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Catechism of the Catholic Church

1510 However, the apostolic Church has its own rite for the sick, attested to by St. James: "Isa any among you sick? Let him call for the elders [presbyters] of the Church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven." 123 Tradition has recognized in this rite one of the seven sacraments. 124

A sacrament of the sick

1511 The Church believes and confesses that among the seven sacraments there is one especially intended to strengthen those who are being tried by illness, the Anointing of the Sick:

This sacred anointing of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord as a true and proper sacrament of the New Testament. It is alluded to indeed by Mark, but is recommended to the faithful and promulgated by James the apostle and brother of the Lord. 125

1512 From ancient times in the liturgical traditions of both East and West, we have testimonies to the practice of anointings of the sick with blessed oil. Over the centuries the Anointing of the Sick was conferred more and more exclusively on those at the point of death. Because of this it received the name "Extreme Unction." Notwithstanding this evolution the liturgy has never failed to beg the Lord that the sick person may recover his health if it would be conducive to his salvation. 126

1513 The Apostolic Constitution Sacram unctionem infirmorum, 127 following upon the Second Vatican Council, 128 established that henceforth, in the Roman Rite, the following be observed:

The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick is given to those who are seriously ill by anointing them on the forehead and hands with duly blessed oil - pressed from olives or from other plants - saying, only once: "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up." 129

II. WHO RECEIVES AND WHO ADMINISTERS THIS SACRAMENT?

In case of grave illness . . .

1514 The Anointing of the Sick "is not a sacrament for those only who are at the point of death. Hence, as soon as anyone of the faithful begins to be in danger of death from sickness or old age, the fitting time for him to receive this sacrament has certainly already arrived." 130

1515 If a sick person who received this anointing recovers his health, he can in the case of another grave illness receive this sacrament again. If during the same illness the person's condition becomes more serious, the sacrament may be repeated. It is fitting to receive the Anointing of the Sick just prior to a serious operation. The same holds for the elderly whose frailty becomes more pronounced.

" . . . let him call for the presbyters of the Church"

1516 Only priests (bishops and presbyters) are ministers of the Anointing of the Sick. 131 It is the duty of pastors to instruct the faithful on the benefits of this sacrament. The faithful should encourage the sick to call for a priest to receive this sacrament. The sick should prepare themselves to receive it with good dispositions, assisted by their pastor and the whole ecclesial community, which is invited to surround the sick in a special way through their prayers and fraternal attention.

III. HOW IS THIS SACRAMENT CELEBRATED?

1517 Like all the sacraments the Anointing of the Sick is a liturgical and communal celebration, 132 whether it takes place in the family home, a hospital or church, for a single sick person or a whole group of sick persons. It is very fitting to celebrate it within the Eucharist, the memorial of the Lord's Passover. If circumstances suggest it, the celebration of the sacrament can be preceded by the sacrament of Penance and followed by the sacrament of the Eucharist. As the sacrament of Christ's Passover the Eucharist should always be the last sacrament of the earthly journey, the "viaticum" for "passing over" to eternal life.

1518 Word and sacrament form an indivisible whole. The Liturgy of the Word, preceded by an act of repentance, opens the celebration. The words of Christ, the witness of the apostles, awaken the faith of the sick person and of the community to ask the Lord for the strength of his Spirit.

1519 The celebration of the sacrament includes the following principal elements: the "priests of the Church" 133 - in silence - lay hands on the sick; they pray over them in the faith of the Church 134 - this is the epiclesis proper to this sacrament; they then anoint them with oil blessed, if possible, by the bishop.

These liturgical actions indicate what grace this sacrament confers upon the sick.

IV. THE EFFECTS OF THE CELEBRATION OF THIS SACRAMENT

1520 A particular gift of the Holy Spirit. The first grace of this sacrament is one of strengthening, peace and courage to overcome the difficulties that go with the condition of serious illness or the frailty of old age. This grace is a gift of the Holy Spirit, who renews trust and faith in God and strengthens against the temptations of the evil one, the temptation to discouragement and anguish in the face of death. 135 This assistance from the Lord by the power of his Spirit is meant to lead the sick person to healing of the soul, but also of the body if such is God's will. 136 Furthermore, "if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven." 137

1521 Union with the passion of Christ. By the grace of this sacrament the sick person receives the strength and the gift of uniting himself more closely to Christ's Passion: in a certain way he is consecrated to bear fruit by configuration to the Savior's redemptive Passion. Suffering, a consequence of original sin, acquires a new meaning; it becomes a participation in the saving work of Jesus.

1522 An ecclesial grace. The sick who receive this sacrament, "by freely uniting themselves to the passion and death of Christ," "contribute to the good of the People of God." 138 By celebrating this sacrament the Church, in the communion of saints, intercedes for the benefit of the sick person, and he, for his part, though the grace of this sacrament, contributes to the sanctification of the Church and to the good of all men for whom the Church suffers and offers herself through Christ to God the Father.

1523 A preparation for the final journey. If the sacrament of anointing of the sick is given to all who suffer from serious illness and infirmity, even more rightly is it given to those at the point of departing this life; so it is also called sacramentum exeuntium (the sacrament of those departing). 139 The Anointing of the Sick completes our conformity to the death and Resurrection of Christ, just as Baptism began it. It completes the holy anointings that mark the whole Christian life: that of Baptism which sealed the new life in us, and that of Confirmation which strengthened us for the combat of this life. This last anointing fortifies the end of our earthly life like a solid rampart for the final struggles before entering the Father's house. 140

IN BRIEF:

1526 "Isa any among you sick? Let him call for the presbyters of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven" (Jas 5:14-15).

1527 The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick has as its purpose the conferral of a special grace on the Christian experiencing the difficulties inherent in the condition of grave illness or old age.

1528 The proper time for receiving this holy anointing has certainly arrived when the believer begins to be in danger of death because of illness or old age.

1529 Each time a Christian falls seriously ill, he may receive the Anointing of the Sick, and also when, after he has received it, the illness worsens.

1530 Only priests (presbyters and bishops) can give the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick, using oil blessed by the bishop, or if necessary by the celebrating presbyter himself.

1531 The celebration of the Anointing of the Sick consists essentially in the anointing of the forehead and hands of the sick person (in the Roman Rite) or of other parts of the body (in the Eastern rite), the anointing being accompanied by the liturgical prayer of the celebrant asking for the special grace of this sacrament.

1532 The special grace of the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick has as its effects:

- the uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own good and that of the whole Church;

- the strengthening, peace, and courage to endure in a Christian manner the sufferings of illness or old age;

- the forgiveness of sins, if the sick person was not able to obtain it through the sacrament of Penance;

- the restoration of health, if it is conducive to the salvation of his soul;

- the preparation for passing over to eternal life.

NOTES:

1 2 Cor 4:7; Col 3:3.

2 2 Cor 5:1.

3 Cf. Mk 2:1-12.

4 LG 11 § 2.

5 Cf. Mk 1:15; Lk 15:18.

6 OP 46: formula of absolution.

7 2 Cor 5:20.

8 Mt 5:24.

9 I Cor 6:11.

10 Gal 3:27.

11 I Jn 1:8.

12 Cf. Lk 11:4; Mt 6:12.

13 Eph 1:4; 5:27.

14 Cf. Council of Trent (1546): DS 1515.

15 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545; LG 40.

16 Mk 1:15.

17 Cf. Acts 2:38.

18 LG 8 § 3.

19 Ps 51:17; cf. Jn 6:44; 12:32; I Jn 4:10.

20 Cf. Lk 22:61; Jn 21:15-17.

21 Rev 2:5, 16.

22 St. Ambrose, ep. 41, 12: PL 16, 1116.

23 Cf. Joel 2:12-13; Isa 1:16-17; Mt 6:1-6; 16-18.

24 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1676-1678; 1705; Cf. Roman Catechism, II, V, 4.

25 Cf. Ezek 36:26-27.

26 Lam 5:21.

27 Cf. Jn 19:37; Zech 12:10.

28 St. Clement Of Rome, Ad Cor. 7, 4: PG 1, 224.

29 Cf. Jn 16:8-9.

30 Cf. Jn 15:26; Acts 2:36-38; John Paul II, DeV 27-48.

31 Cf. Tob 12:8; Mt 6:1-18.

32 I Pet 4:8; Cf. Jas 5:20.

33 Cf. Am 5:24; Isa 1:17.

34 Cf. Lk 9:23.

35 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1638.

36 Cf. SC 109-110; CIC, cann. 1249-1253; CCEO, Cann. 880-883.

37 Cf. Lk 15:11-24.

38 Cf. LG 11.

39 Cf. Mk 2:7.

40 Mk 2:5, 10; Lk 7:48.

41 Cf. Jn 20:21-23.

42 2 Cor 5:18.

43 2 Cor 5:20.

44 Cf. Lk 15; 19:9.

45 Mt 16:19; cf. Mt 18:18; 28:16-20.

46 LG 22 § 2.

47 Tertullian, De Paenit. 4, 2: PL 1,1343; cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1542.

48 OP 46: formula of absolution.

49 Roman Catechism II, V, 21; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1673.

50 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1676.

51 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1677.

52 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1678; 1705.

53 Cf. Mt 5-7; Rom 12-15; I Cor 12-13; Gal 5; Eph 4-6; etc.

54 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1680 (ND 1626); cf. Ex 20:17; Mt 5:28.

55 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1680 (ND 1626); cf. St. Jerome, In Eccl. 10, 11: PL 23:1096.

56 Cf. CIC, Can. 989; Council of Trent (1551): DS 1683; DS 1708.

57 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1647; 1661; CIC, can. 916; CCEO, can. 711.

58 Cf. CIC, can. 914.

59 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1680; CIC, can. 988 § 2.

60 Cf. Lk 6:36.

61 St. Augustine, In Jo. ev. 12, 13: PL 35, 1491.

62 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1712.

63 Rom 8:17; Rom 3:25; I Jn 2:1-2; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1690.

64 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1691; cf. Phil 4:13; I Cor 1:31; 2 Cor 10:17; Gal 6:14; Lk 3:8.

65 Cf. Jn 20:23; 2 Cor 5:18.

66 Cf. LG 26 § 3.

67 Cf. CIC cann. 844; 967-969; 972; CCEO, can. 722 §§ 3-4.

68 Cf. CIC, cann. 1331; 1354-1357; CCEO, can. 1431; 1434; 1420.

69 Cf. CIC, can. 976; CCEO, can. 725.

70 Cf. CIC, can. 486; CCEO, can. 735; PO 13.

71 Cf. PO 13.

72 Cf. CIC, can. 1388 § 1; CCEO, can. 1456.

73 Roman Catechism, II, V, 18.

74 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1674.

75 Cf. Lk 15:32.

76 Cf. I Cor 12:26.

77 Cf. LG 48-50.

78 John Paul II, RP 31, 5.

79 Cf. I Cor 5:11; Gal 5:19-21; Rev 22:15.

80 Jn 5:24.

81 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Indulgentiarum doctrina, Norm 1.

82 Indulgentiarum doctrina, Norm 2; Cf. Norm 3.

83 CIC, can. 994.

84 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1712-1713; (1563): 1820.

85 Eph 4:22, 24.

86 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

87 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

88 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

89 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

90 Cf. Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

91 Cf. SC 26-27.

92 Cf. CIC, can. 962 § 1.

93 Cf. CIC, can. 961 § 2.

94 Cf. CIC, can. 961 § 1.

95 OP 31.

96 Mk 2:5.

97 Cf. Mk 2:17.

98 LG 11; cf. Jas 5:14-16; Rom 8:17; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 2:11-12; I Pet 4:13.

99 Cf. Ps 6:3; 38; Isa 38.

100 Cf. Ps 32:5; 38:5; 39:9, 12; 107:20; cf. Mk 2:5-12.

101 Ex 15:26.

102 Cf. Isa 53:11.

103 Cf. Isa 33:24.

104 Lk 7:16; cf. Mt 4:24.

105 Cf. Mk 2:5-12.

106 Cf. Mk 2:17.

107 Mt 25:36.

108 Cf. Mk 5:34, 36; 9:23.

109 Cf. Mk 7:32-36; 8:22-25.

110 Cf. Jn 9:6-7.

111 Lk 6:19; cf. Mk 1:41; 3:10; 6:56.

112 Mt 8:17; cf. Isa 53:4.

113 Jn 1:29; cf. Isa 53:4-6.

114 Cf. Mt 10:38.

115 Mk 6:12-13.

116 Mk 16:17-18.

117 Cf. Acts 9:34; 14:3.

118 Cf. Mt 1:21; Acts 4:12.

119 Cf. I Cor 12:9, 28, 30.

120 2 Cor 12:9; Col 1:24.

121 Mt 10:8.

122 Cf. Jn 6:54, 58; I Cor 11:30.

123 Jas 5:14-15.

124 Cf. Council of Constantinople II (553) DS 216; Council Of Florence (1439) 1324- 1325; Council Of Trent (1551) 1695-1696; 1716-1717.

125 Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1695; cf. Mk 6:13; Jas 5:14-15.

126 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1696.

127 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Sacram unctionem infirmorum, November 30, 1972.

128 Cf. SC 73.

129 Cf. CIC, Can. 847 § 1.

130 SC 73; cf. CIC, Cann. 1004 § 1; 1005; 1007; CCEO, Can. 738.

131 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1697; 1719; CIC, Can. 1003; CCEO, Can. 739 § 1.

132 Cf. SC 27.

133 Jas 5:14.

134 Cf. Jas 5:15.

135 Cf. Heb 2:15.

136 Cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1325.

137 Jas 5:15; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1717.

138 LG 11 § 2.

139 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1698.

140 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1694.

141 Jn 6:54.

142 Cf. Jn 13:1.

Notes:

123 Jas 5:14-15.

124 Cf. Council of Constantinople II (553) DS 216; Council Of Florence (1439) 1324- 1325; Council Of Trent (1551) 1695-1696; 1716-1717.

125 Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1695; cf. Mk 6:13; Jas 5:14-15.

126 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1696.

127 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Sacram unctionem infirmorum, November 30, 1972.

128 Cf. SC 73.

129 Cf. CIC, Can. 847 § 1.

130 SC 73; cf. CIC, Cann. 1004 § 1; 1005; 1007; CCEO, Can. 738.

131 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1697; 1719; CIC, Can. 1003; CCEO, Can. 739 § 1.

132 Cf. SC 27.

133 Jas 5:14.

134 Cf. Jas 5:15.

135 Cf. Heb 2:15.

136 Cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1325.

137 Jas 5:15; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1717.

138 LG 11 § 2.

139 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1698.

140 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1694.

English Translation of the Cathechism of the Catholic Church for the United States of America © 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.

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