongue, was very fitting in the case of the Apostles, since as an active force it symbolized the grace of the Holy Spirit which filled them as teachers of the faith and flowed through them to others.81 This, of course, was the second visible mission of the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, the first being through Christ's breathing on them, conferring the power of binding and loosing.82

The Apostles were above all preachers of the Word. Theirs was an oral transmission of the truths of Revelation. It seems that in their mission they also used a form of oral catechizing agreed upon in their meeting in Jerusalem.83 In any case, the teaching of the Apostles was not committed to writing until some time later in their apostolic career, and then only in part.

Many things were said and done by Christ which were not written down,84 but were handed down by the Apostles in their teaching and preaching.85 Consequently, the Scriptures are not the sole source of divine Revelation and of the teaching of the Apostles.86 (In fact, it was a long time before the evangelical scriptures were all known and accepted throughout the Church.) Thus, the Revelation of Christ is to be found also in the teachings or traditions of the Apostles which have come down to us, but were not committed to writing by the inspired sacred writers. These traditions of the Apostles—the truths taught by them, the events reported by them, the institutions handed down by them— the Church has faithfully maintained:87

The Apostles, led by the inward instinct of the Holy Spirit, handed down to the churches certain instructions which they did not put into writing, but which have been ordained, in accord with the observance of the Church as practiced by the faithful as time went on. Wherefore the Apostle says, (II Thess. 2:15): "Stand fast; and hold fast the traditions you have learned, whether by word," that is by word of mouth, "or by our epistle," that is by word put into writing. Among these traditions is the worship of Christ's image …88 that the Lord raised His eyes to heaven at the Last Supper.89

What commands the Apostles did put into writing are to be kept as inviolably as the divine commands, since they are the commands of God: "Whence we can gather that the words of the Apostles are from the intimate revelation of the Holy Spirit and of Christ, and thus are to be preserved as the precepts of Christ."90

The position of the Apostles in the Church as God's vicars of His people is now filled by the bishops, their successors.91 The Apostles are also "understood to have vowed things pertaining to the state of perfection when 'they left all things and followed Christ.' "92 They were at times obliged to work with their hands for support; at times they did this for edification and example.93 An interesting aside on the unity of the Twelve is added by St. Thomas when he says: "The other Apostles were distressed about the sin of Judas, in the same way as a multitude is punished for the sin of one, in commendation of unity."94 It should be remarked also that St. Thomas refers to a tradition that the Apostles were present at the death of the Blessed Virgin Mary.95

An interesting feature of St. Thomas' teaching on the Apostles is the mystical allusions to the Twelve, which he discovers in the various names and passages in the Scriptures. The Apostles are referred to as: gods, because of their power of judging which belonged to their evangelization of the nations;96 fathers, because they were the fathers of all whom they converted;97 brothers, both because of the sameness of nature assumed and their grace of vocation to the apostolate;98 strong, because they were the protectors of all peoples;99 clouds, and this for many reasons: like rain they fertilize the land, diffuse light about them, and fulfill the divine will;100 like the lofty and fertile clouds they are lofty of life and fruitful of doctrine; like heavenly clouds they have borne or reflected the heavenly image;101 heavens, since they have been made fast by the word of the Lord, Christ, who as the sun dwells in the heavens or starry firmament which is the Apostles:102 "The office of the Apostles is to announce, so they are designated by the term heavens;103 doves, because of their compunction of heart, simplicity of life, loftiness or swiftness of their contemplation, and purity of conscience;104 crown of precious stone, since by the preciousness of their teaching they are the crown of Christ;105 vessels of death, to those who disobeyed the preaching of the Apostles;106 dark water, compared to Christ who is the brightness which shall appear to all seeing Him.107

"The Apostles were simple men, unlettered and commonplace, who recognized God, whereas others pervert the pursuits of natural knowledge that they know not God Himself; yet they destroyed all the enemies of Christ."108 They were taken from the nation of the Jews by God as a sampling is taken from dough. As the Apostles were holy, so the Jews from whom they were drawn were holy (at least potentially).109

Conclusion

The statements and references of St. Thomas to the Apostles, to their role in the continuation of Christ's mission on earth to men, that is, His Church, to the gifts of grace with which they were endowed to fit them for their vocation and its successful fulfillment, show unmistakably the Angelic Doctor's reverence for the chosen disciples of the Master. The data found in the works of St. Thomas indicate the broad strokes of his thought, which sketch out the richness of the exalted vocation of the Apostles.

The words of the Son of God spoken to the Father on high could apply so perfectly to none other than the few men whom the Master had called to follow Him and whom He had then sent forth to all nations to teach them whatsoever He had revealed to them: "Thou didst hide these things from the wise and prudent and didst reveal them to little ones."110


Notes

1 Eph., 2:20-22.

2 Denz., 783, 2021.

3 Ad. Rom., c. 1, lect. 1; II ad cor., c. 1, lect. 1; Ad Hebr., c. 3, lect. 1.

4 Ad Rom., c. 1, lect. 4; Ad Hebr., c. 3, lect 1.

5 John, 20:21.

6 I ad Cor., c. 1, lect. 1.

7 Ad. Rom., c. 1, lect. 1.

8 Ibid., lect. 4.

9 In Matth., c. 4, lect. 2; In Ps., 8: 2.

10 In Joan., c. 1, lect. 1.

11 Ad Rom., c. 1, lect. 4; II ad Cor., c. 4, lect. 1; Ad Eph., c. 1, lect. 1; In Matth., c. 4, lect. 2.

12 III, q. 43, art. 3, ad 3.

13 In Matth., c. 4, lect. 2.

14 Ibid.

15 In Joan., c. 6, lect. 1; lect. 8.

16 In Matth., c. 4, lect. 2.

17 In Joan., c. 1, lect. 15; II ad Cor., c. 1, lect. 1.

18 In Matth., c. 1, lect. 2.

19 In Joan., c. 1, lect. 15.

20 II ad Cor., prol.

21 In Matth., c. 4, lect. 2.

22 Ad Rom., c. 1, lect. 1.

23 Ibid.

24 IV Sent., d. 7, art. 1, qu. 1, ad 1; De verit., q. 24, art. 9, ad 2.

25 III, q. 64, art. 2, ad 3.

26 II ad Cor., c. 1, lect. 1; III, q. 67, art 2, ad 1.

27 I-II, q. 106, art. 4; Ad Ephes., c. 1, lect. 1; Ad Rom., c. 1, lect. 4.

28 Ad Ephes., c. 1, lect. 3-4.

29 Ibid., lect. 6.

30 Luke, 6: 13.

31 Ad Ephes., c. 4, lect. 4.

32 Ad Rom., c. 8, lect. 5; cf.c.11, lect. 3.

33 De verit., q. 24, art. 9, ad 2.

34 Ad Gal., c. 2, lect. 3; De malo, q. 7, art. 7, ad 8; III Sent., d. 12, q. 2, c; d. 38, art. 5.

35 In Joan., c. 13, lect. 2.

36 Matt., 11:11-12.

37 Ad Matth., c. 3, lect. 1.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid., c, 11, lect. 1.

40 Ibid.

41 Matt., 11:10.

42 Ad Matth., c. 3, lect, 1.

43 De verit., q. 12, art. 14, ad 5.

44 Ad Matth., c. 11, lect. 1.

45 Ad Hebr., c. 11, lect. 8.

46 Ibid., c. 12, lect. 4.

47 Ad Rom., c. 8, lect. 5.

48 I, q. 117, art. 2, ad 2; I-II. q. 106, art. 4, ad 2.

49 II-II, q. 174, art. 6.

50 Suppl., q. 77, art. 2, sed c., 2.

51 I, q. 57, art. 5, ad 3.

52 Ad Ephes., c. 3, lect. 1.

53 Ibid.

54 I, q. 105, art. 7, ad 3.

55 John, 16: 12-15; Acts, 1: 4-6.

56 Acts, 2:1-36.

57 Acts, 1: 7, I-II, q. 106, art. 4, ad 2.

58 II-II, q. 176, art. 1, ad 1.

59 I, q. 117, art. 2, ad 1.

60 I-II, q. 106, art. 4, obj. & resp. 2.

61 III, q. 42, art. 1, ad 2.

62 Acts, 2: 4, III, q. 7, art. 7, ad 3.

63 II-II, q. 176, art. 1, c. & ad 2.

64 Ibid., ad 1.

65 I-II, q. 51, ad 4.

66 I, q. 43, art. 7, ad 6.

67 Acts, 5 : 12.

68 In Joan., c. 7, lect. 5.

69 III, q. 84, art. 3, ad 4.

70 III, q. 64, art. 2, ad 1 & ad 3; q. 72, art. 1, ad 1; I, q. 43, ad 6; Suppl., q. 6, art. 6; q. 29, art. 3; IV Sent., d. 7, q. 1, art. 1, qu. 1, ad. 1; art. 2, qu. 1, ad 1—3; art. 3, qu. 1, ad 2; d. 13, q. 1, art. 2, sol. 6, ad 1; d. 27. q. 3, ad 2.

71 IV Sent., d. 7, q. 1, art. 3, qu. 1, ad 2; I ad Cor., c. 11, lect. 6; lect. 7.

72 III, q. 72, art. 4, ad 1; q. 78, art. 3, ad 9.

73 III, q. 72, art. 2, ad 1.

74 III, q. 66, art. 6, ad 1; I ad Cor., c. 1, lect. 2.

75 I ad Cor., c. 1, lect. 2; Ad Rom., c. 2, lect. 3.

76 III, q. 38, art. 6, ad 2; q. 72, art. 6, ad 2; q. 84, art. 7, ad 4; IV Sent., d. 2, q. 2, art. 4, ad 3; In Joan., c. 13, lect. 1.

77 Suppl., q. 35, art, 4; III, q. 72, art. 2, ad 1; art 7; Opusc. IV, c. 2.

78 IV Sent., d. 24, q. 2, art. 3, ad 2.

79 Suppl., q. 40, a. 6, ad 1; III, q. 67, art. 2, ad 1; C. G., IV, 76; Ad Gal.. c. 2, lect. 3.

80 III, q. 39, art. 6, ad 4.

81 III, q. 72, art. 2, ad 1; I, q. 43, art. 7, ad 6.

82 John, 20:23; I Sent., d. 16, q. 1, art. 3; I, q. 43, art. 7, ad 6.

83 Cf. Acts, 15: 28.

84 John, 21: 25.

85 III, q. 83, art. 4, ad 2; I ad Cor., c. 12, lect. 7.

86 IV Sent., 1, d. 8, q. 2, art. 1, qu. 5.

87 III, q. 64, art. 2, ad 1.

88 III, q. 25, art. 3, ad 4.

89 III, q. 83, art. 4, ad 2; IV Sent., d. 8, q. 2, art. 1, qu. 5.

90 I ad Cor., c. 14, lect. 7.

91 III, q. 67, art. 2, ad 1; q. 64, art. 2, ad 3; II ad Cor., c. 1, lect. 1, prol.; Opusc. IV, c. 2.

92 II-II. q. 88, art. 4, ad 3.

93 II-II, q. 187, art. 3, ad 5.

94 II-II, q. 108, art. 4, ad 5.

95 I ad Cor., c. 15, lect. 1.

96 In Ps., 46: 4.

97 In Ps., 44:11.

98 In Ps., 21: 18, 27.

99 In Ps., 46: 4.

100 In Isa., 60; In Hebr., c. 13, lect. 13; In Ps., 17:11.

101 In Matth., c. 26, lect. 7.

102 In Ps., 32:5; 18:1.

103 In Ps., 49:3.

104 In Isa., 60.

105 In Ps., 20: 3.

106 In Ps., 8: 7.

107 In Ps., 17:11.

108 In Ps., 8: 2.

109 Ad Rom., c. 11, lect 2.

110 Luke, 20:21.

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