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The Sacred Roman Rota, which for centuries has been one of the chief tribunals of the Roman Curia. Pope Innocent III gave it the right to pass sentence, and Pope Sixtus IV (1472) set its number at twelve members. Reorganized by Pope St. Pius X in 1908, it is essentially a tribunal of appeal for all cases that fall under the jurisdiction of the Roman Curia. However, it may also pass judgment on original cases reserved to the Holy See or requested by the Pope.
All items in this dictionary are from Fr. John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary, © Eternal Life. Used with permission.