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Catechism of the Catholic Church

ARTICLE 12: "I BELIEVE IN LIFE EVERLASTING"

1020 The Christian who unites his own death to that of Jesus views it as a step towards him and an entrance into everlasting life. When the Church for the last time speaks Christ's words of pardon and absolution over the dying Christian, seals him for the last time with a strengthening anointing, and gives him Christ in viaticum as nourishment for the journey, she speaks with gentle assurance:

Go forth, Christian soul, from this world
in the name of God the almighty Father,
who created you,
in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God,
who suffered for you,
in the name of the Holy Spirit,
who was poured out upon you.
Go forth, faithful Christian!

May you live in peace this day,
may your home be with God in Zion,
with Mary, the virgin Mother of God,
with Joseph, and all the angels and saints....

May you return to [your Creator]
who formed you from the dust of the earth.
May holy Mary, the angels, and all the saints
come to meet you as you go forth from this life.…
May you see your Redeemer face to face. 591

I. THE PARTICULAR JUDGMENT

1021 Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ. 592 The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of the final encounter with Christ in his second coming, but also repeatedly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death in accordance with his works and faith. The parable of the poor man Lazarus and the words of Christ on the cross to the good thief, as well as other New Testament texts speak of a final destiny of the soul-a destiny which can be different for some and for others. 593

1022 Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that refers his life to Christ: either entrance into the blessedness of heaven-through a purification 594 or immediately, 595-or immediate and everlasting damnation. 596

At the evening of life, we shall be judged on our love. 597

II. HEAVEN

1023 Those who die in God's grace and friendship and are perfectly purified live for ever with Christ. They are like God for ever, for they "see him as he is," face to face: 598

By virtue of our apostolic authority, we define the following: According to the general disposition of God, the souls of all the saints . . . and other faithful who died after receiving Christ's holy Baptism (provided they were not in need of purification when they died, . . . or, if they then did need or will need some purification, when they have been purified after death, . . .) already before they take up their bodies again and before the general judgment - and this since the Ascension of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ into heaven - have been, are and will be in heaven, in the heavenly Kingdom and celestial paradise with Christ, joined to the company of the holy angels. Since the Passion and death of our Lord Jesus Christ, these souls have seen and do see the divine essence with an intuitive vision, and even face to face, without the mediation of any creature. 599

1024 This perfect life with the Most Holy Trinity - this communion of life and love with the Trinity, with the Virgin Mary, the angels and all the blessed - is called "heaven." Heaven is the ultimate end and fulfillment of the deepest human longings, the state of supreme, definitive happiness.

1025 To live in heaven is "to be with Christ." The elect live "in Christ," 600 but they retain, or rather find, their true identity, their own name. 601

For life is to be with Christ; where Christ is, there is life, there is the kingdom. 602

1026 By his death and Resurrection, Jesus Christ has "opened" heaven to us. The life of the blessed consists in the full and perfect possession of the fruits of the redemption accomplished by Christ. He makes partners in his heavenly glorification those who have believed in him and remained faithful to his will. Heaven is the blessed community of all who are perfectly incorporated into Christ.

1027 This mystery of blessed communion with God and all who are in Christ is beyond all understanding and description. Scripture speaks of it in images: life, light, peace, wedding feast, wine of the kingdom, the Father's house, the heavenly Jerusalem, paradise: "no eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him." 603

1028 Because of his transcendence, God cannot be seen as he is, unless he himself opens up his mystery to man's immediate contemplation and gives him the capacity for it. The Church calls this contemplation of God in his heavenly glory "the beatific vision":

How great will your glory and happiness be, to be allowed to see God, to be honored with sharing the joy of salvation and eternal light with Christ your Lord and God, . . . to delight in the joy of immortality in the Kingdom of heaven with the righteous and God's friends. 604

1029 In the glory of heaven the blessed continue joyfully to fulfill God's will in relation to other men and to all creation. Already they reign with Christ; with him "they shall reign for ever and ever." 605

III. THE FINAL PURIFICATION, OR PURGATORY

1030 All who die in God's grace and friendship, but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven.

1031 The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect, which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned. 606 The Church formulated her doctrine of faith on Purgatory especially at the Councils of Florence and Trent. The tradition of the Church, by reference to certain texts of Scripture, speaks of a cleansing fire: 607

As for certain lesser faults, we must believe that, before the Final Judgment, there is a purifying fire. He who is truth says that whoever utters blasphemy against the Holy Spirit will be pardoned neither in this age nor in the age to come. From this sentence we understand that certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come. 608

1032 This teaching is also based on the practice of prayer for the dead, already mentioned in Sacred Scripture: "Therefore Judas Maccabeus] made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin." 609 From the beginning the Church has honored the memory of the dead and offered prayers in suffrage for them, above all the Eucharistic sacrifice, so that, thus purified, they may attain the beatific vision of God. 610 The Church also commends almsgiving, indulgences, and works of penance undertaken on behalf of the dead:

Let us help and commemorate them. If Job's sons were purified by their father's sacrifice, why would we doubt that our offerings for the dead bring them some consolation? Let us not hesitate to help those who have died and to offer our prayers for them. 611

IV. HELL

1033 We cannot be united with God unless we freely choose to love him. But we cannot love God if we sin gravely against him, against our neighbor or against ourselves: "He who does not love remains in death. Anyone who hates his brother is a murderer, and you know that no murderer has eternal life abiding in him." 612 Our Lord warns us that we shall be separated from him if we fail to meet the serious needs of the poor and the little ones who are his brethren. 613 To die in mortal sin without repenting and accepting God's merciful love means remaining separated from him for ever by our own free choice. This state of definitive self- exclusion from communion with God and the blessed is called "hell."

1034 Jesus often speaks of "Gehenna" of "the unquenchable fire" reserved for those who to the end of their lives refuse to believe and be converted, where both soul and body can be lost. 614 Jesus solemnly proclaims that he "will send his angels, and they will gather . . . all evil doers, and throw them into the furnace of fire," 615 and that he will pronounce the condemnation: "Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire!" 616

1035 The teaching of the Church affirms the existence of hell and its eternity. Immediately after death the souls of those who die in a state of mortal sin descend into hell, where they suffer the punishments of hell, "eternal fire." 617 The chief punishment of hell is eternal separation from God, in whom alone man can possess the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs.

1036 The affirmations of Sacred Scripture and the teachings of the Church on the subject of hell are a call to the responsibility incumbent upon man to make use of his freedom in view of his eternal destiny. They are at the same time an urgent call to conversion: "Enter by the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is easy, that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many. For the gate is narrow and the way is hard, that leads to life, and those who find it are few." 618

Since we know neither the day nor the hour, we should follow the advice of the Lord and watch constantly so that, when the single course of our earthly life is completed, we may merit to enter with him into the marriage feast and be numbered among the blessed, and not, like the wicked and slothful servants, be ordered to depart into the eternal fire, into the outer darkness where "men will weep and gnash their teeth." 619

1037 God predestines no one to go to hell; 620 for this, a willful turning away from God (a mortal sin) is necessary, and persistence in it until the end. In the Eucharistic liturgy and in the daily prayers of her faithful, the Church implores the mercy of God, who does not want "any to perish, but all to come to repentance": 621

Father, accept this offering
from your whole family.
Grant us your peace in this life,
save us from final damnation,
and count us among those you have chosen. 622

V. THE LAST JUDGMENT

1038 The resurrection of all the dead, "of both the just and the unjust," 623 will precede the Last Judgment. This will be "the hour when all who are in the tombs will hear [the Son of man's] voice and come forth, those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of judgment." 624 Then Christ will come "in his glory, and all the angels with him .... Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and he will place the sheep at his right hand, but the goats at the left.... And they will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life." 625

1039 In the presence of Christ, who is Truth itself, the truth of each man's relationship with God will be laid bare. 626 The Last Judgment will reveal even to its furthest consequences the good each person has done or failed to do during his earthly life:

All that the wicked do is recorded, and they do not know. When "our God comes, he does not keep silence.". . . he will turn towards those at his left hand: . . . "I placed my poor little ones on earth for you. I as their head was seated in heaven at the right hand of my Father - but on earth my members were suffering, my members on earth were in need. If you gave anything to my members, what you gave would reach their Head. Would that you had known that my little ones were in need when I placed them on earth for you and appointed them your stewards to bring your good works into my treasury. But you have placed nothing in their hands; therefore you have found nothing in my presence." 627

1040 The Last Judgment will come when Christ returns in glory. Only the Father knows the day and the hour; only he determines the moment of its coming. Then through his Son Jesus Christ he will pronounce the final word on all history. We shall know the ultimate meaning of the whole work of creation and of the entire economy of salvation and understand the marvellous ways by which his Providence led everything towards its final end. The Last Judgment will reveal that God's justice triumphs over all the injustices committed by his creatures and that God's love is stronger than death. 628

1041 The message of the Last Judgment calls men to conversion while God is still giving them "the acceptable time, . . . the day of salvation." 629 It inspires a holy fear of God and commits them to the justice of the Kingdom of God. It proclaims the "blessed hope" of the Lord's return, when he will come "to be glorified in his saints, and to be marvelled at in all who have believed." 630

VI. THE HOPE OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW EARTH

1042 At the end of time, the Kingdom of God will come in its fullness. After the universal judgment, the righteous will reign for ever with Christ, glorified in body and soul. The universe itself will be renewed:

The Church . . . will receive her perfection only in the glory of heaven, when will come the time of the renewal of all things. At that time, together with the human race, the universe itself, which is so closely related to man and which attains its destiny through him, will be perfectly re-established in Christ. 631

1043 Sacred Scripture calls this mysterious renewal, which will transform humanity and the world, "new heavens and a new earth." 632 It will be the definitive realization of God's plan to bring under a single head "all things in [Christ], things in heaven and things on earth." 633

1044 In this new universe, the heavenly Jerusalem, God will have his dwelling among men. 634 "He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning nor crying nor pain any more, for the former things have passed away." 635

1045 For man, this consummation will be the final realization of the unity of the human race, which God willed from creation and of which the pilgrim Church has been "in the nature of sacrament." 636 Those who are united with Christ will form the community of the redeemed, "the holy city" of God, "the Bride, the wife of the Lamb." 637 She will not be wounded any longer by sin, stains, self-love, that destroy or wound the earthly community. 638 The beatific vision, in which God opens himself in an inexhaustible way to the elect, will be the ever-flowing well-spring of happiness, peace, and mutual communion.

1046 For the cosmos, Revelation affirms the profound common destiny of the material world and man:

For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God . . . in hope because the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay.... We know that the whole creation has been groaning in travail together until now; and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 639

1047 The visible universe, then, is itself destined to be transformed, "so that the world itself, restored to its original state, facing no further obstacles, should be at the service of the just," sharing their glorification in the risen Jesus Christ. 640

1048 "We know neither the moment of the consummation of the earth and of man, nor the way in which the universe will be transformed. The form of this world, distorted by sin, is passing away, and we are taught that God is preparing a new dwelling and a new earth in which righteousness dwells, in which happiness will fill and surpass all the desires of peace arising in the hearts of men." 641

1049 "Far from diminishing our concern to develop this earth, the expectancy of a new earth should spur us on, for it is here that the body of a new human family grows, foreshadowing in some way the age which is to come. That is why, although we must be careful to distinguish earthly progress clearly from the increase of the kingdom of Christ, such progress is of vital concern to the kingdom of God, insofar as it can contribute to the better ordering of human society." 642

1050 "When we have spread on earth the fruits of our nature and our enterprise . . . according to the command of the Lord and in his Spirit, we will find them once again, cleansed this time from the stain of sin, illuminated and transfigured, when Christ presents to his Father an eternal and universal kingdom." 643 God will then be "all in all" in eternal life: 644

True and subsistent life consists in this: the Father, through the Son and in the Holy Spirit, pouring out his heavenly gifts on all things without exception. Thanks to his mercy, we too, men that we are, have received the inalienable promise of eternal life. 645

IN BRIEF:

1051 Every man receives his eternal recompense in his immortal soul from the moment of his death in a particular judgment by Christ, the judge of the living and the dead.

1052 "We believe that the souls of all who die in Christ's grace . . . are the People of God beyond death. On the day of resurrection, death will be definitively conquered, when these souls will be reunited with their bodies" (Paul VI, CPG § 28).

1053 "We believe that the multitude of those gathered around Jesus and Mary in Paradise forms the Church of heaven, where in eternal blessedness they see God as he is and where they are also, to various degrees, associated with the holy angels in the divine governance exercised by Christ in glory, by interceding for us and helping our weakness by their fraternal concern" (Paul VI, CPG § 29).

1054 Those who die in God's grace and friendship imperfectly purified, although they are assured of their eternal salvation, undergo a purification after death, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of God.

1055 By virtue of the "communion of saints," the Church commends the dead to God's mercy and offers her prayers, especially the holy sacrifice of the Eucharist, on their behalf.

1056 Following the example of Christ, the Church warns the faithful of the "sad and lamentable reality of eternal death" (GCD 69), also called "hell."

1057 Hell's principal punishment consists of eternal separation from God in whom alone man can have the life and happiness for which he was created and for which he longs.

1058 The Church prays that no one should be lost: "Lord, let me never be parted from you." If it is true that no one can save himself, it is also true that God "desires all men to be saved" (1 Tim 2:4), and that for him "all things are possible" (Mt 19:26).

1059 "The holy Roman Church firmly believes and confesses that on the Day of Judgment all men will appear in their own bodies before Christ's tribunal to render an account of their own deeds" (Council of Lyons II [1274]: DS 859; cf. DS 1549).

1060 At the end of time, the Kingdom of God will come in its fullness. Then the just will reign with Christ for ever, glorified in body and soul, and the material universe itself will be transformed. God will then be "all in all" (1 Cor 15:28), in eternal life.

"AMEN"

1061 The Creed, like the last book of the Bible, 646 ends with the Hebrew word amen. This word frequently concludes prayers in the New Testament. The Church likewise ends her prayers with "Amen."

1062 In Hebrew, amen comes from the same root as the word "believe." This root expresses solidity, trustworthiness, faithfulness. And so we can understand why "Amen" may express both God's faithfulness towards us and our trust in him.

1063 In the book of the prophet Isaiah, we find the expression "God of truth" (literally "God of the Amen"), that is, the God who is faithful to his promises: "He who blesses himself in the land shall bless himself by the God of truth [amen]." 647 Our Lord often used the word "Amen," sometimes repeated, 648 to emphasize the trustworthiness of his teaching, his authority founded on God's truth.

1064 Thus the Creed's final "Amen" repeats and confirms its first words: "I believe." To believe is to say "Amen" to God's words, promises and commandments; to entrust oneself completely to him who is the "Amen" of infinite love and perfect faithfulness. The Christian's everyday life will then be the "Amen" to the "I believe" of our baptismal profession of faith:

May your Creed be for you as a mirror. Look at yourself in it, to see if you believe everything you say you believe. And rejoice in your faith each day. 649

1065 Jesus Christ himself is the "Amen." 650 He is the definitive "Amen" of the Father's love for us. He takes up and completes our "Amen" to the Father: "For all the promises of God find their Yes in him. That is why we utter the Amen through him, to the glory of God": 651

Through him, with him, in him,
in the unity of the Holy Spirit,
all glory and honor is yours,
almighty Father,
God, for ever and ever.
AMEN.

NOTES:

1 I Cor 12:3.

2 Gal 4:6.

3 St. Irenaeus, Dem. ap. 7: SCh 62, 41-42.

4 Jn 17:3.

5 St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oratio theol., 5, 26 (= Oratio 31, 26): PG 36, 161-163.

6 Nicene Creed; see above, par. 465.

7 I Cor 2:11.

8 Jn 16:13.

9 Jn 14:17.

10 Cf. Gal 4:6.

11 Cf. Jn 3:34.

12 Jn 7:39.

13 Cf. Jn 17:22.

14 Cf. Jn 16:14.

15 St. Gregory of Nyssa, De Spiritu Sancto, 16: PG 45, 1321A-B.

16 Cf. Mt 28:19.

17 Jn 3:5-8.

18 Jn 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7.

19 Cf. I Jn 2:1.

20 Jn 16:13.

21 Cf. Gal 3:14; Eph 1:13.

22 Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6.

23 Rom 8:9.

24 2 Cor 3:17.

25 Rom 8:9, 14; 15:19; I Cor 6:11; 7:40.

26 I Pet 4:14.

27 I Cor 12:13.

28 Jn 19:34; I Jn 5:8.

29 Cf. Jn 4:10-14; 738; Ex 17:1-6; Isa 55:1; Zech 14:8; I Cor 10:4; Rev 21:6; 22:17.

30 Cf. I Jn 2:20:27; 2 Cor 1:21.

31 Cf. Ex 30:22-32; I Sam 16:13.

32 Cf. Lk 4:18-19; Isa 61:1.

33 Cf. Lk 2:11, 26-27.

34 Cf. Lk 4:1; 6:19; 8:46.

35 Cf. Rom 1:4; 8:11.

36 Eph 4:13; cf. Acts 2:36.

37 Sir 48:1; cf. I Kings 18:38-39.

38 Lk 1:17; 3:16.

39 Lk 12:49.

40 Acts 2:3-4.

41 Cf. St. John of the Cross, The Living Flame of Love, in The Collected Works of St. John of the Cross, tr. K. Kavanaugh, OCD, and O. Rodriguez, OCD (Washington DC: Institute of Carmelite Studies, 1979), 577 ff.

42 I Thess 5:19.

43 Cf. Ex 24:15-18.

44 Cf. Ex 33:9-10.

45 Cf. Ex 40:36-38; I Cor 10:1-2.

46 Cf. I Kings 8:10-12.

47 Lk 1:35.

48 Lk 9:34-35.

49 Cf. Acts 1:9; cf. Lk 21:27.

50 Jn 6:27; cf. 2 Cor 1:22; Eph 1:13; 4:30.

51 Cf. Mk 6:5; 8:23; 10:16.

52 Cf. Mk 16:18; Acts 5:12; 14:3.

53 Cf. Acts 8:17-19; 13:3; 19:6.

54 Cf. Heb 6:2.

55 Lk 11:20.

56 Ex 31:18; 2 Cor 3:3.

57 LH, Easter Season after Ascension, Hymn at Vespers: digitus paternae dexterae.

58 Cf. Gen 8:8-12.

59 Cf. Mt 3:16 and parallels.

60 Gal 4:4.

61 Cf. 2 Cor 3:14; Jn 5:39, 46.

62 Cf. Lk 24:44.

63 Cf. Ps 33:6; 104:30; Gen 1:2; 2:7; Eccl 3:20-21; Ezek 37:10.

64 Byzantine liturgy, Sundays of the second mode, Troparion of Morning Prayer.

65 St. Irenaeus, Dem ap. 11: SCh 62, 48-49.

66 Rom 3:23.

67 Cf. Jn 1:14; Phil 2:7.

68 Cf. Gen 18:1-15; Lk 1:26-38, 54-55; Jn 1:12-13; Rom 4:16-21.

69 Cf. Gen 12:3; Gal 3:16.

70 Cf. Jn 11:52.

71 Eph 1:13-14; cf. Gen 22:17-19; Lk 1:73; Jn 3:16; Rom 8:32; Gal 3:14.

72 Cf. Ex 19-20; Deut 1-11; 29-30.

73 Gal 3:24.

74 Cf. Rom 3:20.

75 Ex 19:5-6; Cf. I Pet 2:9.

76 Cf. 2 Sam 7; Ps 89; Lk 1:32-33.

77 Cf. Lk 24:26.

78 Isa 43:19.

79 Cf. Zeph 2:3; Lk 2:25, 38.

80 Jn 12:41; cf. Isa 6-12.

81 Isa 11:1-2.

82 Cf. Isa 42:1-9; cf. Mt 12:18-21; Jn 1:32-34; then cf. Isa 49:1-6; cf. Mt 3:17; Lk 2:32; finally cf. Isa 50:4-10 and Isa 52:13-53:12.

83 Phil 2:7.

84 Isa 61:1-2; cf. Lk 4:18-19.

85 Cf. Ezek 11:19; 36:25-28; 37:1-14; Jer 31:31-34; and cf. Joel 3:1-5.

86 Cf. Acts 2:17-21.

87 Cf. Zeph 2:3; Ps 22:27; 34:3; Isa 49:13; 61:1; etc.

88 Lk 1:17.

89 Jn 1:6.

90 Lk 1:15, 41.

91 Cf. Lk 1:68.

92 Mt 17:10-13; cf. Lk 1:78.

93 Lk 1:17.

94 Lk 7:26.

95 Cf. Mt 11:13-14.

96 Jn 1:23; cf. Isa 40:1-3.

97 Jn 1:7; cf. Jn 15:26; 5:35.

98 Cf. I Pet 1:10-12.

99 Jn 1:33-36.

100 Cf. Jn 3:5.

101 Cf. Prov 8:1-9:6; Sir 24.

102 Col 2:9.

103 Cf. Zeph 3:14; Zech 2:14.

104 Cf. Lk 1:46-55.

105 Cf. Lk 1:26-38; Rom 4:18-21; Gal 4:26-28.

106 Cf. Lk 1:15-19; Mt 2:11.

107 Cf. Lk 2:14.

108 Cf. Jn 19:25-27.

109 Acts 1:14.

110 Cf. Jn 6:27, 51, 62-63.

111 Cf. Jn 3:5-8.

112 Cf. Jn 4:10, 14, 23-24.

113 Cf. Jn 7:37-39.

114 Cf. Lk 11:13.

115 Cf. Mt 10:19-20.

116 Cf. Jn 14:16-17, 26; 15:26; 16:7-15; 17:26.

117 Cf. Jn 13:1; 17:1.

118 Cf. Lk 23:46; Jn 19:30.

119 Rom 6:4.

120 Cf. Jn 20:22.

121 Jn 20:21; cf. Mt 28:19; Lk 24:47-48; Acts 1:8.

122 Cf. Acts 2:33-36.

123 Byzantine liturgy, Pentecost Vespers, Troparion, repeated after communion.

124 I Jn 4:8, 16.

125 Rom 5:5.

126 2 Cor 13:14.

127 I Jn 4:11-12; cf. Rom 8:23; 2 Cor 1:21.

128 Acts 1:8; cf. I Cor 13.

129 Gal 5:22-23.

130 Gal 5:25; cf. Mt 16:24-26.

131 St. Basil, De Spiritu Sancto, 15,36: PG 32,132.

132 Jn 15:8,16.

133 St. Cyril of Alexandria, In Jo. ev., 11,11: PG 74, 561.

134 Rom 8:26.

135 LG 1; cf. Mk 16:15.

136 Roman Catechism I, 10, 1.

137 St. Hippolytus, Trad. Ap. 35: SCh 11, 118.

138 Roman Catechism I, 10, 22.

139 Cf. Acts 19:39.

140 Cf. Ex 19.

141 Cf. I Cor 11:18; 14:19, 28, 34, 35.

142 Cf. I Cor 1:2; 16:1.

143 Cf. I Cor 15:9; Gal 1:13; Phil 3:6.

144 Cf. Eph 1:22; Col 1:18; LG 9.

145 LG 6.

146 LG 6; Cf. Jn 10:1-10; Isa 40:11; Ezek 34:11-31; Jn 10:11; § Pet 5:4; Jn 10:11-16.

147 LG 6; Cf. I Cor 3:9; Rom 11:13-26; Mt 21:32-43 and parallels; Isa 51-7; Jn 15:1-5.

148 LG 6; Cf. I Cor 3:9; Mt 21:42 and parallels; Acts 4:11; I Pet 2:7; PS 118:22; I Cor 3:11; I Tim 3:15; Eph 2:19-22; Rev 21:3; I Pet 2:5; Rev 21:1-2.

149 LG 6; Cf. Gal 4:26; Rev 12:17; 19:7; 21:2, 9; 22:17; Eph 5:25-26, 29.

150 LG 2.

151 LG 2.

152 LG 2.

153 Pastor Hermae, Vision 2, 4, 1: PG 2, 899; cf. Aristides, Apol. 16, 6; St. Justin, Apol. 2,7: PG 6, 456; Tertullian, Apol. 31, 3; 32, 1: PL 1, 508-509.

154 Cf. St. Epiphanius, Panarion 1, 1, 5: PG 41, 181C.

155 Clement of Alex., Paed. 1, 6, 27: PG 8, 281.

156 Acts 10:35; cf. LG 9; 13; 16.

157 Cf. Gen 12:2; 15:5-6.

158 Cf. Ex 19:5-6; Deut 7:6; Isa 2:2-5; Mic 4:1-4.

159 LG 9; cf. Hos 1; Isa 1:2-4; Jer 2; 31:31-34; Isa 55:3.

160 Cf. LG 3; AG 3.

161 LG 5.

162 LG 3.

163 LG 5.

164 LG 5.

165 Lk 12:32; cf. Mt 10:16; 26:31; Jn 10:1-21.

166 Cf. Mt 12:49.

167 Cf. Mt 5-6.

168 Cf. Mk 3:14-15.

169 Cf. Mt 19:28; Lk 22:30; Rev 21:12-14.

170 Cf. Mk 6:7; Lk 10:1-2; Mt 10:25; Jn 15:20.

171 LG 3; cf. Jn 19:34.

172 SC 5.

173 Cf. St. Ambrose, In Luc. 2, 85-89 PL 15,1666-1668.

174 LG 4; Cf. Jn 17:4.

175 AG 4.

176 Cf. Mt 28:19-20; AG 2; 5-6.

177 LG 4.

178 LG 5.

179 LG 48.

180 St. Augustine, De civ. Dei, 18, 51: PL 41, 614; Cf. LG 8.

181 LG 5; cf. 6; 2 Cor 5:6.

182 LG 2.

183 Roman Catechism 1, 10, 20.

184 LG 8 § 1.

185 LG 8.

186 LG 8.

187 SC 2; Cf. Heb 13:14.

188 St. Bernard of Clairvaux, In Cant. Sermo 27:14 PL 183:920D.

189 Eph 1:10.

190 Eph 5:32; 3:9-11; 5:25-27.

191 Col 1:27.

192 I Cor 13:8; cf. LG 48.

193 John Paul II, MD 27.

194 Eph 5:27.

195 Cf. John Paul II, MD 27.

196 St. Augustine, Ep. 187, 11, 34: PL 33, 846.

197 LG 1.

198 Rev 7:9.

199 LG 9 § 2, 48 § 2; GS 45 § 1.

200 Paul VI, June 22, 1973; AG 7 § 2; cf. LG 17.

201 LG 9; Cf. Acts 10:35; I Cor 11:25.

202 I Pet 2:9.

203 Jn 3:3-5.

204 Cf. Jn 13:34

205 Rom 8:2; Gal 5:25.

206 Cf. Mt 5:13-16.

207 LG 9 § 2.

208 Cf. John Paul II, RH 18-21.

209 LG 10; Cf. Heb 5:1-5; Rev 1:6.

210 LG 12; Cf. Jude 3.

211 Cf. Jn 12:32.

212 Mt 20:28.

213 LG 8; cf. 36.

214 St. Leo the Great, Sermo 4, 1: PL 54, 149.

215 Cf. Mk 1:16-20; 3:13-19; Mt 13:10-17; Lk 10:17-20; 22:28-30.

216 Jn 15:4-5.

217 Jn 6:56.

218 Cf. Jn 14:18; 20:22; Mt 28:20; Acts 2:33.

219 LG 7.

220 LG 7.

221 LG 7; cf. Rom 6:4-5; I Cor 12:13.

222 LG 7 § 3.

223 LG 7 § 3; cf. I Cor 12:26.

224 Gal 3:27-28.

225 Col 1:18.

226 Col 1:18.

227 Gal 4:19.

228 LG 7 § 4; cf. Phil 3:21; Rom 8:17.

229 Cf. Col 2:19; Eph 4:11-16.

230 St. Augustine, In Jo. ev, 21, 8: PL 35, 1568.

231 Pope St. Gregory the Great Moralia in Job, praef., 14: PL 75, 525A.

232 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 48, 2.

233 Acts of the Trial of Joan of Arc.

234 Jn 3:29.

235 Mk 2:19.

236 Cf. Mt 22:1-14; 25:1-13; I Cor 6:15-17; 2 Cor 11:2.

237 Cf. Rev 22:17; Eph 1:4; 5:27.

238 Eph 5:25-26.

239 Cf. Eph 5:29.

240 Eph 5:31-32.

241 Mt 19:6.

242 St. Augustine, En. in Ps. 74:4: PL 36, 948-949.

243 St. Augustine, Sermo 267, 4: PL 38, 1231D.

244 Pius XII, encyclical, Mystici Corporis: DS 3808.

245 2 Cor 6:16; cf. I Cor 3:16-17; Eph 2:21.

246 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 24, 1: PG 7/1, 966.

247 Pius XII, encyclical, Mystici Corporis: DS 3808.

248 Cf. Eph 4:16.

249 Acts 20:32.

250 Cf. I Cor 12:13.

251 LG 7 § 2.

252 LG 12 § 2; cf. AA 3.

253 Cf. I Cor 13.

254 LG 12; cf. 30; I Thess 5:12, 19-21; John Paul II, Christifideles Laici, 24.

255 I Cor 12:7.

256 LG 8.

257 Cf. DS 2888.

258 Vatican Council I, DS Filius 3: DS 3013.

259 UR 2 § 5.

260 GS 78 § 3.

261 UR 2 § 2.

262 St. Clement Of Alexandria, Paed. 1, 6, 42: PG 8,300.

263 LG 13 § 2.

264 Eph 4:3.

265 Col 3:14.

266 Cf. UR 2; LG 14; CIC, can. 205.

267 LG 8 § 2.

268 UR 3 § 5.

269 UR 3 § 1.

270 Cf. CIC, can. 751.

271 Origen, Hom. in Ezech. 9, 1: PG 13, 732.

272 UR 3 § 1.

273 LG 8 § 2.

274 UR 3 § 2; cf. LG 15.

275 Cf. UR 3.

276 Cf. LG 8.

277 UR 4 § 3.

278 Jn 17:21; cf. Heb 7:25.

279 Cf. UR 1.

280 Cf. UR 6.

281 UR 7 § 3.

282 UR 8 § 1.

283 Cf. UR 9.

284 Cf. UR 10.

285 Cf. UR 4; 9; 11.

286 Cf. UR 12.

287 UR 5.

288 UR 24 § 2.

289 LG 39; Cf. Eph 5:25-26.

290 LG 12.

291 Acts 9:13; I Cor 6:1; 16 1.

292 SC 10.

293 UR 3 § 5.

294 LG 48.

295 LG 48 § 3.

296 LG 11 § 3.

297 LG 42.

298 St. Therese Of Lisieux, Autobiography of a Saint, tr. Ronald Knox (London: Harvill, 1958) 235.

299 LG 8 § 3; Cf. UR 3; 6; Heb 2:17; 726; 2 Cor 5:21.

300 Cf. I Jn 1:8-10.

301 Cf. Mt 13:24-30.

302 Paul VI, CPG § 19.

303 Cf. LG 40; 48-51.

304 John Paul II, CL 16, 3.

305 CL 17, 3.

306 LG 65; Cf. Eph 5:26-27.

307 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn. 8, 2: Apostolic Fathers, II/2, 311.

308 UR 3; AG 6; Eph 1:22-23.

309 Cf. AG 4.

310 Cf. Mt 28:19.

311 LG 13 §§ 1-2; cf. Jn 11:52.

312 LG 26.

313 Cf. CD 11; CIC, cann. 368-369.

314 LG 23.

315 St. Ignatius Of Antioch, Ad Rom. 1, 1: Apostolic Fathers, II/2, 192; cf. LG 13.

316 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 3, 2: PG 7/1, 849; Cf. Vatican Council I DS 3057.

317 St. Maximus the Confessor, Opuscula theo.: PG 91 137-140.

318 Paul VI, EN 62.

319 LG 23.

320 LG 13.

321 LG 14.

322 LG 15.

323 UR 3.

324 Paul VI, Discourse, December 14, 1975; cf. UR 13-18.

325 LG 16.

326 Cf. NA 4.

327 Roman Missal, Good Friday 13: General Intercessions, VI.

328 Rom 9:4-5.

329 Rom 11:29.

330 LG 16; cf. NA 3.

331 NA 1.

332 LG 16; cf. NA 2; EN 53.

333 LG 16; cf. Rom 1:21, 25.

334 St. Augustine, Serm. 96, 7, 9: PL 38, 588; St. Ambrose, De virg. 18, 118: PL 16, 297B; cf. already 1 Pet 3:20-21.

335 Cf. Cyprian, Ep. 73.21: PL 3, 1169; De unit.: PL 4, 509-536.

336 LG 14; cf. Mk 16:16; Jn 3:5.

337 LG 16; cf. DS 3866-3872.

338 AG 7; cf. Heb 11:6; I Cor 9:16.

339 AG 1; cf. Mt 16:15.

340 Mt 28:19-20.

341 AG 2.

342 Cf. John Paul II, RMiss 23.

343 2 Cor 5:14; cf. AA 6; RMiss 11.

344 I Tim 2:4.

345 John Paul II, RMiss 21.

346 AG 5.

347 Tertullian, Apol. 50, 13: PL 1, 603.

348 GS 43 § 6.

349 LG 8 § 3; 15; AG 1 § 3; cf. RMiss 12-20.

350 LG 8 § 3.

351 GS 40 § 2.

352 Cf. RMiss 42-47.

353 AG 15 § 1.

354 Cf. RMiss 48-49.

355 Cf. RMiss 52-54.

356 AG 6 § 2.

357 Cf. RMiss 50.

358 UR 4 § 8.

359 Cf. RMiss 55.

360 AG 9.

361 AG 9.

362 Eph 2:20; Rev 21:14.

363 Cf. Mt 28:16-20; Acts 1:8; I Cor 9:1; 15:7-8; Gal 1:1; etc.

364 Cf. Acts 2:42.

365 Cf. 2 Tim 1:13-14.

366 AG 5.

367 Roman Missal, Preface of the Apostles I.

368 Mk 3:13-14.

369 Jn 20:21; cf. 13:20; 17:18.

370 Mt 10:40; cf. Lk 10:16.

371 Jn 5:19, 30; cf. Jn 15:5.

372 2 Cor 3:6; 6:4; 5:20; I Cor 4:1.

373 LG 20; cf. Mt 28:20.

374 LG 20; cf. Acts 20:28; St. Clement of Rome, Ad Cor. 42, 44: PG 1, 291-300.

375 LG 20 § 2.

376 LG 20 § 2.

377 AA 2.

378 AA 4; cf. Jn 15:5.

379 AA 3.

380 Rev 19:6.

381 Eph 1:4.

382 Rev 21:9.

383 Rev 21:10-11.

384 Rev 21:14.

385 CIC, Can. 204 para 1; Cf. LG 31.

386 CIC, Can. 208; Cf. LG 32.

387 AA 2.

388 CIC, Can. 207 § 2.

389 LG 18.

390 Rom 10:14-15.

391 Rom 10:17.

392 Cf. Rom 1:1.

393 Phil 2:7.

394 Cf. I Cor 9:19.

395 AG 5.

396 Cf. Jn 17:21-23.

397 Jn 21:22; Cf. Mt 4:19-21; Jn 1:4.

398 LG 19; cf. Lk 6:13; Jn 21:15-17.

399 LG 22; cf. CIC, can. 330.

400 Cf. Mt 16:18-19; Jn 21:15-17.

401 LG 22 § 2.

402 LG 23.

403 LG 22; cf. CD 2, 9.

404 LG 22; cf. CIC, can 336.

405 CIC, can. 337 § 1.

406 LG 22.

407 LG 22.

408 LG 23.

409 LG 23.

410 Cf. CD 3.

411 LG 23.

412 Cf. Gal 2:10.

413 Cf. Apostolic Constitutions 34.

414 LG 23 § 3.

415 PO 4; cf. Mk 16:15.

416 LG 25.

417 LG 12; cf. DV 10.

418 LG 25; cf. Vatican Council I: DS 3074.

419 DV 10 § 2.

420 LG 25 § 2.

421 Cf. LG 25.

422 LG 25.

423 LG 26.

424 I Pet 5:3.

425 LG 26 § 3.

426 LG 27; cf. Lk 22:26-27.

427 LG 27.

428 LG 27 § 2.

429 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn. 8, 1: Apostolic Fathers, II/2, 309.

430 LG 31.

431 LG 31 § 2.

432 Pius XII, Discourse, February 20, 1946: AAS 38 (1946) 149; quoted by John Paul II, CL 9.

433 Cf. LG 33.

434 LG 34; cf. LG 10, I Pet 2:5.

435 CIC, can. 835 § 4.

436 Cf. CIC, can. 230 § 1.

437 CIC, can. 230 § 3.

438 LG 35.

439 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh. III, 71, 4 ad 3.

440 LG 35 § 1, § 2.

441 AA 6 § 3; cf. AG 15.

442 Cf. CIC, cann. 229; 774; 776; 780; 823 § 1.

443 CIC, can. 212 § 3.

444 Cf. Phil 2:8-9.

445 LG 36.

446 St. Ambrose, Psal 118:14:30: PL 15:1476.

447 LG 36 § 3.

448 Paul VI, EN 73.

449 CIC, can. 129 § 2.

450 Cf. CIC, cann. 443 § 4; 463 §§ 1 and 2; 492 § 1; 511; 517 § 2; 536; 1421 § 2.

451 LG 36 § 4.

452 LG 33 § 2; cf. Eph 4:7.

453 LG 44 § 4.

454 Cf. LG 42-43; PC 1.

455 Cf. PC 5.

456 Cf. CIC, can. 573.

457 LG 43.

458 PC 1.

459 Cf. CIC, can. 605.

460 CIC, can. 603 § 1.

461 Cf. I Cor 7:34-36.

462 Cf. John Paul II, Vita consecrata 7.

463 Mt 19:12.

464 CIC, can. 604 § 1.

465 Ordo Consecrationis Virginum, Praenotanda 1.

466 Cf. CIC, can. 604 § 1; OCV Praenotanda 2.

467 Cf. CIC, can. 604 § 2.

468 Cf. CIC, cann. 607; 573; UR 15.

469 Cf. CD 33-35; CIC, can. 591.

470 Cf. AG 18; 40.

471 John Paul II, RMiss 69.

472 CIC, can. 710.

473 Pius XII, Provida Mater; cf. PC 11.

474 Cf. CIC, can. 713 § 2.

475 Cf. CIC, can. 731 §§ 1 and 2.

476 CIC, can. 783; cf. RM 69.

477 LG 31 § 2.

478 LG 44 § 3.

479 Nicetas, Expl. Symb., 10: PL 52:871B.

480 St. Thomas Aquinas, Symb., 10.

481 Roman Catechism I, 10, 24.

482 Acts 2:42.

483 Roman Catechism 1, 10, 24.

484 LG 12 § 2.

485 I Cor 12:7.

486 Acts 4:32.

487 Roman Catechism 1, 10, 27.

488 Cf. Lk 16:1, 3.

489 Rom 14:7.

490 I Cor 12:26-27.

491 I Cor 13:5; cf. 10:24.

492 LG 49; cf. Mt 25:31; I Cor 15:26-27; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1305.

493 LG 49; cf. Eph 4:16.

494 LG 49.

495 LG 49; cf. I Tim 2:5.

496 St. Dominic, dying, to his brothers.

497 St. Therese of Lisieux, The Final Conversations, tr. John Clarke (Washington: ICS, 1977), 102.

498 LG 50; cf. Eph 4:1-6.

499 Martyrium Polycarpi, 17: Apostolic Fathers II/3, 396.

500 LG 50; cf. 2 Macc 12:45.

501 LG 51; cf. Heb 3:6.

502 LG 53; cf. St. Augustine, De virg. 6: PL 40,399.

503 Paul VI, Discourse, November 21,1964.

504 LG 57.

505 LG 58; cf. Jn 19:26-27.

506 LG 69.

507 LG 59.

508 LG 59; cf. Pius XII, Munificentissimus Deus (1950): DS 3903; cf. Rev 19:16.

509 Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion, Feast of the Dormition, August 15th.

510 LG 53; 63.

511 LG 61.

512 LG 62.

513 LG 60.

514 LG 62.

515 Lk 1:48; Paul VI, MC 56.

516 LG 66.

517 Cf. Paul VI, MC 42; SC 103.

518 LG 69.

519 LG 68; Cf. 2 Pet 3:10.

520 Jn 20:22-23.

521 Mk 16:15-16.

522 Rom 6:4; Cf. 4:25.

523 Roman Catechism I, 11, 3.

524 Roman Catechism I, 11, 4.

525 Council Of Trent (1551): DS 1672; Cf. St. Gregory Of Nazianzus, Oratio 39, 17: PG 36, 356.

526 Lk 24:47.

527 2 Cor 5:18.

528 St. Augustine, Sermo 214, 11: PL 38, 1071-1072.

529 Roman Catechism I, 11, 5.

530 Cf. Mt 18:21-22.

531 Cf. St. Ambrose, De poenit. I, 15: PL 16, 490.

532 John Chrysostom, De sac. 3, 5: PG 48, 643.

533 St. Augustine, Sermo 213, 8: PL 38,1064.

534 Cf. Jn 6:39-40.

535 Rom 8:11; cf. I Thess 4:14; I Cor 6:14; 2 Cor 4:14; Phil 3:10-11.

536 Cf. Gen 6:3; Ps 56:5; Isa 40:6.

537 Rom 8:11.

538 Tertullian, De res, 1, 1: PL 2, 841.

539 I Cor 15:12-14, 20.

540 2 Macc 7:9.

541 2 Macc 7:14; cf. 7:29; Dan 12:1-13.

542 Mk 12:24; cf. Jn 11:24; Acts 23:6.

543 Mk 12:27.

544 Jn 11:25.

545 Cf. Jn 5:24-25; 6:40, 54.

546 Cf. Mk 5:21-42; Lk 7:11-17; Jn 11.

547 Mt 12:39.

548 Cf. Mk 10:34; Jn 2:19-22.

549 Acts 1:22; 10:41; cf. 4:33.

550 Cf. Acts 17:32; I Cor 15:12-13.

551 St. Augustine, En. in Ps. 88, 5: PL 37, 1134.

552 Jn 5:29; cf. Dan 12:2.

553 Lk 24:39.

554 Lateran Council IV (1215): DS 801; Phil 3:21; I Cor 15:44.

555 I Cor 15:35-37, 42, 52, 53.

556 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 18, 4-5: PG 7/1, 1028-1029.

557 Jn 6:39-40, 44, 54; 11:24; LG 48 § 3.

558 I Thess 4:16.

559 Col 2:12; 3:1.

560 Col 3:3; cf. Phil 3:20.

561 Eph 2:6.

562 Col 3:4.

563 I Cor 6:13-15, 19-20.

564 2 Cor 5:8.

565 Cf. Phil 1:23.

566 Cf. Paul VI, CPG § 28.

567 GS 18.

568 Rom 6:23; cf. Gen 2:17.

569 Cf. Rom 6:3-9; Phil 3:10-11.

570 Eccl 12:1, 7.

571 Cf. Gen 2:17; 3:3; 3:19; Wis 1:13; Rom 5:12; 6:23; DS 1511.

572 Cf. Wis 2:23-24.

573 GS 18 § 2; cf. I Cor 15:26.

574 Cf. Mk 14:33-34; Heb 5:7-8.

575 Cf. Rom 5:19-21.

576 Phil 1:21.

577 2 Tim 2:11.

578 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom., 6, 1-2: Apostolic Fathers, II/2, 217-220.

579 Phil 1:23.

580 Cf. Lk 23:46.

581 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom., 6, 1- 2: Apostolic Fathers, II/2, 223-224.

582 St. Teresa of Avila, Life, chap. 1.

583 St. Therese of Lisieux, The Last Conversations.

584 Cf. I Thess 4:13-14.

585 Roman Missal, Preface of Christian Death I.

586 LG 48 § 3.

587 Heb 9:27.

588 Roman Missal, Litany of the saints.

589 The Imitation of Christ, 1, 23, 1.

590 St. Francis of Assisi, Canticle of the Creatures.

591 OCF, Prayer of Commendation.

592 Cf. 2 Tim 1:9-10.

593 Cf. Lk 16:22; 23:43; Mt 16:26; 2 Cor 5:8; Phil 1:23; Heb 9:27; 12:23.

594 Cf. Council of Lyons II (1274): DS 857-858; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1304- 1306; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820.

595 Cf. Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1000-1001; John XXII, Ne super his (1334): DS 990.

596 Cf. Benedict XII, 8enedictus Deus (1336): DS 1002.

597 St. John of the Cross, Dichos 64.

598 I Jn 3:2; cf. I Cor 13:12; Rev 22:4.

599 Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1000; cf. LG 49.

600 Phil 1:23; cf. Jn 14:3; I Thess 4:17.

601 Cf. Rev 2:17.

602 St. Ambrose, In Luc., 10, 121: PL 15, 1834A.

603 I Cor 2:9.

604 St. Cyprian, Ep. 58, 10, 1: CSEL 3/2, 665.

605 Rev 22:5; cf. Mt 25:21, 23.

606 Cf. Council of Florence (1439): DS 1304; Council of Trent (1563): DS 1820; (1547): 1580; see also Benedict XII, Benedictus Deus (1336): DS 1000.

607 Cf. I Cor 3:15; I Pet 1:7.

608 St. Gregory the Great, Dial. 4, 39: PL 77, 396; cf. Mt 12:31.

609 2 Macc 12:46.

610 Cf. Council of Lyons II (1274): DS 856.

611 St. John Chrysostom, Hom. in 1 Cor. 41, 5: PG 61, 361; cf. Job 1:5.

612 I Jn 3:14-15.

613 Cf. Mt 25:31-46.

614 Cf. Mt 5:22, 29; 10:28; 13:42, 50; Mk 9:43-48.

615 Mt 13:41-42.

616 Mt 25:41.

617 Cf. DS 76; 409; 411; 801; 858; 1002; 1351; 1575; Paul VI, CPG § 12.

618 Mt 7:13-14.

619 LG 48 § 3; Mt 22:13; cf. Heb 9:27; Mt 25:13, 26, 30, 31 46.

620 Cf. Council of Orange II (529): DS 397; Council of Trent (1547):1567.

621 2 Pet 3:9.

622 Roman Missal, EP I (Roman Canon) 88.

623 Acts 24:15.

624 Jn 5:28-29.

625 Mt 25:31, 32, 46.

626 Cf. Jn 12:49.

627 St. Augustine, Sermo 18, 4: PL 38, 130-131; cf. Ps 50:3.

628 Cf. Song 8:6.

629 2 Cor 6:2.

630 Titus 2:13; 2 Thess 1:10.

631 LG 48; Cf. Acts 3:21; Eph 1:10; Col 1:20; 2 Pet 3:10-13.

632 2 Pet 3:13; Cf. Rev 21:1.

633 Eph 1:10.

634 Cf. Rev 21:5.

635 Rev 21:4.

636 Cf. LG 1.

637 Rev 21:2, 9.

638 Cf. Rev 21:27.

639 Rom 8:19-23.

640 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 5, 32, 1 PG 7/2, 210.

641 GS 39 § 1.

642 GS 39 § 2.

643 GS 39 § 3.

644 I Cor 15:28.

645 St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catech. illum. 18, 29: PG 33, 1049.

646 Cf. Rev 22:21.

647 Isa 65:16.

648 Cf. Mt 6:2, 5, 16; Jn 5:19.

649 St. Augustine, Sermo 58, 11, 13: PL 38, 399.

650 Rev 3:14.

651 2 Cor 1:20.

English Translation of the Cathechism of the Catholic Church for the United States of America © 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.

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