A New Marian Dogma? Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of All Graces, Advocate
A New Marian Dogma? Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of All Graces, Advocate.
Basic Answers to Common Questions
* Do we find support for the proposed Dogma of Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all Graces and Advocate in Scripture?
The salvation of humanity was accomplished by God's only begotten Son, Jesus Christ. The Passion and Death of Christ, our sole Redeemer, was not only sufficient but "superabundant" satisfaction for human guilt and the consequent debt of punishment. But God willed that this work of salvation be accomplished through the collaboration of a woman, while always respecting her free will. "When the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of a woman" (Gal. 4:4).
Coredemptrix in Scripture
Permeating Scripture is God's revelation that his plan of redemption will involve, first and foremost, the collaboration of two persons: one divine and one human, the "woman" and her "seed." This is first revealed in the book of Genesis: "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed: she shall crush your head..." (Gen. 3:15). This passage of Scripture prophetically foreshadows Mary with her divine Son in the promise of victory over the serpent. It reveals God's will that the "woman" share in the same "enmity" (absolute opposition) between herself and the serpent as does her "seed," Jesus Christ. This great struggle and victory over the serpent foreshadows the divine work of redemption by Jesus Christ, with the Mother of the Redeemer's intimate collaboration in his saving work. This "collaboration" or "co-operation" or "participation" of the Mother of Jesus with her Son in the redemptive work of salvation is referred to in the Church as "Marian coredemption," or more specifically, Mary is referred to as "the Coredemptrix with the Redeemer." It always remains a secondary and subordinate participation, and never puts her on a level of equality with the one Redeemer, Jesus Christ, and takes absolutely nothing away from her Son's glory. God chooses to give man a share in his attributes and his works. Since God is infinite, his sharing of himself does not reduce his glory, but rather lets it shine forth more resplendently. The Annunciation (Luke 1:26-38) announces the great work of salvation, and it also discloses the involvement of two persons: the Redeemer and the Mother of the Redeemer. The Virgin is called to give her free and full consent to conceive this child. She is not merely a passive recipient of the message, but she was given an active role, and heaven awaited her free choice. It is precisely by her free consent to collaborate in God's saving plan that she becomes the Coredemptrix. The prophecy of Simeon to Mary, "and a sword will pierce through your own soul also" (Luke 2:25), affirms Mary's unique participation in the work of redemption, as it warns her that she will undergo an unspeakable pain that will pierce her soul, for the salvation of mankind. John 19:25 tells us of Jesus' Mother at the very foot of the cross, persevering with her Son in his worst hour of agony, and therein suffering the death of her Son. Thus in her own suffering too, the Mother of the Redeemer participates in the redemptive mission of Jesus Christ. That is "Marian coredemption," most perfectly embodied in the term "Coredemptrix." In God's mysterious and merciful providence, he willed not only that man would be redeemed by the Blood of Christ, but that man would also be given a share in Jesus' redemptive mission. As our "goodness" does not make God less good, neither does Mary's share in God's redemptive plan take away from Jesus' unique role as Redeemer. In a 1985 address at the Marian shrine in Guayaquil, Ecuador, Pope John Paul II said:
"Mary goes before us and accompanies us. The silent journey that begins with her Immaculate Conception and passes through the 'yes' of Nazareth, which makes her the Mother of God, finds on Calvary a particularly important moment. There also, accepting and assisting at the sacrifice of her son, Mary is the dawn of Redemption....Crucified spiritually with her crucified son (cf. Gal. 2:20), she contemplated with heroic love the death of her God, she 'lovingly consented to the immolation of this Victim which she herself had brought forth' (Lumen Gentian, 58)....In fact, at Calvary she united herself with the sacrifice of her Son that led to the foundation of the Church; her maternal heart shared to the very depths the will of Christ 'to gather into one all the dispersed children of God' (Jn. 11:52). Having suffered for the Church, Mary deserved to become the Mother of all the disciples of her Son, the Mother of their unity....In fact, Mary's role as Coredemptrix did not cease with the glorification of her Son" (Inseg VIII/1 (1985) 318-319 [ORE 876:7]).
We call Mary the Coredemptrix because her whole life was a sharing in the redemptive mission of her Son, which reached its climax at the foot of the Cross at Calvary. Truly at Calvary, the Mother of Jesus becomes, through her suffering with the Redeemer, the Mother of all peoples.
Mediatrix in Scripture
Jesus is the sole mediator between God and man (cf. 1 Tim. 2:5), but all Christians are called to participate in the one mediation of Jesus Christ. All the baptized participate in Christ's mediation by our prayers for one another. In our works of charity and evangelization we "mediate" Christ to others. The Blessed Virgin Mary was asked by God to take her part in her divine Son's mediation in a unique and privileged way, like no other creature. The title "Mediatrix of all Graces" is appropriate for Mary simply by the fact that she gave Jesus his human nature. In accepting the invitation to be his Mother, she becomes the "God-bearer" and thereby mediates to us Jesus Christ, author of all graces. Therefore, the Annunciation (Luke 1:26-38) is an event of mediation on the part of Our Lady, as she finds herself "in the middle," that is, between God and us. She, alone, freely chooses whether she will or will not give flesh to the second person of the Trinity. "Mediatrix of all graces" is also a fitting title for the Blessed Virgin in light of Luke 1:41, where the physical presence of Mary mediates grace to the unborn John the Baptist, by bringing to John the presence of the unborn Redeemer, resulting in the sanctification of the Baptist. At the Wedding of Cana (cf. John 2:1-11), we again see Mary's mediation, and, most significantly, we see the effects of her mediation: "This, the first of his signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested his glory; and his disciples believed in him" (John 2:11). As our Lord was dying on the Cross, he gives to his Virgin Mother the new role of Mother of all Christians: "Woman, behold, your son!...Behold, your mother!" (John 19:26). At the Lord's command the Blessed Virgin becomes Mother of all Christians (and universally, the Mother of all peoples), and therein is called to exercise her supernatural duties as our spiritual Mother. This surely means that she will have the task of nourishing her children, and she does this by mediating the graces of the Redemption from Christ to mankind. Therefore, she is "Mediatrix of all Graces."
Advocate in Scripture
The scriptural use of the term "advocate" literally means "called in to help." Both Jesus and the Holy Spirit are "Advocates" with the Father in the plan of human salvation; Jesus redeems us, the Holy Spirit sanctifies us. We say that Mary is Advocate because she always intercedes for us by praying to Jesus Christ her Son on our behalf. Scripture manifests the Mother of Jesus' role in God's plan of salvation as Advocate for the needs of the human family. Mary was our Advocate at the Annunciation, when she agreed to participate, on our behalf, in God's plan of salvation for the human family (cf. Luke 1:26-38). Our Lady also manifested her advocacy at the wedding of Cana (cf. Jn. 2:1-11). She intercedes for a specific need of the people at the wedding, and as Advocate she succeeds in obtaining from her Son their needs (cf. Jn. 2:8-10). Referring to this Scripture passage, Pope John Paul II says that Mary is the "spokeswoman of her Son's will," and "She knows...she can point out to her Son the needs of mankind, and in fact, she has the 'right' to do so" (cf. Redemptoris Mater, n. 21). At Pentecost, Mary intercedes "in prayer" as our Advocate for the coming of the Holy Spirit, our divine Advocate (cf. Acts 1:14). In John 19:26, Mary is given to us as Mother. As Mother of all Christians she again exercises her role as Advocate for God's people, a role that does not cease after her Assumption into heaven. Vatican II states: "By her maternal charity, she cares for the brethren of her Son, who still journey on earth surrounded by dangers and difficulties, until they are led into their blessed home" (Lumen Gentium, n. 62.)
* Do we find support for this proposed Dogma in the faith of the early Church?
Coredemptrix in the early Church
Mary's coredemptive role with our Lord in the work of redemption emerges as an important theme in the early Church, beginning with Sts. Justin and Irenaeus in the second century. They used the image of the "New Adam" (Jesus) and the "New Eve" (Mary): The life of grace that the first Adam and the first Eve had jointly lost for mankind, was jointly restored by the New Adam and the New Eve. The virgin Eve, through her disobedience to the Father, interiorly cooperated with Adam in the sin that lost the life of grace for the human family (cf. Gen 3:6); the Virgin Mary, in her obedience to the Father (cf. Lk 1:38), interiorly cooperated with Jesus Christ, the New Adam, in the salvation of the human family through his redemption. Mary's unequaled participation in the redemption of the human race as the New Eve was the universal Christian teaching in the early Church. In fact, the great Patristic scholar, John Henry Newman, said that "by the time of St. Jerome (331-420), the contrast between Eve and Mary had almost passed into a proverb." St. Jerome had remarked: "Per Evam mors, per Mariam vita" ("Death through Eve, Life through Mary").
Mediatrix in the early Church
By the fourth century, the Church Fathers manifested a profound understanding of Mary's function as Mediatrix. In reference to the Blessed Virgin, St. Ephraem (373) said: "With the Mediator, you are the Mediatrix of the entire world" (S. Ephraem, Syri opera graeca et latine, ed., Assemani, v. 3, Romae, pp. 525, 528-9, 532). St. Cyril of Alexandria, in one of the greatest Marian sermons of antiquity, said: "Hail Mary Theotokos, venerable treasure of the whole world...it is you through whom the Holy Trinity is glorified and adored,...through whom the tempter, the devil is cast down from heaven, through whom the fallen creature is raised up to heaven, through whom all creation, once imprisoned by idolatry, has reached knowledge of the truth, through whom holy baptism has come to believers...through whom nations are brought to repentance...." (Hom. in Deiparam, PG 65, p.681). Antipater of Bostra, another Father of the Council of Ephesus (AD 431), wrote: "Hail you who acceptably intercede as a Mediatrix for mankind." St. Andrew of Crete, St. John Damascene, St. Germanus of Constantinople, St. Peter Damian, St. Bernard of Clairvaux and St. Bernardine of Siena all spoke either explicitly of Mary as Mediatrix of all Graces or of Marian mediation. Such citations became ever more frequent by numerous Doctors of the Church, mystics, saints, and writers throughout the Middle Ages up to the modern era. St. Bernard of Clairvaux stated: "God has willed that we should have nothing which would not pass through the hands of Mary" (Hom. III in vig. nativit., n. 10, PL 183, 100).
Advocate in the early Church
The early Church was quick to confirm Mary's role as Advocate in God's plan of salvation. By the second century, St. Irenaeus had said: "And whereas Eve had disobeyed God, Mary was persuaded to obey God, that the Virgin Mary might become advocate (advocata) of the virgin Eve" (Adversus Haereses V, C. 19, 1). St. Ephraem called Mary the "friendly advocate of sinners" (S. Ephraem Syri testim. de B.V.M. mediatione, Ephermerides Theologicae Lovanienses, IV, fasc. 2, 1927). Other Fathers of the Church referring to Mary's advocacy were St. Germanus of Constantinople, Saint Romanos the Singer, and St. Bernard of Clairvaux. It should also be noted that ancient Marian prayers manifested a confidence in Mary's power of maternal intercession in difficult times for her spiritual children in faith. One such prayer was the Sub Tuum (3rd century): "We fly to your patronage, O holy Mother of God, despise not our petitions in our necessities, but deliver us from all danger, O ever glorious and blessed Virgin." Mary's advocacy in no way implies that we cannot pray directly to God ourselves; moreover, Jesus himself taught us to pray to "Our Father" in heaven. Notwithstanding, Christians have long known the powerful intercession of Our Lady before God, and therefore have invoked the Mother of Jesus to unite her prayers with her children's ever since the early days of the Church, as can be seen with the Sub Tuum prayer.
* What is the rationale for this Dogma?
The Council Fathers of Vatican II state manifestly that their treatment of the Mother of Jesus does not constitute a "complete doctrine on Mary," for such was not their intention. The need for greater theological clarification and development in order to complete the doctrine on Mary is therefore acknowledged by Vatican II (cf. Lumen Gentium, n.54). The body of Marian dogma will remain incomplete until the Church presents a dogma directly defining the nature of Mary's role with the Redeemer in the work of our salvation, and her relationship to us as Mother of all Christians. The first four Marian Dogmas define the truths that identified Our Lady's personal gifts and prerogatives (Mother of God, Perpetual Virginity, Immaculate Conception, Glorious Assumption). We have yet to define the full truth about the Mother of the Redeemer in her relationship with us, the Church, and of her participation in the redemption at the service of the Church. In addition, this Marian Dogma will have great benefits for the Church, particularly with respect to each person's relationship with the Mother of the Redeemer. The definition will provide a critically needed dogmatic foundation for the influx of contemporary Marian devotion, that without a dogmatic basis runs the danger of the devotional extremes of either "false exaggeration" or "too summary an attitude" (cf. Lumen Gentium, n. 67). Authentic love of Mary in the order of devotion must be firmly founded upon the truth about Mary in the order of dogma. We also have today the very rich Marian teaching of the present Pontiff, Pope John Paul II, with particular attention given to Mary's coredemption and mediation. We have the teachings of the Second Vatican Council on Marian coredemption and mediation clearly manifested in Lumen Gentium, nn. 56-62. In addition, these same doctrinal truths are present in the rich tradition of the papal magisterium of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Added to this are the many distinguished voices from within the Church calling for the solemn definition, including over 500 bishops, 44 cardinals, and approximately 4.8 million petitions from the Catholic faithful of 157 countries in six continents of the world. As there is a great outpouring of grace following every dogma of the Church, the solemn proclamation of the Blessed Virgin Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all Graces, and Advocate will also be an occasion of great graces for the Church and the world from she who is the Mother of all peoples. These titles, which are doctrinally established, should be proclaimed as a dogma for the greater glory and honor of God, for the increase reverence and honor due to his mother, and for the increase in our own disposition to receive grace from God. Lastly, we must ask ourselves this most appropriate question as we arrive at the threshold of the Third Millennium: How can we properly celebrate the Incarnation of our Lord in the year 2000 without properly honoring the woman and Mother who made it possible?
* Does the designation of Mary as Coredemptrix or Mediatrix of all Graces detract from the uniqueness and all-sufficiency of Jesus Christ, the one Redeemer and the one Mediator?
Jesus Christ as true God and true man redeems the human family, while Mary as Coredemptrix participates with the Redeemer in his one perfect Sacrifice in a. completely subordinate and dependent way. The key word here is "participation" in that which is exclusively true of Jesus Christ. The title "Coredemptrix" never puts Mary on a level of equality with our Lord; rather, it refers to Mary's unique and intimate participation with her divine Son in the work of redemption. "Coredemptrix" is a Latin word; the prefix "co" in the title, "Coredemptrix," derives from the Latin word "cum," which means "with," not "equal to." Mary's sufferings are efficacious towards the redemption of man because they are wholly rooted in the redemptive graces of Christ and are perfectly united to His redeeming will. Similarly, as Mediatrix, the Mother of Jesus does not "rival" Christ's mediation but rather participates in the one mediation of Jesus Christ. Imagine water from a reservoir reaching the people through a system of aqueducts or channels. By analogy, Jesus is the infinite "reservoir" of all grace, which is distributed to us through Mary. Jesus, the one mediator, does not exclude secondary, subordinate mediators. In Pope John Paul Id's Wednesday audience of October 1, 1997, the Pope addressed this very issue:
"Mary's maternal mediation does not obscure the unique and perfect mediation of Christ. Indeed, after calling Mary 'Mediatrix', the Council is careful to explain that this 'neither takes away anything from nor adds anything to the dignity and efficacy of Christ the one Mediator' (Lumen gentian, n.62)....In addition, the Council states that 'Mary's function as Mother of men in no way obscures or diminishes this unique mediation of Christ, but rather shows its power' (Lumen gentian, n.60). "Therefore, far from being an obstacle to the exercise of Christ's unique mediation, Mary instead highlights its fruitfulness and efficacy....In proclaiming Christ the one mediator (cf. 1 Tim 2:5-6), the text of St. Paul's Letter to Timothy excludes any other parallel mediation, but not subordinate mediation. In fact, before emphasizing the one exclusive mediation of Christ, the author urges 'that supplications, prayers, intercessions and thanksgivings be made for all men' (2:1). Are not prayers a form of mediation? Indeed, according to St. Paul, the unique mediation of Christ is meant to encourage other dependent, ministerial forms of mediation. By proclaiming the uniqueness of Christ's mediation, the Apostle intends only to exclude any autonomous or rival mediation, and not other forms compatible with the infinite value of the Saviour's work. "In fact, 'just as the priesthood of Christ is shared in various ways both by his ministers and the faithful, and as the one goodness of God is radiated in different ways among his creatures, so also the unique mediation of the Redeemer does not exclude but rather gives rise to a manifold co-operation which is but a sharing in this one source' (Lumen gentium, n.62)....In truth, what is Mary's maternal mediation if not the Father's gift to humanity?" (Pope John Paul II, 1 Oct. 1997).
* What effect will this Dogma have on ecumenism?
The goal of authentic Catholic ecumenism, as Pope John Paul II reminds us in Ut Unum Sint, n. 77, is to restore full visible unity among all Christians in the fullness of the Catholic and Apostolic Faith: "The greater mutual understanding and the doctrinal convergences already achieved between us, which have resulted in an affective and effective growth of communion, cannot suffice for the conscience of Christians who profess that the Church is one, holy, catholic and apostolic. The ultimate goal of the ecumenical movement is to re-establish full visible unity among all the baptized." In the domain of ecumenism, this ultimate ecumenical goal serves as the proper criterion by which we must judge the legitimacy, or lack thereof, of a proposed new Marian Dogma. The fullness of Catholic doctrinal truth, which necessarily includes the full truth about Mary, far from being an obstacle to ecumenism, is in fact the very foundation of real Christian unity. Any understanding of ecumenism as requiring, or even encouraging, a reduction or minimization of the doctrinal truth defined and taught by the Church, which necessarily includes the domain of Marian doctrine, can only be considered a regrettable species of "pseudo-ecumenism." As such, it ironically becomes the actual obstacle to authentic and perduring Christian unity because it decimates the very foundation of ultimate ecumenical success. Pope John Paul II writes: "Full communion of course will have to come about through the acceptance of the whole truth into which the Holy Spirit guides Christ's disciples. Hence all forms of reductionism or facile 'agreement' must be absolutely avoided" (Ut Unum Sint, n.36); and further: "The unity willed by God can be attained only by the adherence of all to the content of revealed faith in its entirety. In matters of faith, compromise is in contradiction with God who is Truth. In the Body of Christ, 'the way, and the truth, and the life' (John 14:6), who could consider legitimate a reconciliation brought about at the expense of the truth?" (Ut Unum Sint, n. 18); and again: "To uphold a vision of unity which takes account of all the demands of revealed truth does not mean to put a brake on the ecumenical movement. On the contrary, it means preventing it from settling for apparent solutions which would lead to no firm and solid results. The obligation to respect the truth is absolute. Is this not the law of the Gospel?" (cf. Ut Unum Sint, n. 79; cf. Address to the Cardinals and Roman Curia (June 28, 1985),6:AAS 77 (1985), 1153).
A precise dogmatic formulation of this Marian Dogma would certainly distinguish the secondary and subordinate coredemptive role of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the work of salvation from the unique redemptive triumph of the Savior, a distinction sometimes perceived as lacking in Catholic theology and piety by other Christians. This immediate ecumenical benefit to a solemn definition is neatly summed up in a letter endorsing the potential Dogma from John Cardinal O'Connor of New York: "Clearly, a formal definition would be articulated in such precise terminology that other Christians would lose their anxiety that we do not distinguish adequately between Mary's unique association with the redemption and the redemptive power exercised by Christ alone." True ecumenism, which is founded on prayer and fraternal charity, necessarily involves understanding each others' position. Since this Dogma does not introduce any new doctrine, we must hope that it would lead to an increase in mutual understanding of truths which already exist. The Catholic quest for this new Marian Dogma is eminently ecumenical. It seeks to acknowledge and to utilize Our Lady's full power of mediation as Mother of the Christian family precisely to unite us, her children, in the one Body of Christ.
* What does the Magisterium of the Church think of the proposal for this Dogma?
There have not been any official statements in the magisterium of the present Pontiff specifically referring to if or when he will declare this Dogma, nor should we expect such a statement until the Vicar of Christ is ready to make one. Yet, the Holy Father's very extensive catecheses on Marian coredemption, mediation, and advocacy gives to those proposing the Dogma the encouragement and the impetus to continue their efforts in having these selfsame Marian prerogatives defined as dogma. In fact, the Christian faithful are encouraged by the Holy Father to continue their role in the progress of Marian doctrine:
"Mariology is a particular field of theological research: in it the Christian people's love for Mary intuited, frequently in anticipation, certain aspects of the mystery of the Blessed Virgin, calling the attention of theologians and pastors to them....As Mariology develops, the particular role of the Christian people emerges. They co-operate, by the affirmation and witness of their faith, in the progress of Marian doctrine, which normally is not only the work of theologians, even if their task is indispensable to deepening and clearly explaining the datum of the faith and the Christian experience itself" (Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano, weekly English edition, 15 November 1995, p. 11).
In June of 1997, a theological commission issued a negative opinion on the possibility of defining a dogma on Mary's maternal mediation. The commission was composed of fifteen Catholic theologians and additional non-Catholic theologians, including an Anglican, a Lutheran, and three Orthodox. Several of the commission's conclusions were corrected by John Paul II in his Wednesday audiences of 24 September and 1 October 1997. Although the Pope did not refer directly to the commission, his teachings were in stark contrast with its conclusions. We also know from recent Church history that several advisory theological commissions requested by the Holy See have come to conclusions which ultimately were not adopted by the Holy See. The most radical example was the theological commission requested by the Holy See to examine the question of artificial birth control, the conclusion of which was overridden by Pope Paul VI when he reaffirmed the constant Church teaching against artificial birth control in his 1968 Encyclical, Humanae Vitae. A far more comprehensive and thorough investigation into the theological possibilities of this Marian Dogma was conducted by another international association of theologians and mariologists, spanning several continents, many countries, and three communities of Christianity. Their findings were in favor of a definition and have been published in two theological volumes dedicated to the question of the Maternal Mediation of Mary: Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate: Theological Foundations, Towards A Papal Definition?, and Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate: Theological Foundations II, Papal, Pneumatological, Ecumenical (1995 and 1997 respectively, Queenship Publishing, Santa Barbara, CA). In 1997 a flurry of conflicting reports appeared in the media in response to an August 18 statement of Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls regarding this possible Marian Dogma. Kenneth L. Woodward, Religion Editor of Newsweek magazine, corrects the inaccurate reports of the so-called "official announcement" from the Holy See that the Pope will not proclaim the dogma: "First, no one at the Vatican has publicly said he won't. The firmest statement from that quarter is this single sentence faxed to Newsweek, in reply to my query, by Dr. Joaquin Navarro-Valls, director of the Holy See Press Office and received after the Newsweek article was published: 'There is no study underway at this moment in time by the Holy Father Pope John Paul II or the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on the subject of the possibility of a papal definition on this theme.'" Some editorials took that statement to mean that the Pope "will not define the dogma." Somehow the press interpreted the words "no study underway at this moment in time" to imply "will not define the dogma." That distinction is critical because the latter (the media's interpretation) connotes that a decision by the Holy Father has already been reached, whereas the former (the Vatican's statement) simply states that the issue is not under study "at this moment in time." It remains the mission of Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici to do exactly what the Papal Magisterium of our Holy Father invites us to do: To "co-operate, by the affirmation and witness of their faith, in the progress of Marian doctrine, " in "calling the attention of theologians and pastors" to "the mystery of the Blessed Virgin." We obediently await the Pontiff's final and authoritative decision on the potential Dogma. In no way is the petition campaign a "democratic" initiative. Those who sign the petition desire for the Dogma to be proclaimed, but only in accordance with the will of the Roman Pontiff.
* What is the urgency for this Dogma?
The Dogma will clarify and define the content of the Catholic Faith, especially as the ordinary magisterial teachings on Mary Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate are currently being undermined in certain quarters within the Church. The contemporary frenzy of media misinformation in the Catholic press regarding these roles manifest the dire need for the papal definition. The definition of any dogma is accompanied by an outpouring of God's grace, of which the Church and the world today are sorely in need. The late Mother Teresa of Calcutta wrote: "The papal definition of Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate will bring great graces to the Church." In fact, this Dogma would also increase our disposition to receive the graces God wants to give to humanity since our capacity to receive grace depends upon our humility. We are humble when we honor "the means" that God chooses to lavish his graces upon us, and when we are grateful not only to God but to those creatures who freely help us. Many believe this Marian Dogma will initiate the Triumph of our Blessed Mother over Satan, as foretold in Genesis and at Fatima. It is the key that unlocks the graces of the Triumph. Her titles are her works, her titles are her functions, and the solemn proclamation of our Mother's titles will lead to the full release of her most powerful sanctifying functions of grace and peace for the many crises experienced in the contemporary Church and world. It will allow her to intercede with the fullest possible mediation given to her by God for this Triumph, for the Church and for humanity. The consecration of the world, inclusive of Russia, to the Immaculate Heart was completed, fulfilling the request of Our Lady of the Rosary at Fatima. Why was it so important? Because it allowed our Blessed Mother to intercede in a powerful way. She respects our freedom just as God the Father respects our freedom. Our Heavenly Mother is limited by our freedom in exercising her full God-given power of mediation and intercession. We must freely acknowledge her as the Mother of all Peoples, Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all Graces, and Advocate so that she can fully exercise these roles for us at this watershed of human history, for the many crises experienced in the contemporary Church and world. Among these graces will be the grace necessary for an authentic Christian unity and reaffirmation of the authority of the papal Magisterium for the fruit of greater ecclesial unity.
For more information or materials regarding Our Lady Coredemptrix, Mediatrix of all Graces and Advocate, and the international Catholic movement, Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici, which is humbly seeking the solemn papal definition of these roles of Our Lady, please contact:
Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici Petition Center
P.O. Box 42028
Santa Barbara, CA 93140-2028
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