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Catholic Dictionary




The papal bull of Pope Boniface VIII, issued November 18, 1302, in answer to Philip IV of France, who denied the Pope's authority. Only the last sentence is irreversible doctrine, in which Boniface states: "We declare, say, define and pronounce that it is absolutely necessary for the salvation of every human creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff" (Denzinger 875). The preceding part of the document deals at length with the relation of temporal and spiritual powers in the Church.