The MOST Theological Collection: The Holy Spirit and the Church
"Addenda: course info; reading list; paper topics; study Q & A"
NOTRE DAME INSTITUTE: Theology 603: The Holy Spirit and the Church
1. Course Description: This course presents in detail, section by section, an explanation of the Constitution, Lumen gentium of Vatican II. It also presents other Conciliar Documents closely related to the Constitution on the Church, namely: the Decree on Religious Liberty. the Fathers and Magisterium on Membership in the Church, and the Constitution on Divine Revelation.
2. Specific Course Objectives: Inform student of Conciliar teaching on nature of Church and its relation to the Holy Spirit; In what way is membership in the Church required for eternal salvation; Teachings of the Magisterium and the Fathers on the nature of membership in the Church; Relation of the Church to Scripture and Tradition as seen in Dei verbum
3. Method of instruction: Lectures, discussion, study questions to focus attention, compact summaries of answers to essential study questions, review periods for midterm and for final, term paper.
4. Grades: Midterm 50%; final 50%. Term paper prerequisite to grading.
5. Topics covered and timing: [omitted]
6. Required books:
Vatican II, Constitution on the Church
Vatican II, Decree on Religious Liberty
Vatican II, Constitution on Divine Revelation
Wm. G. Most, The Mystery of the Church (NDI Office)
7. Recommended books:
Vatican I, Supremi Pastoris (Schema of Dogmatic Constitution, 1870)
Leo XIII, Satis cognitum (Encyclical, 1896)
Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (Encyclical, 1943)
Paul VI, Ecclesiam Suam (Encyclical, 1964)
idem, Credo of the People of God
S. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Mysterium Ecclesiae, Declaration, 1973
Herbert Vorgrimler (ed.) Commentary on the Documents of Vatican II
Topics for Term Papers: Theol. 603
1. The doctrinal authority of Vatican II.
2. No salvation outside the church.
3. The Church as mystery.
4. On "subsisting in" the Catholic Church.
5. The relation of the Church to the Kingdom of God here and hereafter.
6. The development of Pauline teaching on the Mystical Body, compared to that in the Encyclical of Pius XII.
7. Predestination to full membership in the Church.
8. How the Redemption operates: Patristic and later theories.
9. How the Mass carries on the work of our redemption.
10. Are Protestants members of the Catholic Church?
11. Priesthood of the laity compared with ordained priesthood.
12. Vatican II's attitude to the fuller sense of Scripture.
13. Spiritual sacrifices and the Areopagus of John Paul II.
14. Opportunities for spiritual growth in marriage.
15. The roles of Christ in which the laity share.
16. The classification of graces and implications.
17. Collegiality in Vatican II, and in the actual practice of the Church ancient and modern.
18. Theological problems of the Sacrament of Holy Orders and a possible solution.
19. Vatican II's innovations on the lay apostolate.
20. The three evangelical counsels in themselves and in relation to modern spirituality.
21. Nature and importance of the syn Christo theme.
22. If celibacy/virginity is a higher state, is it impossible for married persons to reach spiritual perfection?
23. How hardening or blindness develops in persons.
24. The development of the recapitulation theme in St. Irenaeus.
25. Since merits are God's gifts to us, why does He not just give a reward directly without such a process?
26. Compare objective and subjective orders.
27. Compare and explain objective and subjective redemption.
28. The Mariology of Vatican II.
29. Comparison of German and Conciliar Mariology.
30. The New Eve theme in the Fathers and in Vatican II.
31. The chief messianic prophecies as seen through the Targums.
32. Vatican II and earlier magisterium on the virginity in giving birth.
33. Vatican II's use of the covenant theme.
34. John Paul II's deepening of the Mariology of Vatican II.
35. The theme of obedience in the Popes and in Vatican II.
36. The teaching of Vatican II on Mediatrix of all graces.
37. Innovations of Vatican II on ecumenism, and recent practice of ecumenism.
38. Vatican II on the relation of Scripture and Tradition.
39. Vatican II on religious liberty in relation to the teaching of earlier Popes.
40. Vatican II on the way of interpreting Scripture.
41. Vatican II on the inerrancy of Scripture compared with Vatican I and the Encyclicals of Leo XIII and Pius XII on Scripture.
42. The Fathers, Popes and Councils on membership in the Church.
NB: Please do not forget that papers need documentation, in notes at bottom of page or at end, with full data on works cited. The notes should reflect what reading you have done for the paper.
Theology 603 Study Questions
1. Was Vatican II only a pastoral Council? If so, would it have any doctrinal authority?
2. Can the Pope define without consulting the Bishops? What is the name of the pattern normally used?
3. How many levels of teachings of the magisterium are infallible? What is the element in common to them?
4. What kind of wording is required for a solemn definition? What form has often been used? Does it always indicate a solemn definition? Give an example of a solemn definition made without the most usual form of the past. How do we know it is a definition?
5. Can ordinary bishops ever be infallible? On what conditions?
6. What does repetition of a teaching indicate? Why?
7. Are any things in Encyclicals infallible? Which if any?
8. What obligation do we have toward noninfallible teachings? How can we be asked to believe something that is not infallible?
9. What is the least level on which Vatican II taught?
10. What influential remark did John XXIII make in his opening speech to Vatican II?
11. What did John XXIII say about previous teachings? What distinction did he make? How did the Decree on Ecumenism follow up on that? The Mysterium fidei of Paul VI?
12. Why do we need to know the historical context of previous doctrinal statements?
13. Did the Magisterium ever endorse Thomistic Aristotelianism? Why? Suppose we have reason to think a Pope had more in his mind than what he set down on paper - what do we do then?
14. What did the Secretary of the Council say of the documents on Liturgy and the Media?
15. What did Paul VI say in opening the third Session about the Constitution on the church?
16. What did Paul VI say in 1966 on the authority of doctrinal statements of Vatican II? Did he agree that the Council was not binding?
17. Did Vatican II make any solemn definitions? On what levels are its teachings?
18. If the Church is a mystery, what dos the word mystery mean?
19. Did Vatican II intend to break with earlier Councils? Give a reason.
20. What does it mean to say the Church is a sacrament? Compare to the usual use of that word? What was the history of that word?
21. What does it mean to say God created for His own glory? What do we learn from Vatican I on that?
22. Did God in OT times provide for salvation of people living then? How do we know?
23. What does St. Paul mean by predestination? What kinds of predestination are there? On what basis does God predestine to full membership in the Church? What do we imply in speaking of full membership?
24. Did LG explicitly identify the Church with the kingdom of God? Did it reject the notion? What evidence do we have from Scripture on that? From modern theologians?
25. What does it mean to say the Church "subsists in" the Catholic Church?
26. What was the relation of the obedience of Christ to redemption?
27. What is the problem about the price of redemption? How solve it? What help is there from the Indulgentiarum doctrina of Paul VI?
28. What is the objective order? Illustrate it from a Jewish Rabbi. What attribute of God is most directly involved?
29. Is the redemption a new covenant? What does that imply about the essential condition? What did Vatican II and previous Popes say about the relation of Our Lady to that? What do we gather from the repetition of that teaching 17 times?
30. How can we bring in her obedience when that of Christ is infinite? How about our obedience?
31. What helpful remark does St. Thomas give us in I. 19. 5. c. ? How does that relate to our obedience? To that of the Saints? How does that affect a central point of Luther's ideas?
32. LG 3 says that as often as the Mass is celebrated "the work of our redemption is carried out." Explain. What two elements are there in a sacrifice? Explain relation to Holy Thursday, Good Friday, and the Mass.
33. The Eucharistic bread signifies our unity. How? How can we practically unite our obedience to His? At what point in the Mass? In what sense does this bring about our unity with Him?
34. What functions does the Holy Spirit perform for the Church? Is that work done by the Holy Spirit alone?
35. Does Jewish literature before Christ often speak of the Kingdom? How then could Jesus confidently use the term? Would an ancient Jew think of the Messianic Kingdom without the Messiah?
36. In what way can the Church be called a mystery? Can there be members of the Church without visible adherence to it? Give evidence from Magisterium texts?
37. What Scriptural texts imply the Church is the kingdom? Do all texts carry that implication? Give examples of modern commentators who make the Church at times identified with the kingdom.
38. What is the relation of the Church on earth to the kingdom in Heaven? To the Mystical Body?
39. What are some of the images used for the Church?
40. What does it mean to say the Church is a pilgrim?
41. Where in Scripture do we find the Church is the Mystical Body of Christ? What different kinds of texts are there? What do the texts in Col. and Eph. add? What of the word mystical? Why used?
42. LG says the Church on earth and in heaven are parts of one complex reality? Since LG 3 calls the Church in Heaven the kingdom, what is the implication about the Church on earth?
43. Does Baptism make even a protestant a member of the Mystical Body? Of the Church? Where do we find this? Does Vatican II ever seem to go back on that?
44. How could we show that Socrates was a member of the Church?
45. How can LG say the Church is in constant need of purification?
46. Are we saved as individuals or as members of a group? What group? How does that work?
47. Make a synthesis of the thought of St. Paul on the Christian regime.
48. Can we merit heaven? In what sense yes or no?
49. What mistake did the New or GUN Spirituality make? How reply to it?
50. What does the OT mean by the word holy?
51. Is it likely Jeremiah understood fully his own prophecy about the New Covenant? What principle of interpretation is at stake here? What did Vatican II do about that principle?
52. Explain St. Paul's image in Rom 11 of the tame and the wild olive trees. What does that imply about us? What about Jews who still reject Christ?
53. We are sons of God. How could St. Paul also call himself a slave?
54. In what sense does God dwell in us? Implications for Luther?
55. In Rom 8 St. Paul says we are awaiting the adoption as sons. Are we not sons already?
56. Compare priesthood of laity and that of ordination.
57. In what two ways can the laity offer the Mass?
58. If a priest dropped dead right after the consecration, what would be lacking to Christ's offering?
59. What is meant by "spiritual sacrifices"?
60. What are the two components of a sacrifice?
61. What are the three levels of guides one may follow in making decisions?
62. Who said marriage is a long path toward sanctification? How does not work out? What is meant by the "domestic church"?
63. In what sense do people share in the prophetic role of Christ? How does this apply to Catholic politicians?
64. What is passive infallibility? Does it extend to all points in theology? If today people stop believing something that in the past was established in passive infallibility, what is the result?
65. Was St. Jerome right in saying the world was surprised to find itself Arian?
66. What is the difference between charismatic and sanctifying graces? Do many receive charismatic graces?
67. If a person works miracles, does that prove he is holy?
68. Christ said He wanted to bring all into one fold under one shepherd. What does it mean?
69. Will all Jews be converted to Christ some time? What does it mean to say they will be saved? What meanings does the word save have in Scripture?
70. Are baptized Protestants members of the Church?
71. What terms does LG use for those who can be saved but have not formally entered the Church? What further theological reasoning could we add to this?
72. What authentication is there for the claims of Mohammed?
73. Is there any chance of salvation for pagans who have not heard for the Church? How? If they can be saved, is there any purpose in sending missionaries? Who said they were surely lost? What happened to him?
74. How does LG understand Malachi 1:11?
75. Are Bishops successors of the Apostles according to LG?
76. What is collegiality? Does the college have authority without the Pope?
77. What did Tertullian say in De Praescriptione about the means needed to prove a doctrine is true?
78. What three aspects of the mission of Christ do bishops have?
79. Is the relation of Peter to the apostles identical with that of the Pope to the Bishops? Why?
80. What two requirements are there for being admitted to the college?
81. Could a Pope give an order to a Bishop? Would that violate the rule of collegiality? Is a Bishop merely a delegate of the Pope? What is the source of his authority? What does a Bishop need, besides consecration, to use his powers?
82. What should be the attitude of Bishops to other dioceses?
83. What can a group lawfully united with their bishop be called?
84. What does LG say about Bishops listening to their subjects?
85. What are the three degrees of ministry? Are ushers ministers?
86. At Mass, does Christ repeat the interior dispositions He had on the cross?
87. What is the presbyterium? What does it make present?
88. Should priests be concerned only with their own parish or assignment?
89. Who are members of the hierarchy?
90. Can a General Council be superior to the Pope?
91. What plot was formed within the Theological Commission? How was it discovered? The result? What three views of collegiality were being considered?
92. Who are included in the laity? Who are not included? What is the special sphere of the laity?
93. In what sense is there equality within the Mystical Body?
94. In Gal. 3:28 St. Paul says in Christ there is no male or female? Sense?
95. To whom does the command of Mt 5:48,"Be you perfect" apply?
96. What does Wisdom 6:5-6 say of those in authority?
97. What change did LG make in regard to the lay apostolate?
98. What did John Paul II mean by an "Areopagus"? Give examples.
99. Eph 4:7 says grace is given "according to the measure of the giving of Christ". Does it mean He is sparing in giving graces? Why? Relate this to Gal 2:20 and the Constitution on the Church in the Modern World 22.
100. What does Mt. 7:22-23 imply as to charismatic graces?
101. Does God have any need of us? Distinctions?
102. What does LG 34 say about "spiritual sacrifices"?
103. What is the "sensus fidei"?
104. Eph 5:16 says the days are evil? In what sense?
105. What is the syn Christo theme?
106. LG 35 speaks of the need of "continual conversion"? What does it mean? What did John Paul II say of this in relation to frequent communions?
107. By what did Christ reach His reign? What does that imply we need to do? What does the Apocalypse 20 mean by a thousand years of reign of the just on earth?
108. How can St. Paul say in 1 Cor 7:14 that the children of a marriage of a pagan and a Catholic are holy?
109. What are the three evangelical counsels? What mistake is common on them today? How does LG correct the mistake? Are the counsels only for Religious?
110. What conditions call for variation in the forms of holiness?
111. What does it mean to be poor in spirit? Where does St. Paul stress this?
112. When St. Paul says in 1 Cor 7 that the time is short, does he think the end of the world is near?
113. In what can one put his treasure (cf. Mt 6:21)? What effects follow from putting it greatly in creatures? What two measures should we watch in regard to this?
114. When St. Paul says celibacy/virginity is a higher state than marriage, does he mean those who marry cannot reach spiritual perfection? Give reasons.
115. What feature in marriage, not found in celibacy/virginity, can be a great help to spiritual growth? Name two ways in which a married person can make a holy hour.
116. Is religious life a state of [having] perfection?
117. What two special purposes does religious life serve?
118. What is an exempt religious order?
119. Is obedience an obstacle to developing maturity? Why?
120. Are contemplatives useless to human society?
121. Does the Mystical Body exist in heaven?
122. What is recapitulation? Do what does St. Irenaeus apply the term?
123. How long is one an incomplete person after death?
124. LG 49 says all who belong to Christ coalesce into one Church. What are the implications?
125. Show the intrinsic connection of love of God and of neighbor.
126. What is the relation of Our Lady to each Mass?
127. If our merits are God's gifts to us, why does He will to give them to us instead of giving reward directly? What is merit in general?
128. What is our relation to souls in purgatory? to souls in heaven? What needs are there for purgatory?
129. What did Vatican II say about images of the Saints?
130. What charge was made in some floor speeches about the title of Mediatrix for Our Lady? If she really Mediatrix? How many documents of the Magisterium say this? Are floor speeches providentially protected?
131. What does St. Paul mean in 1 Tim 2:5 when he says there is only one Mediator?
132. What very close vote came in October of the second session? What was probably the underlying cause?
133. What is the objective redemption -- the subjective redemption? What is remote and immediate cooperation in the objective redemption? What further question needs to be answered about immediate cooperation?
134. Is the term Coredemptrix wrong?
135. What theory did the German Mariologists propose? What argument did they give to support their view? What sort of theology of redemption seems to underlie the German proposal? What did Cardinal Santos, Balic, and others propose?
136. Did Vatican II actually downgrade Our Lady? What did the media say? Why?
136. How did the Father provide a title for the Immaculate Conception? For what others did the Father desire an immaculate conception?
137. When did the association of Our Lady with Jesus begin?
138. How does the grace of Our Lady compare with that of other Saints?
139. When did she become the Mother of the Members of Christ? How?
140. Who gave her the title of Mother of the Church? Was it entirely new?
141. What limits did LG set for its treatment of Mariology? Is it possible it went beyond these limits? How?
142. What is salvation history? Could anyone be saved before the coming of Christ?
143. What did the Council say about the fuller sense of Scripture?
144. What did LG say about how much the authors of Gen 3:15 and Is 7:14 may have seen?
145. Why did LG 55 insert Cf. before its references to the above two texts? What does this imply about its treatment of the shepherds and the Magi in LG 57?
146. What did the ancient Jews know about these two texts? What attitude do we see in some Catholic scholars today on these?
147. How do we know that Our Lady was definitely foretold in the Protoevangelium?
148. What is multiple fulfillment of a prophecy?
149. Was the LXX loose in its use of parthenos?
150. What were the anawim? Who is the greatest of them?
151. In whose name did Our Lady consent to the incarnation?
152. What is the New Eve Theme? Did many of the Fathers speak of it?
153. What of the translation "Full of grace"? Does the Magisterium use it? What of linguistic arguments?
154. When did Our Lady totally dedicate herself to the Person and work of Her Son?
155. Was Genesis 49:10 Messianic? Do modern scholars see it?
156. At what point did Our Lady learn her Son was to be the Messiah? What further knowledge would come from knowing that?
157. Did she know His divinity? How?
158. What would she have known of His future sufferings? How?
159. What key texts of St. Irenaeus does LG quote? Did St. Irenaeus see all the implications of his knot comparison?
160. How could LG 57 say her union with her Son was manifested from the time of virginal conception -- when it had also said her union was from eternity? In which of the mysteries of the life of Christ is Our Lady involved according to LG?
161. What is a theologoumenon? If Our Lady's virginity, especially during birth, a theologoumenon? What did LG 57 say of it? What do earlier texts of Magisterium say of it?
162. What did Paul VI say of the historicity of the Infancy Gospels? What did John Paul II say?
163. When Jesus was found in the temple His parents did not understand. Did they not know who He was?
164. How explain the words of Jesus to His Mother at Cana?
165. How explain His words saying: Who is my Mother?
166. What factors does LG 58 & 61 bring out as to her cooperation on Calvary? Do they point to merely active receptivity or to sharing in creating the title to forgiveness and grace?
167. She was full of grace at the start? How then could she grow in grace?
168. Compare her faith to the Pauline concept of faith.
169. What deepening did John Paul II bring to the teaching of LG on her faith and consent to the death of her Son?
170. The redemption was a New Covenant. What is the covenant condition? The share of Our Lady in it?
171. What confusion did G. Philips show on her cooperation in the redemption? Significance of this?
172. What special role did Our Lady probably have in the 9 days before the first Pentecost?
173. Why does LG 59 say "at the end of her earthly course" instead of "after her death"?
174. What are the four titles for her Queenship? Implications for consecration?
175. Sum up briefly her association with her Son. Implications for possible Marian devotion? Is that mandatory?
176. What is a type? Is Our Lady a type of the Church? In what senses according to LG? Does LG speak of her as a type of the Church in the matter of cooperation in the redemption?
177. What are the alternatives of redemption?
178. What does it mean to say she cooperated "in an altogether singular way"?
179. What feature of her cooperation is mentioned first? Was it mentioned earlier in LG? Implication?
180. What, according to LG 61, is the reason for her motherhood of us?
181. Did she cooperate in the redemption only on Calvary?
182. What are the two levels in the covenant? On which does her cooperation fall? On which does the work of Christ fall?
183. What does the infinity of the price of redemption tell us about what the Father gives in return?
184. With an infinite objective title for each individual, could one go on a spree of sin and still be saved?
185. Answer the objection of G. Philips that graces are not like jewels that can be stored in a box.
186. How long did or does her fiat extend?
187. Why did not the Council add the words "of all graces" to the title of Mediatrix? Are those words true in themselves? Why? Did LG show us that?
188. Have we put her on the same level as Christ in the redemption? How?
189. What did the Council say of previous statements of the Church on Marian devotions?
190. How does LG affect the Rosary? How did John XXIII affect it?
191. What did Paul VI say of Fatima at the end of the third Session?
192. In considering the action of the Council on Ecumenism, what three distinctions are important?
193. What was the chief change in attitude on ecumenism favored by the Council?
194. What is the relation of ecumenism to the will of Christ?
195. What error on the missions has been proposed by Maryknoll? How answer it?
196. Does the Church need constant reform? Make distinctions.
197. What about the language of older doctrinal statements?
198. Is prayer with protestants permitted? What restrictions?
199. Are all Catholics invited to theological dialogue with outsiders?
200. What change in the presentation of theology does the Council call for?
201. What warning does the Council give about false irenicism?
202. If there a hierarchy of truths? Does that allow us to deny any of them?
203. What kind of cooperation with outsiders is suggested?
204. What special concessions to the Easterners are suggested?
205. What is the place of Baptism in ecumenism?
206. What Popes did Lefebvre claim Vatican II contradicted on religious liberty?
207. What is the strongest statement of Pius IX on religious liberty? Did Vatican II contradict it? Show how this is the case.
208. What are the two senses of the words "religious liberty"? Who used each sense?
209. What did Vatican II say about an established church?
210. What contribution did Pius XII make in Ci riesce?
211. Do people have a right to be wrong?
212. What two kinds of statements on membership in the Church do we find in the Fathers and the Councils? What point of theological method do we see in that fact? How can we reconcile the seeming clash?
213. How could St. Justin the Martyr say Socrates had been a Christian?
214. When we say Christ is the full revelation of the Father, what distinctions do we need to make?
215. What does the DV say about Form Criticism? Show how the Church has something more basic than the Gospels? What is it?
216. How does DV speak of the relation of Scripture and Tradition?
217. Who has the sole right to interpret Scripture and Tradition according to DV?
218. Does DV allow us to think there are errors in Scripture? Answer objections on this.
219. What does DV say of using literary genres?
220. What does DV say one must attend to to rightly understand Scripture?
221. Can one Gospel clash with another? Can scholars contradict the Church?
222. Do the Gospels show historicity? What changes might the Evangelists have made?
Answers to Study Questions on Theo. 603
2. Three levels are infallible: 1) solemn definition; 2) universal teaching of Pope and bishops either in Council or scattered when they make a teaching definitive; 3) an official doctrinal decision of a Pope in an Encyclical on a matter currently debated. -- Common element, all show intent to make definitive.
10. In opening speech John XXIII said we no longer make condemnations of doctrine, not needed.
13. Church never endorsed Thomistic Aristotelianism -- words that might seem thus, e.g., transubstantiation, are to be taken in everyday, not technical sense. If a Pope were known to have had more in mind than he wrote down, only what he wrote is protected.
21. God created for own glory in sense that the nature of his creation glorifies Him, He wills to receive glory through benefits given to creatures: from remarks of commission at Vatican I.
22. God at all times provided for salvation: Rom 3. 29 says if He did not He would not seem to be the God of all. Pius IX in 1863 said God does not allow anyone to be damned who is not guilty of grave fault -- LG 16 says those who without fault do not find Church, if they follow moral law with aid of grace can be saved.
23. Paul speaks only of predestination to full membership in People of God, the Church. There is also a predestination to heaven-- never explicit in Scripture. God predestines to full membership in Church, not because of merits- probably because some need more help. To say full membership implies there can be a lesser degree, substantial and sufficient.
24. LG never explicitly identifies Church with Kingdom, but implies it especially since in LG 8 it says that "the Church on earth, and the Church endowed with heavenly good things, are not to be considered as two things, but form one complex reality" while LG 5 the Church now "longs for the consummated kingdom", the Church in heaven. Therefore the Church on earth is part of the kingdom, for there are not two realities, but one. -- It did not reject the identification. -- In Scripture the kingdom is often the Church here or in the future, e.g., in the parable of the sower, and of the net. In Mt. 21:43 after the parable of the wicked tenants: "The kingdom... will be taken away from you and given to a nation that will yield a rich harvest," i.e., the Jews who reject Christ will cease to be the People of God, the gentiles will be that. - Some modern commentators agree: John L. McKenzie and David Stanley. W. F. Albright and C. S. Mann, in Anchor Bible, Matthew. R. Brown in The Churches the Apostles Left Behind: "One must not overlook the fact that in some of the later sections of the NT, basileia [kingdom] has been reified and localized, so that kingdom is the only appropriate translation.... the kingdom and the church have begun to be partially identified."
25. The Church is a mystery, there is more to it than can be seen-it is found visibly in the Catholic Church alone -seems to imply possibilities of membership for some who do not explicitly join, especially baptized noncatholics. Decree on Ecumenism 3 says: "Those who are justified by faith in baptism are incorporated in Christ, and so are rightly adorned with the Christian name and are recognized by the sons of the Catholic Church as brothers." But to be incorporated in Christ means they are part of the Mystical Body, which is the Church.
26. The redemption is in the form of a New Covenant. In a covenant the critical conditions is obedience. LG 3: "by His obedience He brought about redemption."
27. The price of redemption would be paid to the captor - which is satan. That is unacceptable. So we say it is paid to rebalance the objective order, which the Holiness of God wills - Paul VI in Constitution on indulgences said that order exists, for full reparation it must be righted.
28. The objective order is the ordered pattern of what is morally right in itself, as the standard with which creatures should conform. Simeon ben Eleazar, c. 170 AD, wrote, citing Meir, earlier in same century, in Tosefta, Kiddushin 1. 14:"He [ anyone] has committed a transgression, woe to him, he has tipped the scale to the side of debt for himself and for the world."
31. He says that God, in His love of good order, loves to have one thing in place to serve as a reason or title for giving the second thing, even though that title does not move Him.
So He wills that our obedience be joined to that of Christ, to form the title of the obedience of the whole Christ, Head and Members , and that Our Lady's obedience be joined to that of Christ in the objective as well as in the subjective redemption; and that in the subjective redemption, the titles generated by the obedience of the Saints, be part of the reason for giving His good things. Luther missed all this, thought that Christ's work was infinite (true), therefore we need do nothing- false. We are saved inasmuch as we are members of Christ and like Him.
32. The Mass presents again the obedience of Christ, as the title for giving our the fruits of Calvary. To it, our obedience is to be joined, to form the obedience of the whole Christ. In a sacrifice, there are two elements:1) the outward sign which expresses 2) the inner disposition, obedience. On Holy Thursday the outward sign was the seeming separation of body and blood. In the Mass the outward sign is the same. On Calvary the outward sign was the actual separation of body and blood in death. The interior was His obedience on Thursday, Friday, and today- the attitude of heart with which one leaves the world is made permanent, so He does not repeat His attitude, it is always there. Only the outward sign is repeated in the Mass.
35. Jews did not speak of the kingdom using that word. Yet the notion of a Messiah without a Messianic kingdom would have been foreign to the Jews. Hence Our Lord had a general understanding on which to build.
36. The Church is a mystery in that there is more to it than what one can see. So there could be members of it who are not visibly such - cf. reply to question 25.
40. The Church is on the way to its final goal, heaven. It does not mean that the Church does not know the truth - though there is still room for added penetration into the original deposit of faith.
45. It is in need of purification in its members, not in its structure and means of sanctification.
47. We are saved and are made holy if and to the extent that we are not only members of Christ, but like Him, which includes likeness in the matter of rebalancing the objective order.
52. The tame olive tree is the original people of God. The wild is the gentiles. Many branches, by rejecting Christ, fell off of the people of God- gentiles were grafted in in their place. So we are part of the original people of God, the fulfillment of all that God promised in the OT. The Jews who reject are no longer members of that people; even though God's invitation or call to them still stands, they are rejecting the call and so are not members.
56. LG 10 says that the lay priesthood and ordained priesthood differ not just in degree but in kind, for only the ordained priest acts in the Person of Christ, and so brings about the change of bread and wine into His body and blood.
57. Laity join 1) in this in that the priest offers in the person of Christ, the head of the Mystical Body of which they are members, and 2) in that they join their interior dispositions to those of Christ on the altar.
62. Paul VI said that to 13th National Congress of Italian Feminine Center in 1966. We begin life as babies, completely selfish- need to reach point of being sincerely interested in another for other's sake: that is love. Baby learns with other little ones that others have rights-- around age 9, boys and girls dislike each other, run apart, to develop their special characteristics. Soon hormones come, and cause one to see another in a rosy light-- to see something fine in another is the starter for love, so this powerfully tends to produce love. At same time, the hormone chemistry serves as the bodily parallel to love in the spiritual soul, and so tends to bring it. If people do not foil the plan by masturbation or premarital sex it will generate real love. In premarital sex they are not really concerned about each other's welfare, want to tickle their senses, but put each other into a state such that if death caught them, they would never be happy forever-- this is closer to hate than to love- yet it will feel like love, chemistry is same. Many mistake this for love, when really all they have is chemistry- so a failed marriage is likely. But if they do it the way the Father planned, it will generate love. Then they will find that the psychology of male and female is very different, so will need to give in much to make it work- this is the opposite of selfishness, makes for spiritual development. And if children come, generosity to them develops the soul beautifully: their goals become the parent's goals. To have to get up at 3 AM to care for a baby is a holy hour, if rightly understood.
66. Sanctifying graces (habitual grace and actual grace) are aimed at making recipient holy-- charismatic (both miraculous and nonmiraculous) are aimed at some benefit for the community. God gives sanctifying type abundantly, wants all to be saved - gives charismatic miraculous type where He wills -- gives nonmiraculous widely - gift of being a good parent, teacher etc.
71. They are said to pertain to the Church to be joined to the Church etc. But it also says that those who are baptized are incorporated into Christ, the Mystical Body, which is the Church. Those not baptized, according to Romans 2:14-16 if they obey the law written on hearts, are accepting the Spirit of Christ, without knowing the fact and so according to Romans 8:9 they belong to Christ, which means are members of Christ, which means members of Church, substantially, without external adherence.
76. Peter and Apostles formed a college with Peter as Head. In a similar, not identical way, is the relation of Pope and Bishops. Without the Pope the college cannot do anything. But Pope can act alone whenever he pleases in commanding, in even defining.
80. Episcopal ordination or consecration plus hierarchical communion with the Head and members of the college.
83. Such a group can be called a church.
85. Three degrees: deacons, priests, bishops. All belong to the hierarchy. Ushers and others are not ministers. Word is often used loosely.
86. His dispositions are continuous from the cross- death makes permanent attitude of soul with which one leaves the world.
89. Deacons, priests, bishops.
97. Used to be called participation of laity in the apostolate of the hierarchy- this is still true, but LG adds that all at Baptism are called to the apostolate -- need not join special group, but at least by bringing principles of Christ into the world where they work - not being conformed to the world, e.g., by promoting abortion in congress.
99. It does not mean He is sparing in giving the graces in the sanctifying category - but in the charismatic category the Spirit gives where and what He wills. In the sanctifying category Jesus generated an infinite objective title to forgiveness and grace for each individual person, as shown by Gal 2:20, interpreted by Vatican II, Church in Modern World § 22.
102. It says that living our lives according to God's plan, whatever difficulties we meet, working to spread the principles of Christ in the world- these are all spiritual sacrifices to be joined to the offering of Christ in the Mass. Cf. answer to question 57.
106. Continual conversion means working to progress spiritually at all times, including work at spreading the principles of Christ in the world. . John Paul II said that in preparation for receiving Holy Communion and in thanksgiving, there is need of constant effort - without which one could even take a spiritual loss from frequent Communion.
109. They are: poverty, chastity, and obedience. The New Spirituality, also called GUN (give-up-nothing) holds that to give up any creature or pleasure voluntarily (in contrast to accepting things sent by Providence) does one no good. LG 46 contradicts that error, says they are very valuable spiritually. The counsels are not only for Religious - with proper adjustment to state of life, they teach valuable means of growth to all.
112. No, he did not think it was close. Scripture often speaks that way, e. g, in Haggai 2:6-7 God says in a moment, in a little while, He will move heaven and earth, and the one desired by the nations shall come in. This was said in 520 BC. (There is debate about "the one desired". St. Jerome translated it thus, and got the understanding of it from the rabbis. Even if we make it plural, it would seem to be messianic). Many try to say that in 1 Ths 4. 15-17 since Paul speaks of "we the living" he expected to see the end, and so they deny he wrote 2 Ths, which is clear in implying he will not be around. - But it is only a way of making things concrete. the ancient witnesses agree both 1 & 2 Ths are by Paul.
113. Mt. 6:21 refers immediately to a box of coins buried under the floor: it would pull thoughts and hearts of the owner to it. But one can put treasure in anything - in huge meals, gourmet meals, sex, travel, study, even study of Scripture. All these are lower than God - some more than others. This is one factor. The second factor: how much one lets self be pulled by these things-- some, so little as to go only into imperfection, others, to occasional venial sin, or to habitual venial sin, or to occasional mortal sin, or to habitual mortal sin. In proportion to these two factors, it is so much less easy for thoughts and hearts to rise to God. A modern supplementary comparison: A galvanometer is a compass needle on its pivot, with a coil of wire around it. We send current into the coil -the needle swings right amount. But there can be outside pulls, from 33000 volt power line or a lot of magnetic steel -then two pulls strike the needle. If the current in the coil is mild, and the outside pulls strong, the current in coil may have no effect. This is my mind: the current in the coil is grace--always gentle, in that it respects my freedom. But the outside pulls, if one lets self be pulled greatly, do not respect freedom. They may prevent current in coil, grace, from showing any effect. Then a person is blind, and hopeless, for grace, if not able to produce first effect, will not do other things either. But if one is close to the mild end of scale, he/she is more sensitive to the guidance of grace. So it is spiritually helpful to hold down on the power of the pulls of creatures.
115. In marriage, the sensory attraction at first masks differences in psychology and other things. But when that feeling subsides to normal level, then the fact that male and female psychology are so different, means each one, even in a fine pairing, needs to give in very much of the time. This is the opposite of selfishness, and so is spiritually helpful. When babies come, the parent is readily led to great generosity: their goals become the parents' goals. A celibate/virgin, does not have this situation. A married person, or anyone, can make a holy hour before the Blessed Sacrament - but a married person can also make a holy hour when the baby fusses in the small hours - and he/she takes it as part of the package of what our Father has planned for their spiritual growth.
127. Yes, merits are God's gifts, but we do cooperate at least by not rejecting them. He gives them to us out of love for us, so that He, in His love of good order(cf. comments on question 28, may reward us for having what He has given. Merit is a claim to a reward - we have such a claim insofar as we are members of Christ, and like Him - then we share in the claim He has established.
131. There is only one Mediator in that there is only one who by very nature--having both divine and human natures - is in between God and man. This does not rule out secondary mediators, who have less than this ontological position. It is in His love of good order that God wills to have the secondary mediators. Cf. answers to questions 28 and 31.
132. Question was: where to put Marian doctrine - separate document or in Constitution on Church. Underlying: probably this, that the German Mariologists said she cooperated in redemption only by active receptivity (puts out hand, which is active; picks up what she had no share in producing, is receptivity). This was much like Lutheran idea of "appropriating" merits of Christ. In document on Church, the Germans wanted to argue: the Church contributes nothing to objective redemption: so she, a type of Church, also contributes nothing, only receives. The final document did not contain their idea at all. Others wanted to say she shared in generating a claim to grace, via the covenant condition, which is obedience - Vatican II several times says she cooperated by obedience.
133. Objective redemption: the work of gaining a title to all forgiveness and grace by the great sacrifice; subjective redemption: the work of giving out the fruits of objective redemption throughout all ages. Remote cooperation in objective redemption: in obedience furnishing the humanity by which He could die; immediate: some role in the sacrifice itself. Further question: What kind of role in it? Answer: obedience, in the covenant condition which gave all its value to the sacrifice. So it seems Vatican II, although it said early in chapter 8 it did not intend to settle debates, really did so, by this fact. In Scripture we see some places where an inspired writer writes more than he saw -- the Holy Spirit did intend it. So it could be with a council.
135. Answers in reply to 132.
136. No --it wrote more extensively, went farther theologically than all previous councils combined, in chapter 8 of LG.
139. The very fact she became the Mother of the Head of the Mystical Body, made her Mother of the members as well: at annunciation.
141. Said it would not settle debates - but in LG 55 it showed that the authors of Genesis and Isaiah may have written more than they understood. Same is likely for Jeremiah in prophecy of New Covenant (31. 31 ff). St. Irenaeus in his knot comparison implied immediate cooperation, but probably did not see it -- and G. Philips, one of chief drafters of LG chapter 8 shows in his commentary on it he did not fully understand it. Hence in answer to question 133 we gave reason to show Vatican II went farther than it understood, in speaking of her cooperating by way of obedience, which is the covenant condition, which gave the value to the Sacrifice - contrary to the German theory, in which she contributed nothing to that. Of course her whole ability to contribute came from Him.
142. Salvation history is the account of God's dealings with our race. Before Christ, grace was offered in anticipation of His merits, and so they could be saved - cf. LG 16 on those who do not find the Church, through no fault, and St. Paul, Romans 3. 29.
144. In LG 55 it indicated they may have written more than they understood, - cf. answer to question 141.
146. The ancient Jews, through the Targums, knew that Gen 3:15 was in some way messianic - clouded a bit by bringing in allegory. As to Is 7:14 at time of Christ, Hillel said that Hezekiah, son of Achaz, had been Messiah - later, when Jews saw Christians using that text, they pulled back, said it was not messianic. Modern scholars on Gen 3:15 seem unclear as to the Messiah, and have trouble also with Is 7:14, tending to be unclear.
155, Targum makes Gen 49:10 Messianic. Jacob Neusner, great modern Jewish scholar, sees it as such also. Catholic commentators again have trouble with it, tend not to follow the Targum version.
156. When the angel said her Son would rule over house of Jacob forever, any ordinary Jew would know He was the Messiah - all the more she did. Then she would see, at least pondering in her heart, all the other things in the OT prophecies of the Messiah- the Targums saw most of these things, all the more she would, being full of grace.
161. Taking the virginal conception as a theologoumenon would reinterpret it to mean not physical virginity, but a spiritual thing. Her virginity before, during, and after the birth of Jesus is not a theologoumenon but physical. LG 57 says His birth did not diminish her virginal integrity - which refers to physical condition, meaning the state of being untouched.
163. They did know who He was- they did not understand how He departed from His usual compliant and docile way of acting.
166. They teach that she was on Calvary by design of divine providence, that she cooperated in the redemption by way of obedience, faith, hope and love, thus consenting to His immolation. Obedience does not fit with mere receptivity - for obedience was the covenant condition, which gave His death its value. LG 56 & 61 speak of her obedience as a cause of salvation. Thus she shared in creating a title to forgiveness and grace.
168. In Pauline faith there are 4 elements: 1) believe what God says - she believed the angel, believed that the Victim on the Cross was the salvation of the world; 2) have confidence in His promises - she continued to have confidence in spite of seeming failure in Him; 3) obedience - she obeyed on Calvary as LG 56 & 61 teach, in consenting to His death, even willing it because the Father willed it - in spite of her love which is beyond our ability to comprehend, as indicated by Pius IX when he wrote in 1854 that her holiness (=love) was so great that "none greater under God can be thought of, and no one but God can comprehend it."
175. If we gather texts from all over LG chapter 8: her union with Him was eternal, since the decree for the incarnation included her--she was foretold in OT prophecies-- at the annunciation she was asked to consent in the name of the whole human race- then LG goes through every one of the mysteries of His life and death, shows in each one her union with Him, especially on Calvary - then as He was glorified by resurrection and ascension, so she was by assumption - then He is king for eternity, she is Queen for eternity with Him. -- So, since the Father has really placed her everywhere in His approach to us, the ideal would be for us in our response to Him to give her a similarly all-pervading place. But this is ideal, not mandatory.
176. A type is a prophecy by action or even the existence of someone or something. She is a forecast of the Church-- LG mentions this parallel only in that both are virgin and Mother. It does not teach a parallel in cooperation in the Redemption as the Germans had wanted. They wished to say that just as the Church contributes nothing to the objective redemption, only receives, so it is with her. Instead the Council taught she joined in the covenant condition, obedience, which created a title for all forgiveness and grace.
182. If we ask why God gives good things under covenant, two levels: Primary: it is all unmeritable, unmerited, mere generosity, for no creature can establish a claim on God by its own power; secondary: given the fact He freely made a covenant, if humans do as asked, He owes it to Himself to give what He pledged. Her cooperation falls on second level, as does even the work of Christ. We do not say that because Christ came, the Father stopped being angry at us - rather, because He always loved us, Christ came.
187. Because: 1) Protestant observers said they might drop dialogue; 2) it was evident that since it did teach she shared in gaining all graces, she would have a parallel role in dispensing them; 3) it gave a footnote sending us to several papal texts that do say "of all graces" or equivalent language. Actually we have many texts from Leo XIII, St. Pius X, Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII and John XXIII that teach she mediates all graces. Something taught repeatedly on the ordinary level is infallible.
188. No, because we say all her ability to do anything came from Him.
189. LG 67 said that whatever the Magisterium had recommended in Marian devotion in the past is still of great importance.
192. We distinguish: 1)doctrine -- should believe because of the promises of Christ; 2)commands or laws- should obey unless they are immoral (none such from the Pope, but Bishops commonly order textbooks for Catholic schools that do not convey the faith); 3) prudence or good judgment - no promise of Christ or claim by the Church to protection on this matter. So if someone thinks there has been imprudence, he is not breaking with the Church.
198. Prayer if not distinctively Protestant is permitted, but not common worship.
201. In § 11 it said nothing is so foreign to real ecumenism as watering down our doctrine.
205. In §3 it taught that by Baptism one is really incorporated into the Mystical Body of Christ - and that is the Church. So baptized Protestants have a right to the Christian name, and are brothers, even though in imperfect communion with the Catholic Church.
206. Lefebvre said Vatican II on Religious Liberty contradicted texts of Gregory XVI, Pius IX, and Leo XIII.
207. Pius IX in Quanta cura said the state must do more than what is required by public order. Vatican II said in §§ 4 & 7 that the state must exercise "due custody for public morality" - which is more than mere public order-- and that the churches must abstain from "improper persuasion aimed at the less intelligent or the poor."
208. Vatican II did not teach one has a right to be wrong, or that by any false faith one can attain salvation. It did teach that all have a right not to incur civil penalties for their beliefs or for acting on them "within due limits".
209. In DH 1 it said it "leaves untouched the traditional Catholic teaching on the moral obligation of men and societies toward the one true Church." This is a call for an established church, which would not oppress other churches.
211. See answer to 208.
212. Both make some seemingly strict statements, but also make very broad statements. In theology we may meet two conclusions which seem to clash - then recheck work, but if they remain, keep both without straining. The two kinds of texts do that. We can reconcile by way of Romans 2:14-16, which says the Spirit of God, or of Christ, makes known to people interiorly how they should live. If someone, e.g., Socrates, accepts such demands, without knowing it, he is accepting the Spirit of Christ-- then according to Romans 8:9 if one does have and follow the Spirit of Christ, He belongs to Christ" which is, is a member of Mystical Body - which is the Church. So there is a substantial membership possible without external adherence for those who do not know better.
213. See answer to 212.
215. DV does not explicitly treat of Form Criticism, though it does mention the three stages (1) Words and acts of Jesus adapted to His audience--(2) the reporting of these by the Apostles & others, adapted in wording-- (3)some individuals under inspiration write down part of this original preaching, which becomes the Gospels). In view of the third step mentioned, we see that the Church's own ongoing teaching is more basic than the Gospels. During the time of the council there was an Instruction from the Biblical Commission, in 1964, which said we may use Form and Redaction criticism, but warns strongly about the rationalistic prejudices often used in it.
216. It says they come from the one source, God, and as it were coalesce and tend to the same end-- there was straining to make Protestants happy by saying only one source. This resulted in language not too clear. Yet it does day in DV 9 that the Church "gets it certainty on all revealed matters not only from Scripture alone."
217. DV 10: "The task of authentically interpreting the word of God, whether written or handed on [Scripture or Tradition] has been entrusted exclusively to the living Magisterium of the Church, whose authority is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ."
218. DV 11: "Since then everything that the inspired authors... assert, should be held as asserted by the Holy Spirit, as a result the books of Scripture are to be professed to teach without error, that truth which God willed to be entrusted to the Sacred Letters." R. Brown and others say the last clause is restrictive, and so only things needed for salvation are free of error: even some religious things can be in error. But the Council added several notes on DV 11 referring us to earlier documents of the Church which contradict, especially by saying God Himself is the principal Author (Vatican II, DS 3006 says this, and Pius XII said in Divino afflante Spiritu that that is a solemn definition) -- and so there can be no error at all.
219. It says we must pay attention to them - cf. the word "assert" in the quote given from DV 11 in answer 218: only what is asserted by the author is to be held. Genre shows what is or is not asserted.
220. DS 12 says "Scripture must be interpreted by the same Spirit by which it is written, and so... we must pay attention to the content and unity of all of Scripture [one author cannot contradict another] considering the living Tradition of the whole Church, and the analogy of Faith."
221. One cannot clash with the other, as said in answer 220. So those who say Mark pictures Our Lady as outside the circle of believers are in gross error (and blasphemy) since Luke pictures here as the first believer, and LG 56 says at the annunciation she "totally dedicated herself to the Person and work of her Son." Scholars are not free to contradict the Church- cf. answer 217 from DV 10. Nor can they claim academic freedom in doing that, for academic freedom belongs only to a properly qualified scholar in his own field - but one who does not use the method proper to his own field is not a qualified scholar- the method required is explained in DV 10, cited in answer 217.
222. DV 19: "Holy Mother Church firmly and most constantly has held and does hold that the four Gospels mentioned, whose historicity it affirms without hesitation, faithfully hand down what Jesus... really did and said." The Evangelists did not always follow chronological order, and did not always use the same words He did - cf. the second stage mentioned in answer 215. And they wrote in the better understanding gained by His resurrection and instructions to them -- but they still paint themselves as slow to understand.