The MOST Theological Collection: Outline of Christology
"Addenda: course info; reading list; paper topics; study Q & A"
NOTRE DAME INSTITUTE, Theology 602: Christology
1. Course Description: The course will introduce the student to every aspect of the theology of Jesus Christ: His eternal existence; prophecies about Him; the covenants, the genre and reliability of the Gospels; the incarnation, His human knowledge, parables, gradual self-revelation, mode of the redemption, theories on resurrection; Christological heresies, His human heart.
2. Specific course objectives: Inform student of the theology of Christ; establish contact and familiarity with texts of Scripture, Fathers, Magisterium and Targums on this topic; become acquainted with critical method; show consequences for personal life of the truths about Him.
3. Method of instruction: lectures, discussion, study questions to focus attention, compact summaries of answers to essential study questions, review periods for midterm, for final, term paper.
4.Grading: Midterm exam: 50%; Final exam 50%. term paper, prerequisite to grading.
5. Topics covered and timing: [omitted]
6. Required books:
Wm. G. Most, Outline of Christology, NDI Office
Pius XII, Mystical Body Encyclical
idem, Encyclical Haurietis aquas
John Paul II, Encyclical Redemptor hominis
George H. Duggan, "Christologies, ancient and modern" in HPR July 1990, pp. 10-18.
R. E. Brown, Jesus God & Man, Paulist, 1972
idem, Biblical Reflections on Crises Facing the Church
J. A. Fitzmyer, A Christological Catechism, NY 1982.
idem, Scripture & Christology (Biblical Comm. Statement & Comment)
W. Kasper, Jesus the Christ, NY 1976.
G. O'Collins, What are They Saying about Jesus?, NY, 1977
X. Leon-Dufour, The Gospels and the Jesus of History, NY 1968.
E. P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism, Phila, 1985.
Hans Urs Von Balthasar, Origen. Spirit and Fire, tr. R. Daly, CU Press, c. 1984
idem, Parole et mystère chez Origène, Paris, Cerf, 1957
Aloys Grillmeier, Christ in Christian Tradition,2d ed. I. Tr. John Bowden, John Knox, Atlanta, 1975
Jean Daniélou, Gospel Message and Hellenistic Culture, tr. John Baker, Westminster, Phila, 1973
idem, Origen, tr. W. Mitchell, Sheed & Ward, c. 1955.
A. d'Alès, La théologie de Tertullien, Paris, 1905
Raniero Cantalamessa, La christologia di Tertulliano, Friburg, 1962.
Jean Galot, Who is Christ?, Franciscan Herald Press, 1981
Leopold Sabourin, Christology,Basic Texts in Focus, Alba House, NY, 1984
Ed. Hans Dieter Betz, Christology and a Modern Pilgrimage, Scholars Press, 1974.
St. Ignatius of Antioch, Letters to Smyrna and to Tralles
St. Justin Martyr, First Apology
Tertullian, Against Praxeas
Origen, First Principles
St. Athanasius, Orations Against the Arians I-III
idem, Apology Against the Arians
idem, On the Incarnation
St. Basil, Against Eunomius
idem, Epistles 214, 210, 8
St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orations 27-31.
St. Gregory of Nyssa, Antirrheticus against Apollinaris
idem, Great Catechetical Oration
St. Cyril of Alexandria, Treasury on the Holy and Consubstantial Trinity
idem, Against the Blasphemies of Nestorius
idem, Epistles 4, 17 & 39 and Sermon 4
7. Topics for Papers Th. 602
1. Who was the Son of Man? Roots in OT and Intertestamental Literature
2. Individual Messianic prophecies or groups of them: in modern commentators, in Targums, in Magisterium, plus comments
3. Attitudes to the Law in Jesus and in Paul
4. The meaning of "save, saved" in NT
5. Preexistence of the Messiah in OT and in Rabbis
6. Historicity of the Gospels in general
7. Historicity of the Infancy Gospels
8. Historicism and the Gospels
9. Relation of Old and New Covenants
10.Relation of old and new People of God
11. Problems of the Knowledge Jesus had a) In Scripture, b) In the Fathers, c) In Magisterium documents, d) in theological reasoning
12. What did His Mother know about Him? How?
13. Did Jesus have baby talk? Have to learn carpentry?
14. Did Jesus suffer from anxiety?
15. History of the title Theotokos
16. Theories of how the redemption operated
17. Theories of Marian cooperation in the redemption
18. Credibility of the miracles of Jesus; their purpose
19. Sequence of events after His resurrection
20. The self-revelation of Jesus
21. The purpose of the parables
22. In what way did Jesus go beyond the Law
23. The Gospel image of the Pharisees and Sadducees
24. The basic teachings of Jesus
25. Development of Christology in the Patristic age
26. The History of Arianism
27. The history of Nestorianism
28. The history of Apollinarism
29. The history of Monophysitism
30. Caesaropapism in the Patristic age
31. The apocryphal Gospels
32. The problems of Mark 3.21-35
33. The Messianic Secret
34. The beatitudes
35. Patristic commentaries on the Our Father
36. The problem of the excommunication of St.Athanasius
37. Genre of various OT and NT books
38. Authenticity of Second Thessalonians, Colossians, Ephesians, the Pastoral Epistles
39. "No salvation outside the Church" in the Patristic age
40. Paul on relation of Jews and gentiles: Romans 11, Ephesians 2, Acts 28
41. Jesus and Paul on justification by faith
42. Internal and external evidence of authorship and dates of Gospels
43. The chronology of the miracles of Jesus as indicated by His use or non-use of Messianic secret
STUDY QUESTIONS ON THEOLOGY 602: CHRISTOLOGY
l. Did the Father always plan to send His Son? Would He have done so if Adam and Eve had not fallen? Would He have sent Him for other sins? (Cf. Gal 2. 20. )
2. What are futuribles? How does God know them?
3. Is there any Scriptural basis for preexistence of the Messiah? What of the Rabbis on this?
4. Did Gen 3. 15 speak of the Messiah? What did the Targums say? What does Vatican II say? What do the Popes say?
5. What are Targums? What evidence for date of composition?
6. Did Gen 49. 10 speak of the Messiah? What do the Targums say? What does Neusner say? Was it actually fulfilled?
7. What was Balaam asked to do? What did he really do? What does the Targum say on this?
8. Who is the child of Isaiah 9. 5-6? Give reasons ?What does the Targum say? How do Jewish versions handle it?
9. Who is the child of Isaiah 7. 14? Could there be multiple fulfillment? Does the Targum call it Messianic? Did the Jews ever think that?
10. Did Jesus have the Gifts of the Holy Spirit? Any point when He was divine? What of Isaiah 11? Relate it to Summa I. 19. 5. c.
11. Who is the one meant in the Servant songs? What do the Targums say on them? How explain that?
12. Who was Bar Kokhba?
13. Comment on Zechariah 12. 10: "They shall look on me whom they have pierced?" Relation to Psalm 22? Does any Gospel speak of this passage?
14. What does Haggai 2. 9 say of the Temple? Implications. Do the Targums mention this?
15. What did Jesus do with Isaiah 61. 1-2? What of the Targum?
16. What is foretold in Micah 5. 1
17. What does the Targum do with Psalm 72?
18. What messianic texts are found in Hosea? Did the Targum notice?
19. How explain the reference to prophecies of the Resurrection mentioned in 1 Cor. 15. 4?
20. Is the covenant form known in the Ancient Near East?
21. Was Sinai unilateral or bilateral? Give reasons.
22. What was the reason for deportations by Assyria and New Babylonia? What success?
23. What was the difference between Sinai and the New Covenant according to Jeremiah? What was the same?
24. What does the comparison of the two olive trees in Romans 11 imply relative to the covenant?
25. What did Norman Perrin say about ancient texts?
26. What objection did Perrin make based on Mk 9. 1? How answer him?
27. What does "Kingdom of God" mean in the Gospels? Give reasons? Does it always have the same meaning?
28. What are the three stages in the development of the Gospels according to Form Critics? What is Sitz-im-Leben?
29. Outline Fuller's Form Critical analysis of Mk 8. 229-33. Show how the analysis of units 2 and 3 fails.
30. What does Fuller say today about Form Criticism? Is he right now?
31. What does Joseph Fitzmyer say of the Gospels? Comment.
32. Does Vatican II allow us to think there are errors in Scripture in science, history, and religion? Who thinks it does?
33. What is literary genre? Its importance in the study of the Gospels?
34. What did Herodotus and Thucydides think history should be? What ideals did the Hebrews hold for history? Implications for the Gospels?
35. What special evidence is there for the reliability of Luke?
36. What is the problem of Historicism? What potential effect on the Gospels? on Church documents? How answer it?
37. How can we show that it is possible to distinguish between facts and interpretations?
38."There is no such a thin as an uninterpreted report". Comment.
39. What means had the Gospel writers to get the facts? What motive did they have for getting them right?
40. If we say that we can believe the Gospels because Christians died for their faith, and someone replies: Moslems and others also die for their faith - what is the answer?
41. Do we need to know the names of the authors of the Gospels? Why?
42. What two kinds of evidence are there for authorship of a Gospel?
43."Mark was not entirely clear in his report of the prophecy by Jesus of the fall of Jerusalem, Matthew and Luke were very clear, and Luke even said an army would surround the city. So Matthew and Luke wrote after the fall." Comment.
44. "Matthew shows no notion of the debate Paul had about the Law. So Matthew wrote late, after the debate had settled." Comment.
45. What six facts do we easily get from the Gospels that will show the divine commission of the Church to teach?
46. What did R. Brown propose about the reliability of the Infancy Gospels?
47. How can we show that the Infancy Gospels are reliable?
48. Objection: In Matthew, Jesus and Mary live in a house; in Luke, in a stable. Give a reply.
49. Objection: In Matthew the angel speaks to Joseph, in Luke, to Mary. Give a reply.
50. Objection: A trip to Egypt will not fit with Luke's account of an orderly return to Nazareth. Give a reply.
51. Objection: There is no trace of the census mentioned by Luke, or of Quirinius as Governor of Syria.
52. What should we say of the translation "full of grace"?
53. What could Our Lady learn from the words of the Archangel? What would follow on that knowledge?
54. Did she boldly oppose her human will to the will of God? Who said she did?
55. What does the Epistle to the Hebrews say of His entry into the world? Can we believe that? What is the genre of Hebrews?
56. What did Pius XII teach in Mystici Corporis about the vision in the soul of Jesus? What was K. Rahner's comment? What kind of authority does an Encyclical have?
57. Who sparked the modern debate about the consciousness of Christ? How reply to him?
58. Who thought Jesus had a superstition ?What superstition? What Scriptural error was made in that charge?
59. Who said all modern Christology is based on the view that the human knowledge of Jesus was limited? Is it limited? Distinguish about limits.
60. What possible interaction is there between the view that Jesus was not ignorant and the virginal conception?
61. Show by mere theological reasoning that the human soul of Jesus had to have the vision of God from the first instant of conception.
62. Did Jesus ever suffer from anxiety? Does that show a lack of trust in God?
63. How could Jesus suffer actual fear as Mk 14. 34 says? He knew He would rise.
64. Did Jesus on the cross think He was abandoned by the Father?
65. How could Jesus have the divine vision and still suffer?
66. If He had that vision, did He have to learn to walk? To speak His native language? How about learning carpentry?
67. Who thought Jesus was still in the dark and could not find the Father even after He died?
68. What are the measures of the sufferings of His Mother at the cross?
69. How can we say Mary is the Mother of God? She in no sense produced the divinity. What does Theotokos mean?
70. What is the special significance of the Presentation in the Temple? Reactions of Jesus and Mary then? How can we know?
71. Fitzmyer points out that Jesus did not need purification, only Mary did. Comment.
72. Why did Jesus let His parents grieve for three days before finding Him in the Temple? Scriptural precedents for the pattern? St. Luke says they did not understand? What did they not understand?
73. Did Jesus really say He had to be about His Father's business? What did the Greek Fathers say of that line?
74. St. Luke says Jesus advanced in wisdom and age. Was He then deficient in wisdom earlier?
75. Why did Jesus spend about 30 years in a hidden life when He came to teach and save the world? What special temptation would this give to His Mother?
76. What did Paul VI say about Christian marriage and family?
77. Can we really "serve God"?
78. What providential arrangement has God made to bring us from the selfishness of an infant to capability of unselfish love?
79. Why at Cana did Jesus call His Mother "Woman? Do the words "What is to you and to me imply rejection? Explain. What did He mean then by saying His hour had not yet come?
80. What is the special problem of His attitude to His Mother and hers to Him in Mark 3. 20-35. Solution?
81. When Jesus asked "Who is my Mother? Was He rejecting her?
82. Did Jesus always teach clearly? When and why did He turn to parables? Did He really mean to blind people by them? What Hebrew pattern is present?
83. Why does God want Scripture to be difficult?
84. Are the parables of Jesus of the same type as Rabbinic parables?
85. Who said there must be only one point in a parable? Is that true?
86. Do the explanations of the parables given in the Gospels come from Jesus or the Church?
87. Did Jesus call Himself Son of Man? How can we be sure? What three phases of the Son of Man are there?
88. What does the title mean? What did it mean in Aramaic? Why did Jesus use that title?
89. What is the Messianic secret? Who wrote a famous book on it? Answer his claims.
90. Did Jesus claim to be Messiah? Did He know He was the Messiah? Did His Mother know? How could she find that out?
91. What is the difference between the accounts of the episode at Caesarea Philippi in Matthew 16 and in Mark 8? How explain?
92. What did the term Son of God mean in general? What did Jesus mean by it? What evidence is there from the parable of the wicked tenants?
93. How did Jesus show He was to be the eschatological judge? What implication did He give by quoting Malachi?
94. Did Jesus claim to be a prophet? How?
95. What other claims did Jesus make about Himself?
96. What did Jesus say about His own mission?
97. What are the two components of a sacrifice? Find these at the Last Supper, the Cross, and the Mass.
98. Romans 1. 4 says He was "constituted Son-of-God-in-power." Did He not always have all power?
99. What do we learn about a glorified body from the appearances after His resurrection?
100. Jesus said He had come not to destroy but to fulfill the Law - yet He often broke the law. St. Paul said we are free from the law. Explain. Give examples of Pharisaic extremism?
101. Did Jesus go beyond the law? Examples?
102. Jesus said we should turn the other cheek. But in the Jewish court He did not do that. Explain.
103. Was Jesus an absolute pacifist?
104. What did He mean when He said we must be like little children or we will not enter the Kingdom of Heaven?
105. Distinguish various types of miracles by Jesus. Can we believe He really did all of them? Were not His miracles of healing just like those of the Greek wonderworkers, such as Apollonius of Tyana?
106. Why did Jesus say He came to give His life as a ransom for many instead of for all?
107. What four theories of how the redemption operates do we find in St. Athanasius?
108. What does St. Paul mean by the price of redemption? Who was the captor? What problem does that raise. How solve it?
109. What is the debt theory of redemption? What evidence is there from the OT, Intertestamental Literature, NT, Rabbis, and Fathers on it?
110. What is the objective order? What did Paul VI say of it? What do we learn from Rabbi Simeon ben Eleazar?
111. Does the infinity of the price paid by Jesus make any contribution by us unnecessary? or impossible?
112. What is the relation of price of redemption to covenant?
113. What did St. Anselm say about the price of redemption?
114. What is the New Eve theme? Name three Fathers in whom it is found. Which of these does Vatican II quote especially? What quality in Our Lady and in Jesus is specially stressed? Why?
115. What is the difference between remote and immediate cooperation in the objective redemption? How many Magisterium documents teach immediate cooperation?. What further question is there after we know that she did in some way cooperate immediately?
116. Did Vatican II teach a particular kind of immediate cooperation? Which kind? What was her relation to the covenant condition? To the price of redemption? Was her cooperation active or merely receptive?
117. What further deepening did John Paul II bring to the teaching of Vatican II on her faith?What does he mean by the deepest kenosis in history?
118. Objection: Vatican II said at the start of chapter 8 of LG that it did not intend to settle existing Mariological debates. Does our position in questions 116-17 contradict that?
119. What are the alternatives of redemption? What is the relation of her role to the Mass?
120. Is she Mediatrix? Of all graces? What did Vatican II do on this? What did previous Popes do?
121. What would be a radical reinterpretation of the resurrection of Jesus? A less radical reinterpretation?
122. How is it possible to arrange the events after the resurrection?
123. How did Pius XII find the assumption in the sources of revelation?
124. Are the Synpotics entirely clear on the divinity of Jesus What of John? How answer the claim that John has merely theological meditations?
125. What did the Fathers do when faced with two seemingly contradictory theological points?
126. What did the Docetists hold? What other views reduced the humanity of Jesus? What led to such views?
127. Are we sure that St. Justin Martyr, St. Theophilus St. Irenaeus, Origen and others really tried to diminish the divinity of Jesus? Why?
128. Who most clearly denied the divinity of Jesus? What were his chief arguments? Did any Bishops side with him? What Council decided on this? What was the aftermath of the council?
129. Who was the great defender of the divinity of Christ in the East? In the West?
130. Who called the Council of Nicea? What did Emperor Constantius do later?
131. What died Pope Liberius do? Was he guilty of false doctrine?
132. What was Apollinarism? What reasoning led to it? How answer his reasoning?
133. What is the difference between Logos-sarx and Logos-anthropos Christology?
134. Who taught two persons in Jesus? What Council condemned him? Who were two forerunners of his?
135. Who was the chief fighter against Nestorianism? Of what was he accused in his lifetime?
135. Who was Eutyches? What did he hold. Who condemned him?
136. How did Monothelitism originate? What did it hold?
137. What conclusions on the structure of Jesus emerge from the Patristic debates and Councils? What mystery is there then left in the incarnation?
138. What is the theological basis for devotion to the SAcred Heart? Is it a peripheral devotion? What is the theological basis for devotion to the Immaculate Heart?
139. What are the two chief elements in this devotion? How did Leo XIII explain consecration? Can we make a consecration to Our Lady also? What is the theological basis?
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ON THEOLOGY 602: CHRISTOLOGY
1. The Father always planned to send His Son: all His decisions are without change, eternal. Would He have sent Him if Adam and Eve had not fallen: much debated, Dominicans say no, Franciscans say yes. It seems in view of Gal 2. 20 He would have sent Him for other sins, "He loved ME and gave Himself for ME."
4. Targums call Gen 3. 15 Messianic, but cloud it by allegory. Vatican II says Church now sees it as Messianic, seems unsure if original writer saw that. Pius IX said the theologians say so, Pius XII was clear: it is Messianic.
5. Targums: ancient Aramaic versions of OT, mostly free, with fill-ins. Surely made without seeing them fuliflled in Christ, whom they hated. Neusner shows was no interest in Messiah from after 70 AD until 500, scant after that. Targums show much interest: so, composed at least orally before 70.
6. Gen 49. 10 says will be a ruler from Judah until time of Messiah. Targum says this was messianic. So does Neusner. It was fulfilled: first ruler outside tribe of Judah was Herod, 41 BC.
8. Targums see the chld as Messiah. It calls someone Mighty God. Targum is ambiguous, could mean Messiah is that, or could mean He is called Messiah by Mighty God etc. Jewish versions handle similarly.
9. Child of Is 9. 5-6 is same as that of 7. 14 , both part of Book of Immanuel. Hillel at time of Christs aid 7. 14 was Messianic, Hezekiah was Messiah. Later Jews, seeing Christians using it, denied. Really, it is multiple fulfillment: Hezekiah and Jesus.
10. Jesus had the Gifts, the Father, as Summa I. 19. 5. c says, loves good order: to have one thing in place to serve as title for next things. So Jesus' humanity had all aids, including Gifts. Isaiah 11 says He will have Spirit. Targums says is Messianic.
14. Haggai says the new temple will be greater than the first. It was not materially greater, was greater because Jesus entered it. Targums do not see Haggai 2. 9 as Messianic.
23. Jeremiah says Old Covenant was broken, implies New will not be. Old was on stone, New written on hearts. But they both have 1) People of God; 2) favor on condition of obedience.
24. Tame olive tree is original people of God. Wild is gentiles. Many branches fell off tame tree by rejecting Christ: gentiles put in place of them. Implies converted gentiles became part of the original people of God.
27. Sense of Kingdom of God varies, but often means Church in this or next world. We see this sense in parables of wicked tenants, the net, the mustard seed, the weeds in the wheat.
28. Three steps: 1)words and acts of Jesus, adapted to His hearers 2)Apostles and others report, adapting to hearers 3)some under the Spirit write down part of this primitive preaching = Gospels. So Church has something more basic than Gospels, its own ongoing teaching. Sitz-im-Leben is the life situation in which a passage first arose.
32. Vatican II forbids us to think there are errors, see its notes to DV 11, citing documents excluding all error. R. Brown and others claim it does allow errors, they neglect the notes and teaching of Pius XII that doctrine of Vatican I on God as author is a solemn definition.
33. Genre is pattern of writing, e. g, a historical novel includes history and fiction. So there are rules to help understand each genre. We can determine Gospels intend to give facts plus interpretations, and we can tell which is which, and see that the very sismple 6 points we use for apologetics (as in question 45) are picked up by eyes and ears so simply there is no room for biased report.
36. Histroricism: each person & event is so close to unique we have little in common, cannot be sure of undersanding past. Undermines Gospels and Church documents. Answer: distinguish facts plus interpretations. Even latter are not so unique, many sciences, e. g, medicine, psychology, sociology, identify broadly applicable patterns. As to facts, for apologetics we need only 6 facts, and they are such that 1)they are not entwined in an ancient culture 2) eyes and ears picked them up without room for biased interpretation.
39. Gospel writers could get facts :Clement I, Pope c 88 or 92, says Peter & Paul were of his generation; Quadratus writing 123 says some alive in his day who were cured or raised by Jesus: would cover surely the 80-90 range assigned to Mt. and Lk. And a teenager at time of public life of Jesus would be only about 65 by 80 AD, could testify. Fact that Chrisitians died for their faith shows sincerity, no fakery, they believed eternity depends on facts. This plus the fact they had access to facts shows truth.
43. There is one spot in Mk not fully clear. But Luke says an army would surround Jerusalem: this was merely normal in all ancient sieges, so that does not prove Lk written after the event.
45. 1) There was a man, Jesus; 2) he claimed to be sent as messenger from God; 3) he proved that by miracles worked with tie between claim and the miracle; 4) in the crowds He had an inner circle, spoke more to them; 5) told them to continue His teaching; 6) promised God would protect that: "He who hears you hears me."
51. New research by E. L. Martin (Birth of Christ Recalculated) shows we must take the eclipse of moon of Jan 10, 1 BC as the one Josephus says came just before Herod's death: other eclipses around those years do not leave room for the events Josephus puts between that time and the next Passover. So Jesus born 3 BC. We have secular records of a registration to take oath of allegiance to Augustus in 3 BC, who was to get title Father of country in 2 BC. So that was the "census." Real Governor went to Rome for it, left Quirinius in charge.
53. As soon as Angel says He would reign over house of Jacob forever, she knew He was Messiah: general belief then that Messiah would reign forever. Then she could see all the Messianic prophecies about Messiah - Targums saw so much, she , full of grace, would see at least that.
56. Mystici Corporis teaches human soul of Jesus had vision of God from first instant of conception. Hence He knew His coming passion etc. , and He knew each member of His Mystical Body individually. Rahner tried to say that teaching was only incidental. Not so, major importance for Encyclical on Mystical Body to say He knew each member of His Body then. And this Encyclical is part of a series all reaffirming same thing. When a Pope deliberately takes a stand on a debated point-- knowledge of Jesus was debated then--in his Acta, it is removed from debate, is covered by "He who hears you hears me."
60. There have been hints by those who insist Jesus did not know who He was that there was no virginal conception: If so His Mother would know much and tell Him.
61. Any soul in grace will have vision of God if divinity joins self directly to the human soul/mind, without even an image in between. Not just the mind, but the whole humanity of Jesus was joined even more closely, to be just one Person.
62. He did have anxiety: Lk 12. 50 ;Jn 12. 27 since He always knew what was to come. Long running, increasing stress. If He used divine power He could have stopped that, but He would not use it. So unprotected humanity would suffer. That is not a lack of trust in God. He knew God wanted Him to suffer to redeem us.
63. As said in #62, an unprotected humanity, faced by such a prospect, would shrink back and fear. Knowing He would rise would not make the nails painless.
68. His Mother suffered in proportion to 1)suffering she saw in Him 2)her love: which was so great that Pius IX wrote (1854) her holiness/love was so great that "none greater under God can be thought of and no one but God can comprehend it." So her suffering was such only God could comprehend it.
70. At Presentation He was not bought back from service of God, but turned over. Having the vision, He knew this was the offertory of the Great Sacrifice. She knew too, from isaiah 53, and would continue her fiat.
72. Scripture shows (e.g., case of Abraham's sacrifice, promise of Eucharist not explained though many left) God often puts people into spots where they hold on in dark, i.e., when they cannot see: then their strong attachment of will makes great spiritual growth. They did know who He was, did not understand strange departure from usual compliant behavior.
74. St. Athanasius noted distinction of actual growth, and growth in manifestation of what was already there. If at age 3 He had shown His boundless wisdom it would have been very odd.
75. He wanted to show value of a humble family life in accord with Father's will, Her faith told her who He was - His actions showed nothing special. Hence a clash.
79. The word "Woman" at Cana is probably used to tie Gen 3. 15 with Cana, with Cross (Woman behold your son) and with Apoc. 12: woman clothed with sun. "What is it to you and me" could imply rejection: but He was causing her to work in dark as in q. 72. He advanced the time for His working of miracles at her request.
80. In Mk 3. 20-35 three segments: 1) Some around Him think Him mad, go toget Him. 2) Enemies say He casts out devils by devil 3) Mother & others come to crowd:" Who is my Mother?"--She may not have been among those in segment 1. If so, she went along to hold them down. In segment 3, He taught dramatically: of two forms of greatness, being Mother of God, and hearing and keeping the word, the second is greater. She was at peak in both categories.
81. Answers in 80.
82. At start He taught clearly, went to parables when enemies attributed His work to satan. He wanted a gradual self-revelation. Lines in John "Before Abraham was, I AM" would be at end, when no use any more to hold back. Parables were device to let the well disposed get more and more; the ill disposed, less and less. When it says God blinded them, Hebrew pattern is attributing to His direct action what He only permits.
86. They come from Jesus. If Gospels says they came from Him and He never said those words it would be falsehood.
87. Jesus shows self as earthly Son of Man: "Son of man has no where to lay His head". "He is Lord even of the Sabbath". Suffering son of Man: predicted the passion of Son of man, and He suffered it. Eschatological son of Man: parable of weeds. Lk 17. 24-26 Says He will come like lightning flashing out of the sky, but first must suffer much.
88. Aramaic usage unclear: some think it means I, or someone like me. But we saw in q. 87 He meant self. Was part of His gradual self-revelation. Daniel 7. 14 has son of man getting everlasting power. Some say it means people of Israel. But they never thought of a headless community, nor was their power unending. Ps 80. 15-18 is messianic according to Targum, and it calls him Son of Man. Levey sees this seems to mean Son of God.
89. Wrede in 1901 said Jesus did not say or know self to be Messiah. Church was embarassed later, faked incidents in which title would come up, He would tell them to keep quiet. His strongest case: Raising of daughter of Jairus: people would see girl was alive. But only a few were in the house, and Jesus needed silence only long enough to slip out and get on the way to next place.
92. Son of God could mean any devout Jew. But Jesus used your Father, and my father, distinguishing them. Son in parable of wicked tenants is beloved son, Greek agapetos, which Septuagint uses for Hebrew yahid, Only Son.
93. He showed He would be judge by openly predicting Son of Man would judge at end, and by parables of weeds in wheat, and in Mt 24. 30: will come in sky to judge. His quote from Malachi spoke of Elijah as forerunner of Yahweh. Then said John the Baptist was Elijah, and His own forerunner. Implication: He is Yahweh.
95. Said He was greater than Jonah, than Solomon, than the Temple, could forgive sins, had authority over the Torah.
97. Sacrifice includes outward sign, which expresses interior disposition, chiefly obedience to Father. At Last supper, sign was seeming separation of body and blood, standing for death. On Friday, sign was actual separation. Mass has same sign as Last Supper. In all, interior disposition is obedience, which continued from Supper to today: death makes permanent attitude of heart at the time of death.
98. He always had all power as God, would not use it as man until Mt 28. 18 where He said: "All power is given to me" even as Man. In Phil 2. 7 He renounced use of His power for Himself before resurrection.
100. He did not break the Law, but Pharisees' additions, some of which were contrary to the law. Paul said we are free from law in that keeping it does not earn salvation. Yet Paul said if we break it we are lost (1 Cor 6. 9-10). Jesus said we must be like children- they know they do not earn care and love, but could earn to lose it by being bad. Rabbis even argued: May we eat an egg laid day after Sabbath: illegitimate work by hen. May a man with wooden leg walk on Sabbath?
101. He went beyond the law in saying: You have heard it was said... but I say to you. And in making all people our neighbor and in Sermon on Mount.
104. Cf. answer to 100.
105. Exorcisms, cures, nature miracles. Only Rationalist prejudice denies them. In His day not even enemies denied He cured and exorcised. Unlike miracles of Greek wonder workers he did not use sleeping in temple, there was with them often gibberish and incantations. Pagans did not use them to prove a claim as He did. Apollonius of Tyana wrote a letter in one case to threaten a demon, he sees tripods that serve meals, sees gems so large if hollowed would hold drink for 4 men.
106. The many reflects Hebrew rabbim, the all who are many. When Paul uses polloi in Greek (which means many) as a noun, he always means all: cf. Rom 5. 19.
108. Price is death of Jesus in obedience. Captor was satan: price not paid to him, nor to Father (not captor), but to rebalance the objective order: God's Holiness loves all that is right.
109. Sin is a debt that needs to be paid. The sinner takes from one pan of the two-pan scales, what he has no right to: scales is out of balance. The Holiness of God wants it rebalanced. But only a divine Person incarnate could generate an infinite value - one mortal sin is infinite imbalance. Hence incarnation. OT, Intertestamental Literature, NT, Rabbis and Fathers often see sin as a debt.
111. St. Paul pictures whole Christian regime as this: we are saved and made holy if and to extent that we are members of Christ and like Him. So we must be like Him too in this work of rebalancing.
112. In covenant, critical condition is obedience. Romans 5. 19 says "by obedience of the one man [Jesus] the many will be constituted just."
114. Just as the first Eve really contributed to getting us into original sin, so the New Eve really contributes to reversing that damage. Many Fathers, e.g., St. Justin Martyr, St. Irenaeus, Tertullian, St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine. Vatican II specially cites St. Irenaeus, and stresses the obedience of Jesus and Mary, the covenant condition, the means of rebalancing the objective order.
115. Remote coperation: furnishing the humanity in which He could die. Immediate: some share in the sacrifice of Calvary. 17 Magisterium texts teach immediate cooperation. As to how that cooperation worked, there is discussion. But: Vatican II especially in LG § 61 teaches she cooperated by obedience - that is the covenant condition.
117. He means: greatest self-emptying in history. All holiness consists in alignment of our will with will of God. So on Calvary she had to positively will His death, at that time, in that way. This ran counter to her holiness/love, which Pius IX says was so great that "none greater under God can be thought of, and no one but God can comprehend it.
121. Radical: "resurrection was only the resurrection of the faith of Apostles." Less radical: "He rose into a different state in which His body was spiritual, not physical."
122. Events: Magdalene & others come to tomb, see it is empty - In excitement run to Apostles - Peter & John refuse to believe, but come and find tomb empty. They do not see Jesus - Peter & John leave, then Magdalene sees Him, thinks is gardener. She & others go again to Apostles to say they saw Him - Jesus appears to Peter - then to two on road to Emmaus - Latter go to Apostles, hear Peter had seen Him - He appears to the Eleven -Jesus returns when Thomas is also present - appearances at Lake of Galilee.
123. Pius XII pointed first to New Eve theme: she shared in victory over sin & death. But then, that struggle, Calvary, which was "common" to her and her Son, had to be closed by her glorification, just as it had closed with His. Common cause gives common effect: glorification.
127. Probably they tried to hold to two truths: He makes the transcendent Father known - He too is divine. Did not know how to fit them together, held both.
128. Arius clearly denied divinity of Jesus. Said God must be unbegotten - but the Logos was begotten. Also, God must not be communicable - Logos was communicated from Father. So is not divine. About 15 Bishops at Nicea sided with Arius. Nicea, 325 AD, defined His divinity, but 50 years of struggle followed.
129. Great defender in East: St. Athanasius - in west: St. Hilary of Poitiers.
132. Apollinaris said Jesus had no human rational soul: Logos performed functions of the soul. He thought two beings entirely complete could not make a union: but humanity of Jesus lacked personhood. He thought with a human soul, Jesus would be able to sin: but His human will was owned by the Divine Person, which cannot sin.
134. Nestorius taught two persons in Jesus. Forerunners: Diodore of Tarsus, & Theodore of Mopsuestia. Condemned by Ephesus 431.
135. Chief fighter aginst Nestorius: St. Cyril of Alexandria. Loose language led to charges of Apollinarism and Monophysitism. Today also charged with saying Jesus was ignorant.
137. Conclusion: One Person, divine; two natures, divine and human, which remain distinct after the union. Mystery: Since God is not passive, seems He was not changed by the incarnation, and hence has no relation to the humanity of Christ.
138. Sacred Heart devotion is honor paid to the love of God for us as expressed in and symbolized in the human heart of Jesus, which is united in one Person to the divinity. So it is not peripheral, but part of mainline of faith. Pius XII said since she shared in redeeming us with Him, devotion to Immaculate Heart should go along with Sacred Heart devotion.