Name given to Anglican clergymen who refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary and their successors under the Protestant succession Act of 1689. since they felt that their oaths bound them to the Stuart family, they considered William and Mary as mere regents. Suspended and deprived of office, they suffered greatly. Much later some rejoined the Anglican Church. The name has been given also the Catholic clergy of France who refused to take the oath of the Civil Constitutions in 1790. Their loyalty to the Church and the Holy See forced them to endure bitter persecution.