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Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church: Table of Contents

by Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace

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  • Descriptive Title:
    Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church
    Description:
    This is the Table of Contents and Presentation of the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. Included in this document are the following: Table of Contents; Abbreviations; Biblical Abbreviations; Secretariat of State; and the Presentation.
  • Larger Work:
    Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church
  • Publisher & Date:
    Vatican, 2004

TO HIS HOLINESS POPE JOHN PAUL II MASTER OF SOCIAL DOCTRINE AND EVANGELICAL WITNESS TO JUSTICE AND PEACE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abbreviations
Biblical Abbreviations
Letter of Cardinal Angelo Sodano
Presentation

INTRODUCTION
Paragraphs 1-19

AN INTEGRAL AND SOLIDARY HUMANISM

a. At the dawn of the Third Millennium
b.
The significance of this document
c.
At the service of the full truth about man
d.
In the sign of solidarity, respect and love

PART ONE

CHAPTER ONE
GOD'S PLAN OF LOVE FOR HUMANITY

Paragraphs 20-59

I. GOD'S LIBERATING ACTION IN THE HISTORY OF ISRAEL
a. God's gratuitous presence
b.
The principle of creation and God's gratuitous action

II. JESUS CHRIST, THE FULFILMENT OF THE FATHER'S PLAN OF LOVE
a.
In Jesus Christ the decisive event of the history of God with mankind is fulfilled
b.
The revelation of Trinitarian love

III. THE HUMAN PERSON IN GOD'S PLAN OF LOVE
a.
Trinitarian love, the origin and goal of the human person
b.
Christian salvation: for all people and the whole person
c.
The disciple of Christ as a new creation
d.
The transcendence of salvation and the autonomy of earthly realities

IV. GOD'S PLAN AND THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH
a.
The Church, sign and defender of the transcendence of the human person
b.
The Church, the Kingdom of God and the renewal of social relations
c.
New heavens and a new earth
d.
Mary and her "fiat" in God's plan of love

CHAPTER TWO
THE CHURCH'S MISSION AND SOCIAL DOCTRINE

Paragraphs 60-104

I. EVANGELIZATION AND SOCIAL DOCTRINE
a.
The Church, God's dwelling place with men and women
b.
Enriching and permeating society with the Gospel
c.
Social doctrine, evangelization and human promotion
d.
The rights and duties of the Church

II. THE NATURE OF THE CHURCH'S SOCIAL DOCTRINE
a.
Knowledge illuminated by faith
b.
In friendly dialogue with all branches of knowledge
c.
An expression of the Church's ministry of teaching
d.
For a society reconciled in justice and love
e.
A message for the sons and daughters of the Church and for humanity
f.
Under the sign of continuity and renewal

III. THE CHURCH'S SOCIAL DOCTRINE IN OUR TIME: HISTORICAL NOTES
a.
The beginning of a new path
b.
From Rerum Novarumto our own day
c.
In the light and under the impulse of the Gospel

CHAPTER THREE
THE HUMAN PERSON AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Paragraphs 105-159

I. SOCIAL DOCTRINE AND THE PERSONALIST PRINCIPLE

II. THE HUMAN PERSON AS THE "IMAGO DEI"
a.
Creatures in the image of God
b.
The tragedy of sin
c.
The universality of sin and the universality of salvation

III. THE MANY ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN PERSON
A. The unity of the person
B. Openness to transcendence and uniqueness of the person

a. Open to transcendence
b.
Unique and unrepeatable
c.
Respect for human dignity

C. The freedom of the human person

a. The value and limits of freedom
b.
The bond uniting freedom with truth and the natural law

D. The equal dignity of all people
E. The social nature of human beings

IV. HUMAN RIGHTS
a.
The value of human rights
b.
The specification of rights
c.
Rights and duties
d.
Rights of peoples and nations
e.
Filling in the gap between the letter and the spirit

CHAPTER FOUR
PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH'S SOCIAL DOCTRINE

Paragraphs 160-208

I. MEANING AND UNITY

II. THE PRINCIPLE OF THE COMMON GOOD
a.
Meaning and primary implications
b.
Responsibility of everyone for the common good
c.
Tasks of the political community

III. THE UNIVERSAL DESTINATION OF GOODS
a.
Origin and meaning
b.
The universal destination of goods and private property
c.
The universal destination of goods and the preferential option for the poor

IV. THE PRINCIPLE OF SUBSIDIARITY
a.
Origin and meaning
b.
Concrete indications

V. PARTICIPATION
a.
Meaning and value
b.
Participation and democracy

VI. THE PRINCIPLE OF SOLIDARITY
a.
Meaning and value
b.
Solidarity as a social principle and a moral virtue
c.
Solidarity and the common growth of mankind
d.
Solidarity in the life and message of Jesus Christ

VII. THE FUNDAMENTAL VALUES OF SOCIAL LIFE
a.
The relationship between principles and values
b.
Truth
c.
Freedom
d.
Justice

VIII. THE WAY OF LOVE

PART TWO

CHAPTER FIVE
THE FAMILY, THE VITAL CELL OF SOCIETY

Paragraphs 209-254

I. THE FAMILY, THE FIRST NATURAL SOCIETY
a.
Importance of the family for the person
b.
Importance of the family for society

II. MARRIAGE, THE FOUNDATION OF THE FAMILY
a.
The value of marriage
b.
The sacrament of marriage

III. THE SOCIAL SUBJECTIVITY OF THE FAMILY
a.
Love and the formation of a community of persons
b.
The family is the sanctuary of life
c.
The task of educating
d.
The dignity and rights of children

IV. THE FAMILY AS ACTIVE PARTICIPANT IN SOCIAL LIFE
a.
Solidarity in the family
b.
The family, economic life and work

V. SOCIETY AT THE SERVICE OF THE FAMILY

CHAPTER SIX
HUMAN WORK

Paragraphs 255-322

I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS
a.
The duty to cultivate and care for the earth
b.
Jesus, a man of work
c.
The duty to work

II. THE PROPHETIC VALUE OF "RERUM NOVARUM"

III. THE DIGNITY OF WORK
a.
The subjective and objective dimensions of work
b.
The relationship between labour and capital
c.
Work, the right to participate
d.
The relationship between labour and private property
e.
Rest from work

IV. THE RIGHT TO WORK
a.
Work is necessary
b.
The role of the State and civil society in promoting the right to work
c.
The family and the right to work
d.
Women and the right to work
e.
Child labour
f.
Immigration and work
g.
The world of agriculture and the right to work

V. THE RIGHTS OF WORKERS
a.
The dignity of workers and the respect for their rights
b.
The right to fair remuneration and income distribution
c.
The right to strike

VI. SOLIDARITY AMONG WORKERS
a.
The importance of unions
b.
New forms of solidarity

VII. THE "NEW THINGS" OF THE WORLD OF WORK
a.
An epoch-making phase of transition
b.
Social doctrine and the "new things"

CHAPTER SEVEN
ECONOMIC LIFE

Paragraphs 323-376

I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS
a.
Man, poverty and riches
b.
Wealth exists to be shared

II. MORALITY AND THE ECONOMY

III. PRIVATE INITIATIVE AND BUSINESS INITIATIVE
a.
Business and its goals
b.
Role of business owners and management

IV. ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS AT THE SERVICE OF MAN
a.
Role of the free market
b. Action of the State
c.
Role of intermediate bodies
d.
Savings and consumer goods

V. THE "NEW THINGS" IN THE ECONOMIC SECTOR
a.
Globalization: opportunities and risks
b.
The international financial system
c.
Role of the international community in an era of a global economy
d.
An integral development in solidarity
e.
Need for more educational and cultural formation

CHAPTER EIGHT
THE POLITICAL COMMUNITY

Paragraphs 377-427

I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS
a.
God's dominion
b.
Jesus and political authority
c.
The early Christian communities

II. FOUNDATION AND PURPOSE OF THE POLITICAL COMMUNITY
a.
Political community, the human person and a people
b.
Defending and promoting human rights
c.
Social life based on civil friendship

III. POLITICAL AUTHORITY
a.
The foundation of political authority
b.
Authority as moral force
c.
The right to conscientious objection
d.
The right to resist
e.
Inflicting punishment

IV. THE DEMOCRATIC SYSTEM
a.
Values and democracy
b.
Institutions and democracy
c.
Moral components of political representation
d.
Instruments for political participation
e.
Information and democracy

V. THE POLITICAL COMMUNITY AT THE SERVICE OF CIVIL SOCIETY
a.
Value of civil society
b.
Priority of civil society
c.
Application of the principle of subsidiarity

VI. THE STATE AND RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES
A. Religious freedom, a fundamental human right
B. The Catholic Church and the political community

a. Autonomy and independence
b.
Cooperation

CHAPTER NINE
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

Paragraphs 428-450

I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS
a.
Unity of the human family
b.
Jesus Christ, prototype and foundation of the new humanity
c.
The universal vocation of Christianity

II. THE FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
a.
The international community and values
b.
Relations based on harmony between the juridical and moral orders

III. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
a.
The value of international organizations
b.
The juridical personality of the Holy See

IV. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR DEVELOPMENT
a.
Cooperation to guarantee the right to development
b.
The fight against poverty
c.
Foreign debt

CHAPTER TEN
SAFEGUARDING THE ENVIRONMENT

Paragraphs 451-487

I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS

II. MAN AND THE UNIVERSE OF CREATED THINGS

III. THE CRISIS IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT

IV. A COMMON RESPONSIBILITY
a.
The environment, a collective good
b.
The use of biotechnology
c.
The environment and the sharing of goods
d.
New lifestyles

CHAPTER ELEVEN
THE PROMOTION OF PEACE

Paragraphs 488-520

I. BIBLICAL ASPECTS

II. PEACE: THE FRUIT OF JUSTICE AND LOVE

III. THE FAILURE OF PEACE: WAR
a.
Legitimate defence
b.
Defending peace
c.
The duty to protect the innocent
d.
Measures against those who threaten peace
e.
Disarmament
f.
The condemnation of terrorism

IV. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHURCH TO PEACE

PART THREE

CHAPTER TWELVE
SOCIAL DOCTRINE AND ECCLESIAL ACTION

Paragraphs 521-574

I. PASTORAL ACTION IN THE SOCIAL FIELD
a.
Social doctrine and the inculturation of faith
b.
Social doctrine and social pastoral activity
c.
Social doctrine and formation
d.
Promoting dialogue
e.
The subjects of social pastoral activity

II. SOCIAL DOCTRINE AND THE COMMITMENT OF THE LAY FAITHFUL
a.
The lay faithful
b.
Spirituality of the lay faithful
c.
Acting with prudence
d.
Social doctrine and lay associations
e.
Service in the various sectors of social life

1. Service to the human person
2. Service in culture
3. Service in the economy
4. Service in politics

CONCLUSION
FOR A CIVILIZATION OF LOVE

Paragraphs 575-583

a. The help that the Church offers to modern man
b.
Starting afresh from faith in Christ
c.
A solid hope
d.
Building the "civilization of love"

Index of references
Analytical index


ABBREVIATIONS

a. in articulo
AAS Acta Apostolicae Sedis
ad 1um in responsione ad 1 argumentum
ad 2um in responsione ad 2 argumentum et ita porro
Ap. Exhort. Apostolic Exhortation
Ap. Letter Apostolic Letter
c. corpore articuli
cf. conferatur
ch. chapter
d. distinctio
DS H. Denzinger - A. Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum
Ed. Leon. Sancti Thomae Aquinatis Doctoris Angelici Opera omnia iussu impensaque Leonis XIII P.M. edita
Enc. Letter Encyclical Letter
ibid. ibidem
PG Patrologia Graeca (J. P. Migne)
PL Patrologia Latina (J. P. Migne)
q. quaestio
v. verse
I Prima Pars Summae Theologiae
I-II Prima Secundae Partis Summae Theologiae
II-II Secunda Secundae Partis Summae Theologiae
III Tertia Pars Summae Theologiae

BIBLICAL ABBREVIATIONS

Acts Acts of the Apostles
Am
Amos
Bar
Baruch
1 Chr
1 Chronicles
2 Chr
2 Chronicles
Col
Colossians
1 Cor
1 Corinthians
2 Cor
2 Corinthians
Dan
Daniel
Deut
Deuteronomy
Eccles
Ecclesiastes
Eph
Ephesians
Esther
Esther
Ex
Exodus
Ezek
Ezekiel
Ezra
Ezra
Gal
Galatians
Gen
Genesis
Hab
Habakkuk
Hag
Haggai
Heb
Hebrews
Hos
Hosea
Is
Isaiah
Jas
James
Jer
Jeremiah
Job
Job
Joel
Joel
Jn
John
1 Jn
1 John
2 Jn
2 John
3 Jn
3 John
Jon
Jonah
Josh
Joshua
Jude
Jude
Jdg
Judges
Jdt
Judith
1 Kg
1 Kings
2 Kg
2 Kings
Lam
Lamentations
Lev
Leviticus
Lk
Luke
1 Macc
1 Maccabees
2 Macc
2 Maccabees
Mal
Malachi
Mk
Mark
Mt
Matthew
Mic
Micah
Nahum
Nahum
Neh
Nehemiah
Num
Numbers
Ob
Obadiah
1 Pet
1 Peter
2 Pet
2 Peter
Phil
Philippians
Philem
Philemon
Prov
Proverbs
Ps
Psalms
Rev
Revelation
Rom
Romans
Ruth
Ruth
1 Sam
1 Samuel
2 Sam
2 Samuel
Sir
Sirach
Song
Song of Songs
1 Thes
1 Thessalonians
2 Thes
2 Thessalonians
1 Tim
1 Timothy
2 Tim
2 Timothy
Tit
Titus
Tob
Tobit
Wis
Wisdom
Zech
Zechariah
Zeph
Zapheniah


SECRETARIAT OF STATE

His Eminence
Cardinal RENATO RAFFAELE MARTINO
President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
VATICAN CITY

From the Vatican, 29 June 2004
N. 559.332

Your Eminence,

Throughout the course of her history, and particularly in the last hundred years, the Church has never failed, in the words of Pope Leo XIII, to speak "the words that are hers" with regard to questions concerning life in society. Continuing to expound and update the rich patrimony of Catholic social doctrine, Pope John Paul II has for his part published three great Encyclicals - Laborem Exercens, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis and Centesimus Annus - that represent fundamental stages of Catholic thought in this area. For their part, numerous Bishops in every part of the world have contributed in recent times to a deeper understanding of the Church's social doctrine. Numerous scholars on every continent have done the same.

1. It was therefore hoped that a compendium of all this material should be compiled, systematically presenting the foundations of Catholic social doctrine. It is commendable that the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace has taken up this task, devoting intense efforts to this initiative in recent years.

I am pleased that the volume "Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church" has been published, sharing with you the joy of offering it to the faithful and to all people of good will, as food for human and spiritual growth, for individuals and communities alike.

2. This work also shows the value of Catholic social doctrine as an instrument of evangelization (cf. Centesimus Annus, 54), because it places the human person and society in relationship with the light of the Gospel. The principles of the Church's social doctrine, which are based on the natural law, are then seen to be confirmed and strengthened, in the faith of the Church, by the Gospel of Christ.

In this light, men and women are invited above all to discover themselves as transcendent beings, in every dimension of their lives, including those related to social, economic and political contexts. Faith brings to fullness the meaning of the family, which, founded on marriage between one man and one woman, constitutes the first and vital cell of society. It moreover sheds light on the dignity of work, which, as human activity destined to bring human beings to fulfilment, has priority over capital and confirms their rightful claim to share in the fruits that result from work.

3. In the present text we can see the importance of moral values, founded on the natural law written on every human conscience; every human conscience is hence obliged to recognize and respect this law. Humanity today seeks greater justice in dealing with the vast phenomenon of globalization; it has a keen concern for ecology and a correct management of public affairs; it senses the need to safeguard national consciences, without losing sight however of the path of law and the awareness of the unity of the human family. The world of work, profoundly changed by the advances of modern technology, reveals extraordinary levels of quality, but unfortunately it must also acknowledge new forms of instability, exploitation and even slavery within the very societies that are considered affluent. In different areas of the planet the level of well-being continues to grow, but there is also a dangerous increase in the numbers of those who are becoming poor, and, for various reasons, the gap between less developed and rich countries is widening. The free market, an economic process with positive aspects, is nonetheless showing its limitations. On the other hand, the preferential love for the poor represents a fundamental choice for the Church, and she proposes it to all people of good will.

It is thus apparent that the Church cannot fail to make her voice heard concerning the "new things" (res novae) typical of the modern age, because it belongs to her to invite all people to do all they can to bring about an authentic civilization oriented ever more towards integral human development in solidarity.

4. Contemporary cultural and social issues involve above all the lay faithful, who are called, as the Second Vatican Council reminds us, to deal with temporal affairs and order them according to God's will (cf. Lumen Gentium, 31). We can therefore easily understand the fundamental importance of the formation of the laity, so that the holiness of their lives and the strength of their witness will contribute to human progress. This document intends to help them in this daily mission.

Moreover, it is interesting to note how the many elements brought together here are shared by other Churches and Ecclesial Communities, as well as by other Religions. The text has been presented in such a way as to be useful not only from within (ab intra), that is among Catholics, but also from outside (ab extra). In fact, those who share the same Baptism with us, as well as the followers of other Religions and all people of good will, can find herein fruitful occasions for reflection and a common motivation for the integral development of every person and the whole person.

5. The Holy Father, while hoping that the present document will help humanity in its active quest for the common good, invokes God's blessings on those who will take the time to reflect on the teachings of this publication. In expressing my own personal good wishes for the success of this endeavour, I congratulate Your Eminence and your collaborators at the Pontifical Council of Justice and Peace for the important work carried out, and with sentiments of respect I remain

Yours sincerely in Christ,
Cardinal Angelo Sodano
Secretary of State


PRESENTATION

I am pleased to present the Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, which, according to the request received from the Holy Father, has been drawn up in order to give a concise but complete overview of the Church's social teaching.

Transforming social realities with the power of the Gospel, to which witness is borne by women and men faithful to Jesus Christ, has always been a challenge and it remains so today at the beginning of the third millennium of the Christian era. The proclamation of Jesus Christ, the "Good News" of salvation, love, justice and peace, is not readily received in today's world, devastated as it is by wars, poverty and injustices. For this very reason the men and women of our day have greater need than ever of the Gospel: of the faith that saves, of the hope that enlightens, of the charity that loves.

The Church is an expert in humanity, and anticipating with trust and with active involvement she continues to look towards the "new heavens" and the "new earth" (2 Pet 3:13), which she indicates to every person, in order to help people to live their lives in the dimension of authentic meaning. "Gloria Dei vivens homo": the human person who fully lives his or her dignity gives glory to God, who has given this dignity to men and women.

The reading of these pages is suggested above all in order to sustain and foster the activity of Christians in the social sector, especially the activity of the lay faithful to whom this area belongs in a particular way; the whole of their lives must be seen as a work of evangelization that produces fruit. Every believer must learn first of all to obey the Lord with the strength of faith, following the example of Saint Peter: "Master, we toiled all night and took nothing! But at your word I will let down the nets" (Lk 5:5). Every reader of "good will" will be able to understand the motives that prompt the Church to intervene with her doctrine in the social sector, an area which, at first glance, does not belong to the Church's competence, and these same readers will see the reasons for an encounter, for dialogue, for cooperation in serving the common good.

My predecessor, the late and venerable Cardinal François-Xavier Nguyên Van Thuân, guided with wisdom, constancy and far-sightedness the complex phase of the preparation of this document; his illness prevented him from bringing it to a conclusion with its publication. This work, entrusted to me and now offered to those who will read it, carries therefore the seal of a great witness to the Cross who remained strong in faith in the dark and terrible years of Vietnam. This witness will know of our gratitude for all his precious labour, undertaken with love and dedication, and he will bless those who stop to reflect on these pages.

I invoke the intercession of Saint Joseph, Guardian of the Redeemer and Husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Patron of the Universal Church and of Work, so that this text will bear abundant fruit in the life of society as an instrument for the proclamation of the Gospel, for justice and for peace.

Vatican City, 2 April 2004, Memorial of Saint Francis of Paola.

Cardinal Renato Raffaele Martino
President

+ Giampaolo Crepaldi
Secretary

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