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Catechism of the Catholic Church

V. VIATICUM, THE LAST SACRAMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN

1524 In addition to the Anointing of the Sick, the Church offers those who are about to leave this life the Eucharist as viaticum. Communion in the body and blood of Christ, received at this moment of "passing over" to the Father, has a particular significance and importance. It is the seed of eternal life and the power of resurrection, according to the words of the Lord: "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day." 141 The sacrament of Christ once dead and now risen, the Eucharist is here the sacrament of passing over from death to life, from this world to the Father. 142

1525 Thus, just as the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist form a unity called "the sacraments of Christian initiation," so too it can be said that Penance, the Anointing of the Sick and the Eucharist as viaticum constitute at the end of Christian life "the sacraments that prepare for our heavenly homeland" or the sacraments that complete the earthly pilgrimage.

IN BRIEF:

1526 "Isa any among you sick? Let him call for the presbyters of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord; and the prayer of faith will save the sick man, and the Lord will raise him up; and if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven" (Jas 5:14-15).

1527 The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick has as its purpose the conferral of a special grace on the Christian experiencing the difficulties inherent in the condition of grave illness or old age.

1528 The proper time for receiving this holy anointing has certainly arrived when the believer begins to be in danger of death because of illness or old age.

1529 Each time a Christian falls seriously ill, he may receive the Anointing of the Sick, and also when, after he has received it, the illness worsens.

1530 Only priests (presbyters and bishops) can give the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick, using oil blessed by the bishop, or if necessary by the celebrating presbyter himself.

1531 The celebration of the Anointing of the Sick consists essentially in the anointing of the forehead and hands of the sick person (in the Roman Rite) or of other parts of the body (in the Eastern rite), the anointing being accompanied by the liturgical prayer of the celebrant asking for the special grace of this sacrament.

1532 The special grace of the sacrament of the Anointing of the Sick has as its effects:

- the uniting of the sick person to the passion of Christ, for his own good and that of the whole Church;

- the strengthening, peace, and courage to endure in a Christian manner the sufferings of illness or old age;

- the forgiveness of sins, if the sick person was not able to obtain it through the sacrament of Penance;

- the restoration of health, if it is conducive to the salvation of his soul;

- the preparation for passing over to eternal life.

NOTES:

1 2 Cor 4:7; Col 3:3.

2 2 Cor 5:1.

3 Cf. Mk 2:1-12.

4 LG 11 § 2.

5 Cf. Mk 1:15; Lk 15:18.

6 OP 46: formula of absolution.

7 2 Cor 5:20.

8 Mt 5:24.

9 I Cor 6:11.

10 Gal 3:27.

11 I Jn 1:8.

12 Cf. Lk 11:4; Mt 6:12.

13 Eph 1:4; 5:27.

14 Cf. Council of Trent (1546): DS 1515.

15 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1545; LG 40.

16 Mk 1:15.

17 Cf. Acts 2:38.

18 LG 8 § 3.

19 Ps 51:17; cf. Jn 6:44; 12:32; I Jn 4:10.

20 Cf. Lk 22:61; Jn 21:15-17.

21 Rev 2:5, 16.

22 St. Ambrose, ep. 41, 12: PL 16, 1116.

23 Cf. Joel 2:12-13; Isa 1:16-17; Mt 6:1-6; 16-18.

24 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1676-1678; 1705; Cf. Roman Catechism, II, V, 4.

25 Cf. Ezek 36:26-27.

26 Lam 5:21.

27 Cf. Jn 19:37; Zech 12:10.

28 St. Clement Of Rome, Ad Cor. 7, 4: PG 1, 224.

29 Cf. Jn 16:8-9.

30 Cf. Jn 15:26; Acts 2:36-38; John Paul II, DeV 27-48.

31 Cf. Tob 12:8; Mt 6:1-18.

32 I Pet 4:8; Cf. Jas 5:20.

33 Cf. Am 5:24; Isa 1:17.

34 Cf. Lk 9:23.

35 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1638.

36 Cf. SC 109-110; CIC, cann. 1249-1253; CCEO, Cann. 880-883.

37 Cf. Lk 15:11-24.

38 Cf. LG 11.

39 Cf. Mk 2:7.

40 Mk 2:5, 10; Lk 7:48.

41 Cf. Jn 20:21-23.

42 2 Cor 5:18.

43 2 Cor 5:20.

44 Cf. Lk 15; 19:9.

45 Mt 16:19; cf. Mt 18:18; 28:16-20.

46 LG 22 § 2.

47 Tertullian, De Paenit. 4, 2: PL 1,1343; cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1542.

48 OP 46: formula of absolution.

49 Roman Catechism II, V, 21; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1673.

50 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1676.

51 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1677.

52 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1678; 1705.

53 Cf. Mt 5-7; Rom 12-15; I Cor 12-13; Gal 5; Eph 4-6; etc.

54 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1680 (ND 1626); cf. Ex 20:17; Mt 5:28.

55 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1680 (ND 1626); cf. St. Jerome, In Eccl. 10, 11: PL 23:1096.

56 Cf. CIC, Can. 989; Council of Trent (1551): DS 1683; DS 1708.

57 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1647; 1661; CIC, can. 916; CCEO, can. 711.

58 Cf. CIC, can. 914.

59 Cf. Council of Trent: DS 1680; CIC, can. 988 § 2.

60 Cf. Lk 6:36.

61 St. Augustine, In Jo. ev. 12, 13: PL 35, 1491.

62 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1712.

63 Rom 8:17; Rom 3:25; I Jn 2:1-2; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1690.

64 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1691; cf. Phil 4:13; I Cor 1:31; 2 Cor 10:17; Gal 6:14; Lk 3:8.

65 Cf. Jn 20:23; 2 Cor 5:18.

66 Cf. LG 26 § 3.

67 Cf. CIC cann. 844; 967-969; 972; CCEO, can. 722 §§ 3-4.

68 Cf. CIC, cann. 1331; 1354-1357; CCEO, can. 1431; 1434; 1420.

69 Cf. CIC, can. 976; CCEO, can. 725.

70 Cf. CIC, can. 486; CCEO, can. 735; PO 13.

71 Cf. PO 13.

72 Cf. CIC, can. 1388 § 1; CCEO, can. 1456.

73 Roman Catechism, II, V, 18.

74 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1674.

75 Cf. Lk 15:32.

76 Cf. I Cor 12:26.

77 Cf. LG 48-50.

78 John Paul II, RP 31, 5.

79 Cf. I Cor 5:11; Gal 5:19-21; Rev 22:15.

80 Jn 5:24.

81 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Indulgentiarum doctrina, Norm 1.

82 Indulgentiarum doctrina, Norm 2; Cf. Norm 3.

83 CIC, can. 994.

84 Cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1712-1713; (1563): 1820.

85 Eph 4:22, 24.

86 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

87 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

88 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

89 Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

90 Cf. Indulgentiarum doctrina, 5.

91 Cf. SC 26-27.

92 Cf. CIC, can. 962 § 1.

93 Cf. CIC, can. 961 § 2.

94 Cf. CIC, can. 961 § 1.

95 OP 31.

96 Mk 2:5.

97 Cf. Mk 2:17.

98 LG 11; cf. Jas 5:14-16; Rom 8:17; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 2:11-12; I Pet 4:13.

99 Cf. Ps 6:3; 38; Isa 38.

100 Cf. Ps 32:5; 38:5; 39:9, 12; 107:20; cf. Mk 2:5-12.

101 Ex 15:26.

102 Cf. Isa 53:11.

103 Cf. Isa 33:24.

104 Lk 7:16; cf. Mt 4:24.

105 Cf. Mk 2:5-12.

106 Cf. Mk 2:17.

107 Mt 25:36.

108 Cf. Mk 5:34, 36; 9:23.

109 Cf. Mk 7:32-36; 8:22-25.

110 Cf. Jn 9:6-7.

111 Lk 6:19; cf. Mk 1:41; 3:10; 6:56.

112 Mt 8:17; cf. Isa 53:4.

113 Jn 1:29; cf. Isa 53:4-6.

114 Cf. Mt 10:38.

115 Mk 6:12-13.

116 Mk 16:17-18.

117 Cf. Acts 9:34; 14:3.

118 Cf. Mt 1:21; Acts 4:12.

119 Cf. I Cor 12:9, 28, 30.

120 2 Cor 12:9; Col 1:24.

121 Mt 10:8.

122 Cf. Jn 6:54, 58; I Cor 11:30.

123 Jas 5:14-15.

124 Cf. Council of Constantinople II (553) DS 216; Council Of Florence (1439) 1324- 1325; Council Of Trent (1551) 1695-1696; 1716-1717.

125 Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1695; cf. Mk 6:13; Jas 5:14-15.

126 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551) DS 1696.

127 Paul VI, apostolic constitution, Sacram unctionem infirmorum, November 30, 1972.

128 Cf. SC 73.

129 Cf. CIC, Can. 847 § 1.

130 SC 73; cf. CIC, Cann. 1004 § 1; 1005; 1007; CCEO, Can. 738.

131 Cf. Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1697; 1719; CIC, Can. 1003; CCEO, Can. 739 § 1.

132 Cf. SC 27.

133 Jas 5:14.

134 Cf. Jas 5:15.

135 Cf. Heb 2:15.

136 Cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1325.

137 Jas 5:15; cf. Council of Trent (1551): DS 1717.

138 LG 11 § 2.

139 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1698.

140 Council of Trent (1551): DS 1694.

141 Jn 6:54.

142 Cf. Jn 13:1.

Notes:

141 Jn 6:54.

142 Cf. Jn 13:1.

English Translation of the Cathechism of the Catholic Church for the United States of America © 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.

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