The MOST Theological Collection: Our Lady In Doctrine and Devotion
"Addenda: Course description; readings; syllabus; study Q & A"
NOTRE DAME INSTITUTE: Theology 523: Mariology
1. Course description: This course presents in detail the theology that concerns the Blessed Virgin Mary, beginning with her place in God's eternal decrees, going through her role in every one of the mysteries of the life and death of her Son, and her eternal subsequent Queenship. Approach is multidisciplinary: Scripture, Magisterium of Popes and Vatican II, Targums, Rabbinic texts, the Fathers, theological reasoning.
2. Specific Course objectives: To acquaint the student with the riches of Scripture and theology relative to her, especially facets not ordinarily known to Catholics of the teachings of the Magisterium. To show how these things can be used to enrich one's spiritual life.
3. Method of Instruction: Lectures, discussion including frequently invited questions, list of study questions to focus attention, compact summaries of answers to essential study questions, review periods for midterm and for final exams.
4. Grades: Midterm: 50%; final 50%.Term paper not required since course is optional.
[5. Matter covered and timing: Omitted]
6. Required Book: Wm. Most, The Blessed Virgin in Faith and Practice
7. Recommended books:
Vatican II, Lumen gentium
John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater
John Paul II, Mulieris dignitatem
Pius XII, Munificentissimus Deus
Pius XII, Fulgens corona
Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus
Juniper B. Carol, ed. Mariology, 3 volumes
Cyril Vollert, The Study of Mary
Wm. Most, Our Father's Plan
Syllabus for Theology 523. Blessed Virgin in Doctrine & Devotion
1. Eternal Plans:
a) LG 61: Eternal decree for Incarnation included the Mother.
b) Who it is who plans: God the Mighty: Two poles on our relation to Him. Patristic texts on via negativa. Help from astronomy.
c) Motive of Incarnation: St. Irenaeus
2. Plan begins to be foretold: Gen 3.15.Magisterium on it. (special case of Dei verbum 12 compared to LG 55). The light from the Targums(their date). Gen.49.10; Numbers 24.15-16; Isaiah 9.5-6 and 7.14. Isaiah 11.1-9; Isaiah 53; Micah 5. Messianic-divinity implications of Psalm 80.15-18; Psalm 45.7-8; Ezek.34.11; Jer.30.11; 2 Sam 7.16.
Her knowledge of her future Son.
3. Sinai Covenant. Exodus 19.5. Two levels of covenant; their relation to Romans 2.6. Prophecy of New Covenant: Jer. 3.31-33.
4. Preparation for a perfect response to the Father: The Immaculate Conception. Gradual clarification of the deposit of faith.
5. Eternal plan begins to be realized:
a) Authenticity of Infancy Gospels: Paul VI, allocution of Dec. 28, 1966; John Paul II, General Audience of Jan.28,1988; LG 57 compared to LG 55 (with cf. references); J. L. McKenzie's review of Brown on infancy Gospels. Research on St. Luke's Semitisms.
b) In name of whole human race: LG 56
c) Virginity: LG 57. The "Brothers"
6. Divine Motherhood:
a) Pius XI, Lux veritatis; St. Thomas Aquinas I.25.6.ad 4.
b)Relation to hearing the Word and keeping it: LG 58.
7. Presentation in temple: offertory of great sacrifice. Both Mother & Son renew fiat.
8.At Age 12 in Temple: Problem of Mary's knowledge. Holding on in dark.
9.Hidden life: a strain on faith. Clash of senses and faith.
10. Inauguration of public life: Cana:
a) Intercession shown
b) Holding on in dark: "Woman"; "What is it to me and to you"
11. The problem of Mark 3.20-35, (cf. Mt.12-48-50) compared to Luke 1-2. Dei verbum §12.
12.Cooperation in the Redemption:
a) Basic theology of redemption: Catholic vs Protestant theology.
b) Terms: objective and subjective, remote and immediate in objective redemption.
c) Summary of Magisterium up to and including Vatican II. Texts of John Paul II.
d) Covenant aspect of redemption: two levels, covenant condition = price of redemption; official appointment in LG 58 &61; "consent to the immolation": LG 58 and John Paul II in Redemptoris Mater §18 and Guyaquil address (2-11-85).
e) The alternatives of Redemption
f) Problem of Vatican II declaring intention not to settle disputed points: LG 54,compared to LG 55, St. Irenaeus on the knot (cf. LG 56), Jeremiah 31.31ff, and commentary of Gerard Philips.
g) LG 62: "Nulla creatura umquam connumerari potest."
h) Infallibility of teaching from repetition on Ordinary Magisterium level.
i) Corollary: her role in each Mass: John Paul II, on Feb.12,1984.
13. Mediatrix of All Graces LG 62:
a) preliminary floor speeches; note 16 (by Council) on LG 62. Further Papal texts. Protestant observers.
b) Nature of causality: intercession, physical instrumentality.
c) Problem of knowledge of all needs: Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus.
14.The First Pentecost.
a) Mother of the Church.
b) Source of knowledge of early life of Jesus: John Paul II,General Audience of Jan. 28,1988.
c) Spouse of the Holy Spirit. St. Maximilian Kolbe on "I am the Immaculate Conception".
15. Assumption: problem of finding it in sources of revelation, and solution by Pius XII, in Munificentissimus Deus. Implications of text for cooperation in redemption.
16. Queenship: Grounds for it. Queenship as ground for Marian consecration. Bendito seia.
17. Consortium, "Always sharing His lot": Pius XII, Munificentissimus Deus; Vatican II's development of it. Implications for Marian consecration.
18. Lumen gentium 67 on Marian devotion. Paul VI, Marialis cultus.
19. Revelation 12: Woman clothed with the sun: Magisterium on it. Implications of age of Mary.
20. Principles on private revelations. Chief approved apparitions.
21. Consequences for devotion: Imitation of her virtues, especially faith, love, humility, mortification, awareness of presence of God.
22. Mary in infused contemplation.
23. Marian consecration. How to live it out in detail. Relation to Scapular of Mt. Carmel.
24. Our Lady as secondary source of Beatitude. Pius XII Address of Dec. 8, 1953.
Study Questions for Theology 523: Mariology
1. Did Vatican II really downgrade Mary? What led to the impression it did so? What was probably behind the problem?
2. How did some floor speakers charge several Popes with heresy?
3. What position did Cardinal Santos propose?
4. How did Cardinal Koenig react to the talk of Cardinal Santos?
5. What consensus among Mariologists had been reached before Vatican II? What was the theory of the German Mariologists on cooperation in Redemption?
6. Define objective and subjective redemption; immediate and remote cooperation.
7. Who had proposed a basically Lutheran theology of redemption for Mariology?
8. When was Mary first associated with Jesus? Evidence for this?
9. What liturgical text has been often used to refer to her? Does it really include her in any way?
10. What essential dimension in our perception of God is often lacking or nearly so today? Give two quotes from the Fathers of the Church to help on this? How else can we get help to restoring the lost dimension?
11. What did Jesus mean by saying: One is good, God?
12. What is divine transcendence? Give two instances of it.
13. What was God's motive for the incarnation? In what sense did He create for His own glory?
14. Would there have been an Incarnation if Adam had not sinned?
15. What are the principal messianic prophecies identified as such by the Targums? What are Targums? How can we know their date of composition?
16. What do magisterium texts say about Genesis 3.15?
17. How does John Paul II explain the use of "woman" by Jesus to refer to His Mother?
18. What OT indications were there of the divinity of the coming messiah? Did the ancient Jews understand them?
19. Why did not the Targums mark Is 7.14 as messianic? Who really was the child in that verse?
20. What did the Targum do to Is 53? What do modern Jewish scholars say about that?
21. What can we gather from the study of Jacob Neusner about Jewish literature on the Messiah?
22. What is a covenant? Was the covenant of Sinai bilateral or unilateral?
23. What did Jeremiah 31.31 ff foretell? How much did Jeremiah understand of his prophecy?
24. What are the two levels of answers as to why God gives good things under the covenant?
25. What two phases of Scripture study do we see especially in regard to the Immaculate Conception?
26. What Scriptural passages provide a basis for the Immaculate Conception? What patristic statements?
27. Is the translation "full of grace" linguistically defensible? How?
28. What theologian helped turn the tide in thinking about the Immaculate Conception? How did he do it? What did the Popes do?
29. Why did St. Bernard of Clairvaux deny the Immaculate Conception? What arguments were used by later theologians against it?
30. What is the real nature of original sin? Early errors on it? How was it possible to improve our language about it?
31. What is preventive redemption? To re-deem means to buy back? Was she then in original sin?
32. Who greatly improved our language about original sin?
33. What are the three levels of God's gifts to Adam and Eve? How many do we now have?
34. Mary needed the grace of Christ to be conceived immaculate. How could she get that before He was born and died?
35. Did she have a debt of contracting original sin?
36. What do we learn from Pius IX about Mary's holiness in general? What does Pius XII have on the same point?
37. Jesus once said: Rather blessed are they who hear the word of God and keep it. Implications?
38. Did she gave the gift of tongues?
39. She was full of grace at the start. Could she grow spiritually? What factors regulate spiritual growth in any soul? What is holding on in the dark?
40. What is sanctifying grace? What are the two categories of grace?
41. What are the differences in God's policies in giving out each kind of grace? Why?
42. At Lourdes she called herself the Immaculate Conception. What does St. Maximilian Kolbe see in this?
43. Did she know of her own immaculate conception?
44. What does merit mean?
45. What evidence do we have from the Magisterium for the historicity of the infancy Gospels? What help from John L. McKenzie?
46. How can we reconcile Matthew and Luke on the narratives of the infancy? How answer the charge that there was no such census?
47. How much could Mary learn from the angel at the annunciation? From which words? What three stages are there in that episode?
48. Compare the handling by Vatican II of the annunciation narrative with its treatment of Genesis 3.15.
49. What Father does Vatican II quote about the annunciation? Implications? What virtue is stressed? Why?
50. What was the significance of her consent at the annunciation?
51. What are the three phases of her virginity? What evidence for each?
52. What is a theologoumenon? Could the teaching on her virginity have been a theologoumenon? Why?
53. Hebrew ah means not only brother, but almost any kind of relative. But the Gospels, in Greek, did have words for many kinds of relatives? So how do we know they did not mean blood brothers?
54. What of the word "firstborn"? What of "until"?
55. What did Luther and Calvin say about perpetual virginity?
56. What tradition did the rabbis have about Moses after his first encounter with God? Implications for perpetual virginity of Our Lady?
57. Who thought intercourse within marriage was sinful? Why? Answer the reasons. What false concept of original sin was involved?
58. How early do we find the title Theotokos? Who denied it was correct? Who showed that it implies all the correct data of Christology?
59. What would be the theological consequences if Theotokos were not correct?
60. Who were the Agnoites? Who condemned them?
61. How great is the dignity of the Divine Motherhood? Compare it to hearing and keeping the word of God.
62. What charge do some make about Mary in Mark 3.21-35? How answer them?
63. What special significance do we see in the presentation in the Temple? What help from the Epistle to the Hebrews? How could Jesus as an infant make such a response?
64. How can we show even without the help of the Magisterium that the human soul of Jesus always saw the vision of God? What effect did this have on His suffering before the Passion? during it? How could He suffer at all when He had that vision?
65. Why did Jesus let Mary and Joseph suffer for three days when they lost Him? She did not understand His words: did she know or not know who He was? How much would she have known of Him in general How?
66. Did she have any difficulties in believing? How?
67. What is the usual tone of "What is it to you and to me"? What do we see in His use of the word woman to address her?
68. What do the terms objective and subjective redemption mean? What is immediate cooperation?
69. How did the death of Jesus operate in bringing forgiveness and grace? Explain the three aspects. What is the problem about price of redemption? Its answer?
70. Which early Father gives us four possible explanations of the how of the redemption? What are they?
71. In the garden Jesus asked that the chalice pass if possible. Would it have been possible and yet we would have had an infinite redemption? How?
72. What was the theory of St. Anselm? What defects did it have?
73. Where do we find the concept that sin is a debt? What Hebrew/Aramaic word was often used to mean sin debt?
74. What did Paul VI teach about the concept that sin is a debt? What Rabbi taught the same?
75. What is the New Eve theme? Who first wrote on it? Which Father did Vatican II quote on it? What point did those quotes stress?
76. Did many Fathers speak of the New Eve?
77. If a text teaches that in some way Our Lady cooperated in the great Sacrifice, what further question is to be asked?
78. Name three Popes who taught immediate cooperation in the objective redemption. What is the rating of a doctrine repeatedly taught on ordinary Magisterium level?
79. What conditions did Pius XII give in Humani generis for making a doctrine infallible?
80. Who was the first Pope to speak of her immediate cooperation in the great sacrifice? Name at least three other Popes who did the same.
81. What is the meaning of "by right of conquest"? What Pope used these words?
82. Which Pope spoke of Calvary as a great struggle "in common"?
83. What special statement did Pius XII make in the document defining the Assumption her cooperation? How did that fit with the Assumption?
84. What did Vatican II say on immediate cooperation? What of the objection that it said that it did not intend to settle any Mariological disputes?
85. Which Pope spoke of her self-emptying? What does that mean?
86. Which Pope after Leo XIII was opposed to teaching her cooperation?
87. Was she appointed officially to cooperate? How do we know? What is the importance of the answer?
88. What is the relation of her cooperation to the new covenant? What relation to the price of redemption?
89. How can we as it were measure her suffering at the cross? Which Pope shed light on this?
90. Show by theological reasoning alone, without the help of the Magisterium, that she cooperated immediately in the great sacrifice?
91. Was her cooperation on the same level as that of Jesus?
92. What are the alternatives of redemption? What light do they shed on her cooperation?
93. What light does our role in the Mass shed on her role on Calvary?
94. What if any is her role in the Mass today? What Popes spoke on it?
95. What does Mediatrix of all graces mean? Did Vatican II teach or deny it? Why did the council not add the words "of all graces"? Did any Popes teach it?
96. Does this teaching clash with the words of St. Paul in 1 Tim 2:5 that there is only one Mediator? Explain. Were there other mediators in Scripture?
97. What principle of St. Thomas helps understand why the Father willed her cooperation? That of the other saints also?
98. What did Vatican II teach on her spiritual motherhood?
99. In what ways does her mediation operate?
100. We her children are very numerous. How can she care for so many, in so many respects?
101. What was her role at the first Pentecost? Did she receive the gift of tongues then?
102. Explain the work of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit. To what category of graces do they belong? Who receives them?
103. What early Father taught she is Mother of the Church? Which Popes later?
104. Who defined the Assumption? How could he find it in the sources of revelation?
105. What is the principle of consortium? What are its chief stages?
106. Did Pius XII act alone in defining the Assumption?
107. How did Pius XII find the Assumption in the sources of revelation?
108. What is the relation of the Immaculate Conception to the Assumption?
109. What argument did St. Francis de Sales give in favor of the Assumption?
110. Did Our Lady die? What did Pius XII say on this?
111. What do St. John of the Cross and St. Francis de Sales say on her death?
112. What is the Scriptural basis for her Queenship?
113. What are the two chief theological grounds for her Queenship?
114. What was the Old Testament gebirah?
115. What is consortium? What did Pius XII say on it? Vatican II?
116. How could we describe the role the Father has given her? What did this imply as to Marian consecration?
117. Are all obliged to follow a strongly marian form of life? Why?
118. What did Vatican II say about Marian devotion? What did it say about the Rosary?
119. Do we worship Mary? How answer Protestant claims on this?
120. What did Paul VI do at the end of the third session of Vatican II?
121. Who is the woman of Apocalypse 12? How do we know that?
122. Is there anything in Scripture about an age of Mary?
123. What was the origin of the Rosary? The role of St. Dominic? What of the apparition at Prouille? What of the promises given to Blessed Alan de la Roche?
124. Which Pope established a feast of the Rosary? What led him to that? Which recent approved apparitions have called for the Rosary?
125. How is it possible to attend to each word of each Hail Mary while saying the Rosary?
126. What is the origin of the Carmelite Scapular? Sketch the historical evidence for that vision.
127. What is the difference of public and private revelations? What is the difference of the authority of the Church in each area?
128. What did Pius XII say about the brown Scapular? What requirement did he stress for obtaining the promise?
129. What did Pius XI teach on the assurance gained from solid marian devotion? What other Popes spoke similarly? What is the theological basis? Does this pertain to public or private revelation?
130. What is the gift of final perseverance? What does St. Paul teach on it? What did some older theologians think on it?
131. What is "Suppliant omnipotence"?
132. What is the Sabbatine privilege? What problem is there in the historical evidence on it?
133. What are the conditions for the Sabbatine privilege?
134. Which is the chief virtue of hers to imitate?
135. What is the relation of love to faith to obedience?
136. Why does God give us commandments? Does our obedience do Him any good?
137. What is the syn Christo theme?
138. What difficulties were there for her faith? Distinguish the elements in faith.
139. What did she know at the time of her fiat?
140. How was it possible for her to be humble when she was sinless?
141. St. Paul shows we are totally dependent on God for a good thought, a good decision, for acting. Yet we control the outcome when a grace comes. How?
142. When did a Pope call for debates on the subject of grace? Which Pope? What was the final decision? Why the impasse?
143. What is nonresistance? Its role in our cooperation?
144. What did St. Teresa of Avila say of God's desires to give?
145. Which virtues help humility? What is the role of mental prayer?
146. How did Vatican II help build a base for living a Marian consecration? Do we make it only through her, or also to her?
147. In living a consecration we could say we follow three kinds of spirit? Which?
148. Who said we should become her? In what sense?
149. What is the relation to all of this of the principle of diversity of spiritual attractions?
150. In what sense is she present to us? How can we cultivate a sense of that presence?
151. Within a consecration, do we pray only through her?
152. What does it mean to give her the right of disposing of what things we have? What things?
153. What power of attorney could we give her?
154. In what sense could we be said to obey her? Why? How do we know what she asks us to do?
155. What did St. Francis de Sales say of duties of state in life? Of diversity in devotion? What application does he make of this as to a wife?
156. What is conformity to the will of God? Its importance? Distinctions?
157. What is somatic resonance? Implications for spiritual life?
158. What is reparation? Why due also to her?
159. What is spiritual hardening or blinding? How does it happen. If a person become blinded is he certainly lost eternally?
160. What help is there when we need to pick between options in decisions?
161. What is a private policy? How to make one? Advantages?
162. What is discernment of spirits? Who gave helpful rules for it?
163. What is infused contemplation? Does everyone need to have it to become perfect?
164. What is her possible place in infused contemplation?
165. What are secondary sources of blessedness in heaven?
166. What do St. John of the Cross and St. Teresa of Avila say of private revelations?
167. Are the three requests of Fatima a matter of private revelation?
168. What two kinds of decisions may a local bishop make in regard to an alleged apparition in his diocese? What are our obligations in each?
169. What did St. Margaret Mary report Our Lord told her about obedience?
170. What three kinds of sources may there be for an alleged vision?
171. What did the Fathers of the Church think about appearances of God in the Old Testament? Were they right?
172. Did St. Justin Martyr hold for subordinationism?
173. How large a percent of reported apparitions are spurious according to Poulain?
174. What causes of illusions does St. Teresa of Avila mention?
175. What does St. John of the Cross advise as to receiving visions?
176. Have Saints ever misunderstood visions?
177. What of extended visions of the life of Christ?
178. What did Benedict XIV have to say about errors in visions given to Saints?
179. What false vision seems to have come to St. Catherine of Siena?
180. Have there been cases of bad faith by visionaries?
181. What did St. Bonaventure say of reports of visions he received?
182. Why would satan ever urge people to penances?
183. What false visions did St. Monica have?
184. What are Poltergeists?
185. Does satan ever appear as Christ?
186. Give some of the rules of St. Ignatius.
187. What warnings do St. Francis de Sales and St. John of the Cross give about long-running consolations?
188. Is infused contemplation an essential feature of high spiritual development?
189. List some of the signs of the spirit of God.
190. List some of the signs of the devil's work.
191. Does Jesus Himself ever appear today?
Answers to Study Questions, Theology 523
1. Vatican II did not downgrade. Instead, it went farther theologically, and wrote more extensively on her than all previous Councils combined. The media distorted the results of a close vote during the Second Session on where to put the Marian matter- separate document, or document on the Church. Probably behind it was desire of German Mariologists to say she could do no more than the Church in the Redemption: active receptivity. They did not get it.
2. They said that to call our Lady mediatrix contradicted 1 Tim 2:5: "There is one Mediator". This was an old Protestant objection, any good theologian knows the answer. But several Popes had called her Mediatrix.
3. Cardinal Santos said they she merited redemption with Christ. This was in contrast to mere active receptivity the German proposal.
4. Even though Cardinal Santos stated clearly the most advanced teaching on her immediate cooperation in the objective Redemption, Cardinal Koenig said he agreed.
5. By about 1959 Mariologists agreed that in some sense she did cooperate immediately (on Calvary) in the objective redemption. No agreement on just how that worked.
6. Objective redemption: the work of once-for-all earning all forgiveness and grace; subjective: the work of giving out the fruits of that throughout all centuries. Remote cooperation: being Mother of Redeemer, furnishing the flesh in which He could die. Immediate: some role in the great sacrifice itself.
7. Germans proposed a Lutheran theology of redemption: she merely appropriated what Christ alone won.
8. She was joined with Him in the eternal plans of God. All His decrees are eternal, so He decreed Incarnation eternally, so He also planned for the Mother eternally. Vatican II explicitly teaches this.
9. Proverbs 8. 22ff. originally referred to Wisdom, which came to be spoken of in OT as a person. 1 Cor speaks of Christ as the wisdom of the Father. so the Holy Spirit probably had all this in mind. Then because she was "always sharing His lot" she is at least connected to it.
10. There are two poles or centers: love -closeness-warmth and sense of majesty-greatness. The second is often neglected. St. Gregory of Nyssa said: "The One Sought is beyond all knowledge." St. Augustine: He must not even be called inexpressible, for when we say that word, we say something. Meditation on data of astronomy helps.
11. He mean that the word good as applied to God, and as applied to all others is partly same in sense, but differences are far greater.
12. He is transcendent in that He is above and beyond all our categories. We know in either active or passive ways: neither fits Him. And He cannot change, yet in Incarnation takes on a humanity.
13. Motive as not to gain, but to have someone to receive His benefits, said St. Irenaeus. He created for own glory in sense that through giving benefits to creatures glory comes- but it does Him no good.
14. Franciscans said He would have sent Christ even if Adam had not sinned. Dominicans said opposite. We cannot settle it.
15. Principal messianic prophecies are: Gen. 15, Gen 49. 10, Is 9. 5-6, Is 53, Micah 5.
Targums are old Aramaic versions, of OT, usually free and with fill ins. Jacob Neusner found that there a was no interest in the Messiah up to about 500 AD after fall of Jerusalem, and after that, they mentioned only line of David. So the Targum understandings of so many texts could not have been written in that period.
16. Pius IX does not speak in his own name to say Gen 3. 15 is Messianic, cites approved authors. But Pius XII in Munificentissimus Deus leaves no doubt he considers it messianic.
17. John Paul, in Redemptoris Mater, says the word woman is to link together Gen 3. 15, The Cana Episode, Mary at foot of Cross, and Apocalypse 12.
18. Isaiah 9:5-6 says Messiah will be God the Mighty. Targums saw it was messianic, but translations of the Targum vary. Other indications of His divinity: Psalm 80:15-18; Ez 34:11; Jer 23:3; Jer 30:11.
19. Targums at time of Hillel saw Is 7. 14 was Messianic, later, as Neusner admits, Jews pulled back, seeing Christians using it. But the child of 7. 14 is surely the same child as in 9. 5-6--and Targums make the latter messianic.
20. Targums distorted Is 53, making the meek lamb an arrogant conqueror. Jacob Neusner, H. J. Schoeps, and Samson Levey admit Jews distorted things to keep Christians away.
21. See answer to #19 above.
22. A covenant is a pact, like a contract: Exodus 19. 5: If you really hearken to my voice... you will be my special people. Sinai was bilateral, God and people both took on obligations.
23. Jer 31. 31 ff foretold the new covenant. Not sure if Jer knew the chief obedience would be that of Jesus, but Holy Spirit did mean that.
24. Basic reason for giving under covenant is unmerited generosity; secondary reason is that human fulfill covenant condition.
25. Two phases: 1) Study by human means, exegesis 2) see what Church has given on it, at least indirectly (relation to other teachings). As to IC, Magisterium now sees it in Gen 3. 15 and in "full of grace". By ourselves we could say only that it is possibly in those lines.
26. Gen 3:15 and "full of grace". Many Fathers spoke of her holiness in glowing terms, which could imply IC.
27. Yes, kecharitomene is strong form, perfect pass. participle. It is on a verb ending in oo which means to put person into state indicated by the root (of charis, "grace", "favor"). And is used in place of her personal name, like Mr. Tennis: ultimate in category mentioned.
28. Venerable Duns Scotus helped turn the tide in favor of IC. Then Popes began to intervene, and by a century and a half before 1854 everyone believed IC. Scotus developed idea of Christ as most perfect Mediator, who could even preserve His Mother by anticipation.
29. Bernard said it was not in tradition. He followed poor biology of the time, and said sanctification could not come before animation.
30. Original sin is a mere privation, lack of grace that should be there. There had been a tendency to make it somewhat positive, in concupiscence. Vatican II, on Ecumenism called for improvement of older language on things in general.
31. It means giving grace by anticipation of merits of Christ. The etymological argument on buy-back was false, one does not prove nature of things by etymology, and the original was Hebrew, not Latin or Greek anyway.
32. John Paul II greatly improved language about original sin.
33. Three levels: natural gifts, preternatural gifts, supernatural gifts. Adam lost all but the first, we regain the third by redemption.
34. Got it by anticipation of His merits.
35. The very idea of an obligation to sin or take on sin is nonsense.
36. Pius IX said her holiness (= love of God) was so great at the start that "none greater under God can be thought of, and only God can comprehend it." Pius XII said hers was greater than that of all angels and Saints combined.
37. Meant that hearing word of God and keeping it was higher category than physically being Mother of God. She was at peak in both categories.
38. Gift of tongues is in charismatic category. Texts on her holiness seem basically on sanctifying category.
39. Her capacity to take in the infinite vision of God could grow, and it did. Holiness consists in attachment of will to the will of God. To hold on in dark is to believe when it seems impossible: then the will adheres more powerfully.
40. Sanctifying grace is that which gives basic ability to see God face to face. Increase in grace is increase in capacity. Grace is either sanctifying or charismatic.
41. In sanctifying category He offers grace without limit: has accepted infinite price of redemption; in charismatic, the Spirit gives what He wills when He wills.
42. Just as a wife takes husband's name, so she, Spouse of Holy Spirit, took His name: immaculate Concept of the Father.
43. Probably yes. Targums see Mother of Redeemer in Gen 3:15. Pius XII said that text contained the IC. If Targums and Church see it, she probably did too.
44. Merit is a claim to a reward.
45. Paul VI speaks of them as historical, and cites Vatican II in favor. John Paul II says Mary was source of information. McKenzie says there must have been an infancy narrative before Luke wrote.
46. Only real difficulty is on the census. New work of E. L. Martin shows scholars picked wrong eclipse of moon for the one just before death of Herod. Should be Jan 10, 1 BC.
47. When angel said her Son would reign forever, it was clear He as Messiah. When he said Holy Spirit would overshadow, and for that reason He would be called Son of God, this meant a fully unique sonship, and "overshadow" in OT meant divine presence filling the tabernacle.
48. Vatican II used extreme care on Gen 3:15 (using cf.). No such reserve on the annunciation.
49. LG quotes St. Irenaeus twice, on her obedience as the means of sharing in redemption. Also uses obedience in LG 61.
50. Gave consent in name of whole human race.
51. Before, during and after birth. Mt. and Lk very clear on before. On rest we depend on Church and on answering objections, especially show in Hebrew ah means more than brother, and even though Greek had words for many kinds of relatives, writers kept their Semitic speech habits.
52. A theologoumenon is way of expressing something as standing for something else, without meaning the basic literal sense. Her virginity is not a theoulogoumenon, LG 57 spoke of her virginal integrity, a physical word.
53. Many examples seen in NT where writers kept their Semitic speech habits, e.g., yada know means also love.
54. Firstborn was Hebrew bekor, name for special position, getting more inheritance. We have two tomb inscriptions using the word when mother died in first child birth.
55. Luther and Calvin both believed perpetual virginity.
56. Rabbis after Philo held Moses after first encounter with God never had sex with his wife again.
57. Jerome and probably Augustine -- an error, based on poor translation of 1 Cor 7:6 venia, as pardon. Also reflected notion concupiscence was part of original sin.
58. Theotokos appears in a papyrus of 2nd century, Sub tuum praesidium. Then seems to appear in St. Hippolytus and Origen. Opposed by Nestorius, Defined by Council of Ephesus in 431. St. Gregory of Nazianzus showed Theotokos implies in Christ there are one Person, divine, and two natures.
59. Redemption would be finite in value, and no incarnation such as we know it to be.
60. Agnoites came from Nestorians: Human person in Christ would know only what divine Person would reveal. Condemned by Pope Vigilius.
61. Pius XI, following Thomas, called it quasi infinite. Even so, dignity of hearing and keeping word of God is greater - but she was at peak in both categories.
62. Some say she was among those who in Mk 3. 21 went out to get Jesus, not believing in Him. Not sure she was with that group, even if so, she would have gone along to hold them down. Further, there are 3 segments in Mk 3. 21-35, may all have been separate originally, and so she would not be in the group of 3. 21.
63. Presentation in Temple was offertory of Great Sacrifice, for then He renewed interiorly what Epistle to Hebrews says He had said on entering the world: Behold, I come to do your will O God. She would renew her fiat a same time. As infant, Jesus had the vision of God in His human soul, which opened up all knowledge to Him.
64. Any soul has the vision if divinity joins itself to soul directly without even image in between. Because of incarnation in one Person that was inevitable in Him. So He saw all His suffering from first instant, let us see inside in Lk 12:50 and John 12:27.
65. He wanted them to hold on in dark and so grow greatly. She did know who He was. She did not understand the strange reversal in His usual compliant behavior.
66. She never wavered in faith, but would have a strain from clash of what her senses said: this feels like an ordinary baby or child-- and what her faith told her about Him.
67. The most common tone of "What is it to you and to me" is one at least close to rejection. The word woman probably links Gen 3. 15, Cana, the foot of the Cross, and Apoc 12 as John Paul II said.
68. See question 6 above.
69. Three aspects: 1) new covenant - in which essential condition is obedience; 2) sacrifice, interior is obedience; 3) rebalance of objective order, again by obedience even to death. She share din all three aspects by her obedience. Price of redemption not paid to satan, but to rebalance objective order.
70. St. Athanasius: blunt a force let loose by sin, substitute for us, payment of debt, physical mystical solidarity.
71. Even without the cross, mere incarnation was infinite as merit and as satisfaction. Father willed more, to show horror of sin, and His love.
72. Anselm said it was payment of debt, that Father was obliged- not true.
73. Debt concept found in OT, Intertestamental literature, in NT, in rabbis, in Fathrs. Hebrew and Aramaic hobah means both sin and debt.
74. Paul VI in Indulgentiarum doctrina, taught that every sin disturbs the universal moral order, and for full makeup for sin that must be restored. Same idea taught by Rabbi Simeon ben Eleazar c. 170AD.
75. New Eve theme says just as the fist Eve really contributed to damage of original sin, so the New Eve, Mary, contributed to reversing it. First Father on it was Justin Martyr c. 145 AD. Most of the great Fathers took it up, Especially St. Irenaeus, quoted him twice in DV §56 on her obedience.
76. Most of the great Fathers did stress it.
77. We must ask: in what way did she share? Germans said by active receptivity, others, by contributing to the title for grace and forgiveness.
78. Taught by every Pope from Leo XIII to John Paul II inclusive. Doctrines taught repeatedly on ordinary level are infallible.
79. If a Pope in His Acta deliberately takes position on something currently debated in theology, then it comes under, "He who hears you hears me" and debate is closed.
80. See #78.
81. Pius XII used "by right of conquest" in Bendito seia, to mean she cooperated in the redemption.
82. Pius XII, in Munificentissimus Deus.
83. Said since the struggle, Calvary, was a work in common, the result had to be in common, i.e., glorification for Him by resurrection & ascension, for her by Assumption.
84. In LG §61: In suffering with Him as He died on the cross, she cooperated in the work of the Savior, in an altogether singular way, by obedience, faith, hope and burning love, to restore supernatural life to souls." It said it would not settle debates, yet in the text cited taught more than it realized, i.e., that she shared by obedience, the covenant condition, which is more than active receptivity.
85. John Paul II said that, meant that her obedience, willing that He die thus, was self-emptying in faith, going in clash to her love, and so was great cooperation.
86. Not one.
87. LG §§ 56 and 61 said she was there by divine plan. Without that appointment, her cooperation would not count for redemption.
88. Her obedience was part of condition of new covenant, and of the interior of the sacrifice.
89. She was asked to positively will his terrible death because Father willed it, going counter to love so great that Pius IX said it was so great that "none greater under God can be thought of, and no one but God can comprehend it."
90. Her obedience at the cross was a continuation of her fiat, and that obedience was part of the covenant condition, of the interior of sacrifice, and of rebalance of objective order, the debt.
91. Not at all; Her whole ability to cooperate came from Him.
92. Alternatives: 1) forgive without make-up; 2) appoint a mere human to do any religious act; 3) incarnation in a palace, no death or suffering; 4) the stable and the cross; 5) add her cooperation to 4.
93. We are asked to join our obedience to His in renewal of new covenant, Mass; so there must be a parallel in the making of the new covenant, which was her obedience joined with His.
94. She shares in exterior :flesh came from her; she has union of interior with that of His. John XXIII and John Paul II spoke of this.
95. Mediatrix means she shares in dispensing very grace, by intercession, and by having shared in earning all. Was not necessary to add "of all graces" was implied in saying she shared in earning all. And Protestant observers threatened to stop dialogue. Leo XIII, St. Pius X, Pius XI, John XXIII had taught "of all graces", in varying language.
96. Paul means only one is Mediator by nature (divine and human), one is necessary, and one works by own power. Moses and Job were also mediators in OT.
97. From I. 19. 5. c we find that God ion His love of good order likes to have one thing in place to serge as reason for granting a second thing. In this vein He willed Marian cooperation and other saints, though not needing them.
98. Said as a result of her suffering and meriting with Him, she is Mother of all of us.
99. By having earned all, by intercession. Some would say she is physical instrument of transmission of graces.
100. Her grace is so great that "only God can comprehend it" said Pius IX. Her ability to see vision of God now is in proportion to that.
101. She prayed for the Spirit, perhaps needed to help discouraged Apostles after some time. Not sure if she received tongues, which are in charismatic category.
102. The perfect the infused virtues. All receive them with sanctifying grace, but their full activity is found only in advanced souls. They are in sanctifying category, so charismatic phenomena cannot actualize them across categories.
103. Origen taught that Pius XII, John XXIII and Paul VI also taught it.
104. Pius XII defined assumption, found it contained in New Eve theme: shared in struggle of Calvary so shared in resultant glorification.
105. Means she was always sharing His lot, in every one of the mysteries of His life and death, and in eternity before time, and in eternity after time is over.
106. He had consulted the Bishops by mail.
107. Cf. 104.
108. IC gave freedom from original sin, but did not necessarily bring freedom from death or result of death.
109. Any Son who could would raise his mother.
110. We are not sure she died. Pius XII refrained from saying it in his own words.
111. They say she died as result of love.
112. Scripture shows she is Mother of Him who is King by nature and by right of conquest.
113. She is Mother of Creator, and she shared in redemption.
114. Gebirah was Queen Mother, who often had much influence.
115. It is "always sharing in His lot" said Pius XII. Vatican II showed in detail her sharing in all mysteries. . Cf. answer to 105.
116. The Father has put her everywhere in His approach to us, implying it is ideal, not mandatory to give her similar place in our response to Him. To do that is living out a full consecration.
117. Not all are obliged to fullest Marian life: principle of diversity of spiritual attractions.
118. It said everything the Magisterium recommended in devotion in past is still of great importance. That implied rosary of course.
119. No, our honor is not of divine character, we do not consider her as God. Protestants who insist we mean it that way are guilty of rash judgment for insisting they know our interior, when they cannot know it.
120. He renewed consecration to her, said he would send golden rose to Fatima. And proclaimed her Mother of the Church.
121. It is both our Lady and the Church, Hebrew pattern of an individual standing for a group. Pius X, Pius XII, Paul VI, and John Pal II spoke in this direction.
122. Some think the telescoping of images in Apoc. 12 implies an age of Mary.
123. Perhaps originated in a preaching-praying method, with much help from St. Dominic. The evidence for the reported apparition to him at Prouille is not strong. Yet many Popes call him author of the rosary for his work with preaching-praying method. Promises given to Blessed Alan have scant foundation.
124. Gregory XIII first allowed a feast of Rosary. Then Clement X extended it to all Spain. Clement XI extended feast to whole Church. All was sparked by the victory at Lepanto in 1571 at time of Pius V. Lourdes and Fatima have urged Rosary.
125. We need not attend to each word -- should meditate on subject of mystery instead.
126. Brown Scapular came from a vision to St. Simon Stock in 1251. Historical evidence for it is very good. Pius XII on 700th anniversary wrote very favorable letter to Carmelite Superiors.
127. Public revelation was closed when last Apostle died and NT was finished. All after that are called private, even if addressed to world. Church has divine commission and promise of protection in public, not in private.
128. Pius XII spoke of Scapular as means of achieving salvation safely. Stressed mere physical wearing of scapular is not enough - must be sign of real marian devotion.
129. Pius XI said those whom she protects will not have eternal death, because of her protection. Benedict XV and Pius XII spoke similarly. Based on her cooperation in redemption. This is public, not just private revelation.
130. Even though God offers needed grace for each occasion taken singly, yet for sustained effort up to end, an added grace is needed, final perseverance. St. Paul three times teaches God will offer that to all. Some old theologians said God might deny it even without grave sin in the person. They contradict St. Paul.
131. It means all God can do my His natural power, she can obtain by asking Him for it.
132. There are two versions, uncertain which is correct, original bull was lost. One promises deliverance from purgatory on first Saturday after death, other is more vague. Conditions: wear scapular, practice chastity according to state in life, and say office or get a commutation from a priest with the faculty, usually to a daily rosary.
133. See 132.
134. Chiefly her faith-love-obedience, in humility.
135. The three are different on paper, same in practice.
136. It does Him no good if we obey. He gives commands:1) He loves objective goodness, which says creatures must obey Creator; 2) He wants to give us good, which is useless unless we are open to receive.
137. Paul says we are saved and made holy if and to extent we are members of Christ and like Him. Cf. Esp. Rom 8:17, also first part of Romans 6, Eph 2, and Col 3.
138. She had seen marvels, yet He felt like an ordinary child, acted like one at home for 30 years. Faith includes: belief in what God says, confidence in His promises, obedience to His commands. Very different from Luther: confidence merits of Christ apply to me.
139. All the messianic prophecies would start coming into her mind, including Is 53 of His passion. Even ordinary Jews understood them, all the more she would.
140. Humility requires we know and accept our status before God: she knew all the good she was, had and did was His gift to her.
141. God sends me a thought of what He wills me to do (2Cor 3:5), and makes we well disposed. At that point where I could reject, if I do nothing against it, grace continues in its course, and "works in me both the will and the doing" (Phil. 2:13), while giving me the ability at same instant to cooperate.
142. In 1597 Clement VIII ordered Dominicans and Jesuits to debate in Rome on grace and predestination. After ten years, Paul V closed the debate, and on advice of St. Francis de Sales, approved neither side, demanding they write no more on it without special permission. They failed:1) used metaphysics to solve problems it could not solve, some including free decisions; 2) took all Scripture texts out of context.
143. In the picture given in answer 141, if we do nothing against grace, at point where we could resist, that is nonresistance.
144. She said God would like to do nothing but give if He could find souls open to receive.
145. Humility gets much help from meditation, and mortification.
146. LG chapter 8 started with the eternal decrees of God uniting her with Jesus, then through every one of the mysteries of His life and death, and on to eternity where she is Queen forever with Him. If we imitate that pattern, we have a complete Marian consecration. We make it not just through but also to her, since as Queen she has a title to our service and obedience.
147. We need to have a spirit of union (awareness of her presence and imitation of her), dependence and obedience.
148. St. Maximilian Kolbe, poetically said we could become her, by imitation.
149. To act this way is the fullest imitation of the ways of the Father who in His approach to us used her at all points. But diversity of spiritual attractions says not all are obliged to go that far.
150. She can be present by our affection for her, and vice versa, and by fact that all graces we get come through her. We cultivate a sense of her presence especially using conditioned reflexes to bring back thought of her and by often speaking to her informally, telling her what we are doing etc.
151. No, we sometimes speak directly to her, other times not, but should then realize what graces we get have come through her.
152. We decide to use our finances only as she would will - taking into account our state in life -- and let her have final say about use of our spiritual goods for benefit of other souls.
153. We could give her the right to make any offer to God in our name, which we ratify in advance - for we do not always know what would please Him if we offered it.
154. Jesus as King has absolute rights to our obedience. As Queen she shares in that, acting as a unit with Him. Cf. answer 160.
155. St. Francis said duties of state are an absolute, not to be pushed aside for mere devotion, and our devotion is to be tailored to our state, so, for example, as religious devotion of a wife would grow, her warmth to her husband would also grow.
156. It means positively willing what we know He positively wills - in other things, keeping a pliability to wait to see what He wills. All spiritual perfection lies in this conformity, for we have only one free thing: our wills.
157. Being made of body and spirit, if we have a condition on one side, there should be a parallel condition on the other side, a resonance. When that is on bodily side, it is labeled somatic. Our spiritual growth lies in the will, as in answer 155, but that grows in tandem with development of our somatic resonance, which follows a step graph.
158. Reparation is make-up for sin, paying the debt to the moral order by giving up lawful things. Due also to her since our sins caused her so much suffering.
159. When one lets the pulls of creatures hold him so strongly that he commits habitual mortal sin, he can reach a point at which he can no longer register the good thought God is sending. Then he is blind, and lost, unless someone by heroic mortification and prayer gains for him an extraordinary grace that can forestall or cut through resistance.
160. Try to think out what Jesus or Mary would do in our current conditions, compare to demands of our state in life and other firm obligations. Use principles of spiritual discernment of St. Ignatius of Loyola.
161. To avoid running by the whim of the moment, it is good to plan in advance what mortifications, devotions, etc. we will do at what intervals; review, if possible with a director, and not change them without very serious reason.
162. It is using the principles that help us tell if it is a good spirit, evil spirit, or suggestion that moves us. We give a summary of them in the text. St. Ignatius of Loyola is specially helpful.
163. Infused contemplation is the result of the sanctifying gifts of the Holy Spirit. In it the presence of God is perceived, without any image, but as real as a hand placed on a table. It may or may not be pleasurable. It is debated whether or not it is part of the normal course of development of holiness.
164. A few souls have reported perceiving our Lady within infused contemplation. Because of her union with God this is possible.
165. Secondary blessedness comes from being with all angels and Saints, including our relatives, and especially seeing Our Lady.
166. St. John says they tend to hinder faith, which believes without seeing. St. Teresa has a similar view and warns of desiring visions.
167. They came via private revelation, but each is Scriptural basically: penance with reparation, Rosary, which includes mostly inspired prayers, and devotion to the Immaculate Heart, supported by our theology as we have seen.
168. A local bishop may decide on the authenticity of a vision - we are not obliged to believe him, should be respectful. He may also by command or order people not to go to the site of an alleged vision. Then we must obey, and if there seem to be visions after disobedience they are surely false. She will never appear to promote disobedience.
169. He told her never to obey Him contrary to orders of Superiors: He loves obedience, without it no one can please Him.
170. Good spirit, evil spirit, autosuggestion.
171. They thought only the Second Person appeared--were wrong, for all works of the Three Persons outside the divine nature are common to all three.
172. Probably he did not. Good theological method requires at times two kinds of statements, which seem to clash, and we must hold to both until someone finds way to reconcile.
173. Poulain thinks three fourths of those given to persons who have not reached high sanctity are spurious.
174. She mentions autosuggestion, the devil, pride, presumption.
175. St. John says if a vision comes to you, at first reject it, admit it only if it comes again.
176. Many Saints have misunderstood their visions or have had spurious visions.
177. These extended reports are apt to be not genuine, and often do not agree with each other. John XXIII put those of Valorta on the Index.
178. He said visions of some canonized women are full of errors.
179. It seems St. Catherine of Siena had a vision of Our Lady denying her Immaculate Conception.
180. Some have been faked in bad faith, e.g., those of Magdalen of the Cross, a Franciscan, who made a pact with the devil.
181. St. Bonaventure said he was fed up with reports of visions on his times and the end of the world.
182. Satan sometimes urges people to excessive penances, so they will fail and give up.
183. St. Monica, according to her son had some false visions about his coming marriage. She had desired them.
184. H. Thurston S. J. investigated some spirits, who seemed to be neither devils nor departed souls, called them Poltergeists. We have no information on them from Scripture, which is not complete on these things.
185. Satan may appear as Christ. St. Frances of Rome saw some beautiful doves, who turned out to be devils.
186. Devil proposes pleasures to hold sinners; in souls that repent, he may cause disquiet. Consolations are from a good spirit if they arouse moderate fervor, sorrow for sin, and increase faith, hope, love and bring peace. We should make no change in time of desolation. Disclosing things to spiritual director helps foil the devil.
187. St. Francis warns of danger of loving the consolations of God instead of the God of consolations if consolations run too long. Similarly St. John of Cross.
188. It is debated among theologians whether or not a soul that advances far must meet infused contemplation.
189. From good spirit: fits with teaching of Church, docility, humility, discretion, confidence in God, right intention. patience in suffering, self-denial, simplicity, great desire to imitate Christ, gentleness, kindness.
190. The opposite of the above are signs of the devil's work.
191. St. Thomas thinks He never leaves heaven to appear-- produces images in the eye etc. St. Teresa of Avila seems to think He may actually appear when miracle is near the Eucharist.