The Augustinians of the Assumption, founded at Nîmes in 1845 by Emmanuel Daudé d'Alzon. Encouraged by a brief of Pope Pius IX in 1864, and formally approved in 1923. Dispersed by state decree in France in 1909, the congregation has done extensive work in teaching, writing, and the pastoral ministry. Its publication Echos d'Orient was begun in 1897, and among its writers were the patrologist F. Cayre and the specialist in Eastern Christianity M. Jugie. Six congregations of Assumptionist Sisters have pontifical status.