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Catechism of the Catholic Church

ARTICLE 7: "FROM THENCE HE WILL COME AGAlN TO JUDGE THE LIVING AND THE DEAD"

I. HE WILL COME AGAIN IN GLORY

Christ already reigns through the Church. . .

668 "Christ died and lived again, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living." 548 Christ's Ascension into heaven signifies his participation, in his humanity, in God's power and authority. Jesus Christ is Lord: he possesses all power in heaven and on earth. He is "far above all rule and authority and power and dominion", for the Father "has put all things under his feet." 549 Christ is Lord of the cosmos and of history. In him human history and indeed all creation are "set forth" and transcendently fulfilled. 550

669 As Lord, Christ is also head of the Church, which is his Body. 551 Taken up to heaven and glorified after he had thus fully accomplished his mission, Christ dwells on earth in his Church. The redemption is the source of the authority that Christ, by virtue of the Holy Spirit, exercises over the Church. "The kingdom of Christ [is] already present in mystery", "on earth, the seed and the beginning of the kingdom". 552

670 Since the Ascension God's plan has entered into its fulfilment. We are already at "the last hour". 553 "Already the final age of the world is with us, and the renewal of the world is irrevocably under way; it is even now anticipated in a certain real way, for the Church on earth is endowed already with a sanctity that is real but imperfect." 554 Christ's kingdom already manifests its presence through the miraculous signs that attend its proclamation by the Church. 555

. . . until all things are subjected to him

671 Though already present in his Church, Christ's reign is nevertheless yet to be fulfilled "with power and great glory" by the King's return to earth. 556 This reign is still under attack by the evil powers, even though they have been defeated definitively by Christ's Passover. 557 Until everything is subject to him, "until there be realized new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells, the pilgrim Church, in her sacraments and institutions, which belong to this present age, carries the mark of this world which will pass, and she herself takes her place among the creatures which groan and travail yet and await the revelation of the sons of God." 558 That is why Christians pray, above all in the Eucharist, to hasten Christ's return by saying to him: 559 Marana tha! "Our Lord, come!" 560

672 Before his Ascension Christ affirmed that the hour had not yet come for the glorious establishment of the messianic kingdom awaited by Israel 561 which, according to the prophets, was to bring all men the definitive order of justice, love and peace. 562 According to the Lord, the present time is the time of the Spirit and of witness, but also a time still marked by "distress" and the trial of evil which does not spare the Church 563 and ushers in the struggles of the last days. It is a time of waiting and watching. 564

The glorious advent of Christ, the hope of Israel

673 Since the Ascension Christ's coming in glory has been imminent, 565 even though "it is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has fixed by his own authority." 566. This eschatological coming could be accomplished at any moment, even if both it and the final trial that will precede it are "delayed". 567

674 The glorious Messiah's coming is suspended at every moment of history until his recognition by "all Israel", for "a hardening has come upon part of Israel" in their "unbelief" toward Jesus. 568 St. Peter says to the Jews of Jerusalem after Pentecost: "Repent therefore, and turn again, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for establishing all that God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old." 569 St. Paul echoes him: "For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?" 570 The "full inclusion" of the Jews in the Messiah's salvation, in the wake of "the full number of the Gentiles", 571 will enable the People of God to achieve "the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ", in which "God may be all in all". 572

The Church's ultimate trial

675 Before Christ's second coming the Church must pass through a final trial that will shake the faith of many believers. 573 The persecution that accompanies her pilgrimage on earth 574 will unveil the "mystery of iniquity" in the form of a religious deception offering men an apparent solution to their problems at the price of apostasy from the truth. The supreme religious deception is that of the Antichrist, a pseudo-messianism by which man glorifies himself in place of God and of his Messiah come in the flesh. 575

676 The Antichrist's deception already begins to take shape in the world every time the claim is made to realize within history that messianic hope which can only be realized beyond history through the eschatological judgement. The Church has rejected even modified forms of this falsification of the kingdom to come under the name of millenarianism, 576 especially the "intrinsically perverse" political form of a secular messianism. 577

677 The Church will enter the glory of the kingdom only through this final Passover, when she will follow her Lord in his death and Resurrection. 578 The kingdom will be fulfilled, then, not by a historic triumph of the Church through a progressive ascendancy, but only by God's victory over the final unleashing of evil, which will cause his Bride to come down from heaven. 579 God's triumph over the revolt of evil will take the form of the Last Judgement after the final cosmic upheaval of this passing world. 580

II. TO JUDGE THE LIVING AND THE DEAD

678 Following in the steps of the prophets and John the Baptist, Jesus announced the judgement of the Last Day in his preaching. 581 Then will the conduct of each one and the secrets of hearts be brought to light. 582 Then will the culpable unbelief that counted the offer of God's grace as nothing be condemned. 583 Our attitude to our neighbour will disclose acceptance or refusal of grace and divine love. 584 On the Last Day Jesus will say: "Truly I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me." 585

679 Christ is Lord of eternal life. Full right to pass definitive judgement on the works and hearts of men belongs to him as redeemer of the world. He "acquired" this right by his cross. The Father has given "all judgement to the Son". 586 Yet the Son did not come to judge, but to save and to give the life he has in himself. 587 By rejecting grace in this life, one already judges oneself, receives according to one's works, and can even condemn oneself for all eternity by rejecting the Spirit of love. 588

IN BRIEF:

680 Christ the Lord already reigns through the Church, but all the things of this world are not yet subjected to him. The triumph of Christ's kingdom will not come about without one last assault by the powers of evil.

681 On Judgement Day at the end of the world, Christ will come in glory to achieve the definitive triumph of good over evil which, like the wheat and the tares, have grown up together in the course of history.

682 When he comes at the end of time to judge the living and the dead, the glorious Christ will reveal the secret disposition of hearts and will render to each man according to his works, and according to his acceptance or refusal of grace.

NOTES:

1 Gal 4:4-5.

2 Mk 1:1.

3 Mk 1:11; cf. Lk 1:5, 68.

4 Jn 13:3.

5 Jn 3:13; 6:33.

6 I Jn 4:2.

7 Jn 1:14, 16.

8 Mt 16:16.

9 Cf. Mt 16:18; St. Leo the Great, Sermo 4, 3: PL 54,150 - 152; 51,1: PL 54, 309B; 62, 2: PL 54, 350-351; 83, 3: PL 54, 431-432.

10 Eph 3:8.

11 Acts 4:20.

12 I Jn 1:1-4.

13 CT 5.

14 CT 5.

15 CT 5.

16 CT 6; cf. Jn 7:16.

17 Phil 3:8-11.

18 Cf. Lk 1:31.

19 Mt 1:21; cf. 2:7.

20 Deut 5:6.

21 Cf. Ps 51:4, 12.

22 Cf. Ps 79:9.

23 Cf. Jn 3:18; Acts 2:21; 5:41; 3 Jn 7; Rom 10:6-13.

24 Acts 4:12; cf. 9:14; Jas 2:7.

25 Cf. Ex 25:22; Lev 16:2,15-16; Num 7:89; Sir 50:20; Heb 9:5, 7.

26 Rom 3:25; 2 Cor 5:19.

27 Phil 2:9-10; cf. Jn 12:28.

28 Cf. Acts 16:16-18; 19:13-16; Mk 16:17; Jn 15:16.

29 Cf. Ex 29:7; Lev 8:12; I Sam 9:16; 10:1; 16:1, 12-13; I Kings 1:39; 19:16.

30 Cf. Ps 2:2; Acts 4:26-27.

31 Cf. Isa 11:2; 61:1; Zech 4:14; 6:13; Lk 4:16-21.

32 Lk 2:11.

33 Jn 10:36; cf. Lk 1:35.

34 Mt 1:20; cf. 1:16; Rom 1:1; 2 Tim 2:8; Rev 22:16.

35 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 18, 3: PG 7/1, 934.

36 Acts 10:38; Jn 1:31.

37 Mk 1:24; Jn 6:69; Acts 3:14.

38 Cf. Mt 2:2; 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 20:30; 21:9.15.

39 Cf. Jn 4:25-26; 6:15; 11:27; Mt 22:41-46; Lk 24:21.

40 Cf. Mt 16:16-23.

41 Jn 3:13; Mt 20:28; cf. Jn 6:62; Dan 7:13; Isa 53:10-12.

42 Cf. Jn 19:19-22; Lk 23:39-43.

43 Acts 2:36.

44 Cf. Deut 14:1; (LXX) 32:8; Job 1:6; Ex 4:22; Hos 2:1; 11:1; Jer 3:19; Sir 36:11; Wis 18:13; 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 82:6.

45 Cf. I Chr 17:13; Ps 2:7; Mt 27:54; Lk 23:47.

46 Mt 16:16-17.

47 Gal 1:15-16.

48 Acts 9:20.

49 Cf. I Thess 1:10; Jn 20:31; Mt 16:18.

50 Lk 22:70; cf. Mt 26:64; Mk 14:61-62.

51 Cf. Mt 11:27; 21:34-38; 24:36.

52 Mt 5:48; 6:8-9; 7:21; Lk 11:13; Jn 20:17.

53 Cf. Mt 3:17; cf. 17:5.

54 Jn 3:16; cf. 10:36.

55 Jn 3:18.

56 Mk 15:39.

57 Rom 1:3; cf. Acts 13:33.

58 Jn 1:14.

59 Cf. Ex 3:14.

60 Cf. I Cor 2:8.

61 Cf. Mt 22:41-46; cf. Acts 2:34-36; Heb 1:13; Jn 13:13.

62 Cf Mt 8:2; 14:30; 15:22; et al.

63 Cf. Lk 1:43; 2:11.

64 Jn 20:28; 21:7.

65 Cf. Acts 2:34-36; Rom 9:5; Titus 2:13; Rev 5:13; Phil 2:6.

66 Cf. Rom 10:9; I Cor 12:3; Phil 2:9-11.

67 Cf. Rev 11:15; Mk 12:17; Acts 5:29.

68 GS 10 § 3; Cf. 45 § 2.

69 I Cor 16:22; Rev 22:20.

70 I Jn 4:10; 4:14; 3:5.

71 St. Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech 15: PG 45, 48B.

72 I Jn 4:9.

73 Jn 3:16.

74 Mt 11:29; Jn 14:6.

75 Mk 9:7; cf. Deut 6:4-5.

76 Jn 15:12.

77 Cf. Mk 8:34.

78 2 Pt 1:4.

79 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 19, 1: PG 7/1, 939.

80 St. Athanasius, De inc. 54, 3: PG 25, 192B.

81 St. Thomas Aquinas, Opusc. 57, 1-4.

82 Jn 1:14.

83 Phil 2:5-8; cf. LH, Saturday, Canticle at Evening Prayer.

84 Heb 10:5-7, citing Ps 40:6-8 ([7-9] LXX).

85 I Jn 4:2.

86 1 Tim 3:16.

87 Cf. I Jn 4:2-3; 2 Jn 7.

88 Council of Nicaea I (325): DS 130, 126.

89 Council of Ephesus (431): DS 250.

90 Council of Ephesus: DS 251.

91 Council of Chalcedon (451): DS 301; cf. Heb 4:15.

92 Council of Chalcedon: DS 302.

93 Council of Constantinople II (553): DS 424.

94 Council of Constantinople II (553): DS 432; cf. DS 424; Council of Ephesus, DS 255.

95 LH, January 1, Antiphon for Morning Prayer; cf. St. Leo the Great, Sermo in nat. Dom. 1, 2; PL 54, 191-192.

96 Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, Troparion O monogenes.

97 GS 22 § 2.

98 Cf. Jn 14:9-10.

99 GS 22 § 2.

100 Cf. Damasus 1: DS 149.

101 Lk 2:52.

102 Cf. Mk 6:38; 8:27; Jn 11:34; etc.

103 Phil 2:7.

104 Cf. St. Gregory the Great, "Sicut aqua" ad Eulogium, Epist. Lib. 10, 39 PL 77, 1097 Aff.; DS 475.

105 St. Maximus the Confessor, Qu. et dub. 66 PG 90, 840A.

106 Cf. Mk 14:36; Mt 11:27; Jn 1:18; 8:55; etc.

107 Cf. Mk 2:8; Jn 2:25; 6:61; etc.

108 Cf. Mk 8:31; 9:31; 10:33-34; 14:18-20, 26-30.

109 Cf. Mk 13:32, Acts 1:7.

110 Cf. Council of Constantinople III (681): DS 556-559.

111 Council of Constantinople III: DS 556.

112 Cf. Council of the Lateran (649): DS 504.

113 Cf. Gal 3:1; cf. Council of Nicaea II (787): DS 600-603.

114 Roman Missal, Preface of Christmas I.

115 Council of Nicaea II: DS 601.

116 Gal 2:20.

117 Cf. Jn 19:34.

118 Pius XII, Enc. Haurietis aquas (1956): DS 3924; cf. DS 3812.

119 Gal 4:4.

120 Col 2:9.

121 Lk 1:34-35 (Greek).

122 Cf. Jn 16:14-15.

123 Cf. Mt 1:20; 2:1-12; Lk 1:35; 2:8-20; Jn 1:3 1-34; 2:11.

124 Acts 10:38.

125 Gal 4:4; Heb 10:5.

126 Lk 1:26-27.

127 LG 56; cf. LG 61.

128 Cf. Gen 3:15, 20.

129 Cf. Gen 18:10-14; 21:1-2.

130 Cf. I Cor 1:17; I Sam 1.

131 LG 55.

132 LG 56.

133 Lk 1:28.

134 Lk 1:28.

135 Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus (1854): DS 2803.

136 LG 53, 56.

137 Cf. Eph 1:3-4.

138 LG 56.

139 Lk 1:28-38; cf. Rom 1:5.

140 Cf. LG 56.

141 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 22, 4: PG 7/1, 959A.

142 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 22, 4: PG 7/1, 959A.

143 LG 56; St. Epiphanius, Panarion 2, 78, 18: PG 42, 728CD-729AB; St. Jerome, Ep. 22, 21: PL 22, 408.

144 Lk 1:43; Jn 2:1; 19:25; cf. Mt 13:55; et al.

145 Council of Ephesus (431): DS 251.

146 Council of the Lateran (649): DS 503; cf. DS 10-64.

147 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn 1-2: Apostolic Fathers, ed. J. B. Lightfoot (London: Macmillan, 1889), 11/2, 289-293; SCh 10, 154-156; cf. Rom 1:3; Jn 1:13.

148 Mt 1:18-25; Lk 1:26-38.

149 Mt 1:20.

150 Isa 7:14 in the LXX, quoted in Mt 1:23 (Gk.).

151 Cf. St. Justin, Dial. 99, 7: PG 6, 708-709; Origen, Contra Celsum 1, 32, 69: PG 11, 720-721; et al.

152 Dei Filius 4: DS 3016.

153 St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Eph. 19, 1: AF 11/2 76-80; SCh 10, 88; cf. I Cor 2:8.

154 Cf. DS 291; 294; 427; 442; 503; 571; 1880.

155 LG 57.

156 Cf. LG 52.

157 Cf. Mk 3:31-35; 6:3; I Cor 9:5; Gal 1:19.

158 Mt 13:55; 28:1; cf. Mt 27:56.

159 Cf. Gen 13:8; 14:16; 29:15; etc.

160 LG 63; cf. Jn 19:26-27; Rom 8:29; Rev 12:17.

161 Council of Friuli (796): DS 619; cf. Lk 2:48-49.

162 I Cor 15:45,47.

163 Jn 3:34.

164 Jn 1:16; cf. Col 1:18.

165 Lk 1:34; cf. Jn 3:9.

166 Jn 1:13.

167 Cf. 2 Cor 11:2.

168 LG 63; cf. l Cor 7:34-35.

169 St. Augustine, De virg. 3: PL 40, 398.

170 LG 64; cf. 63.

171 Acts 1:1-2

172 Cf. Jn 20:30.

173 Jn 20:31.

174 Cf. Mk 1:1; Jn 21:24.

175 Cf Lk 2:7; Mt 27: 48; Jn 20:7.

176 Col 2:9.

177 Jn 14:9; Lk 9:35; cf. Mt 17:5; Mk 9:7, "my beloved Son".

178 Jn 4:9.

179 Cf. Eph 1:7; Col 1:13-14; I Pt 1:18-19.

180 Cf. 2 Cor 8:9.

181 Cf. Lk 2:51.

182 Cf. Jn 15:3.

183 Mt 8:17; cf. Isa 53:4.

184 Cf. Rom 4:25.

185 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 18, 1: PG 7/1, 932.

186 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 3, 18, 7: PG 7/1, 937; cf. 2, 22, 4.

187 John Paul II, RH 11 [32].

188 I Cor 15:3; Rom 4:25.

189 I Jn 2:1 Heb 7:25.

190 Heb 9:24.

191 GS 38; cf. Rom 15:5; Phil 2:5.

192 Cf. Jn 13:15; Lk 11:1; Mt 5:11-12.

193 GS 22 § 2.

194 St. John Eudes: LH, week 33, Friday, OR.

195 Heb 9:15.

196 Cf. Acts 13:24; Mt 3:3.

197 Lk 1:76; cf. 7:26; Mt 11:13.

198 Jn 1:29; cf. Acts 1:22; Lk 1:41; 16:16; Jn 3:29.

199 Lk 1:17; cf. Mk 6:17-29.

200 Cf Rev 22:17.

201 Jn 3:30.

202 Cf. Lk 2:61.

203 Cf. Lk 2:8-20.

204 Kontakion of Romanos the Melodist.

205 Cf. Mt 18:3-4.

206 Jn 3:7; 1:13; 1:12; cf. Mt 23:12.

207 Cf. Gal 4:19.

208 LH, Antiphon I of Evening Prayer for January 1st.

209 Cf. Lk 2:21.

210 Cf. Gal 4:4.

211 Cf. Col 2:11-13.

212 Mt 2:1; cf. LH, Epiphany, Evening Prayer II, Antiphon at the Canticle of Mary.

213 Cf Mt 2:2; Num 24:17-19; Rev 22:16.

214 Cf Jn 4:22; Mt 2:4-6.

215 St. Leo the Great, Sermo 3 in epiphania Domini 1-3, 5: PL 54, 242; LH, Epiphany, OR; Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 26, Prayer after the third reading.

216 Cf. Lk 2:22-39; Ex 13:2, 12-13.

217 Cf. Mt 2:13-18.

218 Jn 1:11.

219 Cf. Jn 15:20.

220 Cf. Mt 2:15; Hos 11:1.

221 Cf. Gal 4:4.

222 Lk 2:51-52.

223 Lk 22:42.

224 Cf. Rom 5:19.

225 Paul VI at Nazareth, January 5, 1964:

LH, Feast of the Holy Family, OR.

226 Cf. Lk 2:41-52.

227 Lk 2:49 alt.

228 Cf. Lk 3:23; Acts 1:22.

229 Lk 3:3.

230 Cf. Lk 3:10-14; Mt 3:7; 21:32.

231 Mt 3:13-17.

232 Jn 1:29; cf. Isa 53:12.

233 Cf. Mk 10:38; Lk 12:50.

234 Mt 3:15; cf. 26:39.

235 Cf. Lk 3:22; Isa 42:1.

236 Jn 1:32-33; cf. Isa 11:2.

237 Mt 3:16.

238 Rom 6:4.

239 St. Gregory of Nazianzus, Oratio 40, 9: PG 36, 369.

240 St. Hilary of Poitiers, In Matth. 2, 5: PL 9, 927.

241 Cf. Mk 1:12-13.

242 Lk 4:13.

243 Cf. Ps 95:10; Mk 3:27

244 Cf. Mt 16:2 1-23.

245 Heb 4:15.

246 Mk 1:14-15.

247 LG 3.

248 LG 2.

249 LG 5.

250 Jn 12:32; cf. LG 3.

251 Cf. Mt 8:11; 10:5-7; 28:19.

252 LG 5; cf. Mk 4:14, 26-29; Lk 12:32.

253 Lk 4:18; cf. 7:22.

254 Mt 5:3.

255 Cf. Mt 11:25.

256 Cf. Mt 21:18; Mk 2:23-26; Jn 4:6-7; 19:28; Lk 9:58.

257 Cf. Mt 25:31-46.

258 Mk 2:17; cf. l Tim 1:15.

259 Lk 15:7; cf. 7:11-32.

260 Mt 26:28.

261 Cf. Mk 4:33-34.

262 Cf. Mt 13:44-45; 22:1-14.

263 Cf. Mt 21:28-32.

264 Cf. Mt 13:3-9.

265 Cf. Mt 25:14-30.

266 Mt 13:11.

267 Mk 4:11; cf. Mt 13:10-15.

268 Acts 2:22; cf. Lk 7:18-23.

269 cf. Jn 5:36; 10:25, 38.

270 Cf. Mk 5:25-34; 10:52; etc.

271 Cf. Jn 10:31-38.

272 Mt 11:6.

273 Cf. Jn 11:47-48; Mk 3:22.

274 Cf. Jn 6:5-15; Lk 19:8; Mt 11:5.

275 Cf. Lk 12:13-14; Jn 18:36.

276 Cf. Jn 8:34-36.

277 Mt 12:26, 28.

278 Jn 12:31; cf. Lk 8:26-39.

279 LH, Lent, Holy Week, Evening Prayer, Hymn Vexilla Regis: Regnavit a ligno Deus.

280 Cf. Mk 3:13-19.

281 Lk 9:2.

282 Lk 22:29-30.

283 Cf. Mk 3:16; 9:2; Lk 24:34; I Cor 15:5.

284 Mt 16:18.

285 I Pt 2:4.

286 Cf. Lk 22:32.

287 Mt 16:19.

288 Jn 21:15-17; Cf. 10:11.

289 Cf. Mt 18:18.

290 Mt 16:21.

291 Cf. Mt 16:22-23; 17:23; Lk 9:45.

292 Cf. Mt 17:1-8 and parallels; 2 Pt 1:16-18.

293 Lk 9:31.

294 Lk 9:35.

295 Lk 24:26.

296 Cf. Lk 24:27.

297 Cf. Isa 42:1.

298 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 45, 4, ad 2.

299 Byzantine Liturgy, Feast of the Transfiguration, Kontakion.

300 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 45, 4, ad 2.

301 Phil 3:21.

302 Acts 14:22.

303 St. Augustine, Sermo 78, 6: PL 38, 492-493; cf. Lk 9:33.

304 Lk 9:51; cf. Jn 13:1.

305 Lk 13:33; cf. Mk 8:31-33; 9:31-32; 10:32-34.

306 Mt 23:37.

307 Lk 19:41-42.

308 Lk 1:32; cf. Mt 21:1-11; Jn 6:15.

309 Ps 24:7-10; Zech 9:9.

310 Cf. Jn 18:37.

311 Cf. Mt 21:15-16; cf. Ps 8:3; Lk 19:38; 2:14.

312 Cf. Ps 118:26.

313 Heb 9:26.

314 Lk 24:26-27, 44-45.

315 Mk 8:31; Mt 20:19.

316 Cf. DV 19.

317 Cf. Mk 3:6; 14:1.

318 Cf. Mt 12:24; Mk 2:7,14-17; 3:1-6; 7:14-23.

319 Cf. Mk 3:22; Jn 8:48; 10:20.

320 Cf. Mk 2:7; Jn 5:18; 7:12, 52; 8:59; 10:31, 33.

321 Lk 2:34.

322 Cf. Jn 1:19; 2:18; 5:10; 7:13; 9:22; 18:12; 19:38; 20:19.

323 Jn 7:48-49.

324 Cf. Lk 13:31.

325 Cf. Lk 7:36; 14:1.

326 Cf. Mt 22:23-34; Lk 20:39.

327 Cf. Mt 6:18.

328 Cf. Mk 12:28-34.

329 Mt 5:17-19.

330 Mt 5:19.

331 Cf. Jn 8:46.

332 Cf. Jn 7:19; Acts 13:38-41; 15:10.

333 Jas 2:10; cf. Gal 3:10; 5:3.

334 Cf. Rom 10:2.

335 Cf. Mt 15:31; Lk 11:39-54.

336 Cf. Isa 53:11; Heb 9:15.

337 Cf. Gal 4:4.

338 Jer 31:33; Isa 42:3, 6.

339 Gal 3:13; 3:10; Heb 9:15.

340 Cf. Jn 11:28; 3:2; Mt 22:23-24, 34-36.

341 Cf. Mt 12:5; 9:12; Mk 2:23-27; Lk 6:6-9; Jn 7:22-23.

342 Mt 7:28-29.

343 Cf. Mt 5:1.

344 Mt 5:33-34.

345 Mk 7:13; cf. 3:8.

346 Mk 7:18-21; cf. Gal 3:24.

347 Cf. Jn 5:36; 10:25, 37-38; 12:37.

348 Cf. Num 28 9; Mt 12:5; Mk 2:25-27; Lk 13:15-16; 14:3-4; Jn 7:22-24.

349 Lk 2:22-39.

350 Cf. Lk 2:46-49.

351 Cf. Lk 2:41.

352 Cf. Jn 2:13-14; 5:1, 14; 7:1, 10, 14; 8:2; 10:22-23.

353 Cf. Mt 21:13.

354 Jn 2:16-17; cf. Ps 69:10.

355 Cf. Acts 2:46; 3:1; 5:20, 21; etc.

356 Cf. Mt 24:1-2.

357 Cf. Mt 24:3; Lk 13:35.

358 Cf. Mk 14:57-58; Mt 27:39-40.

359 Cf. Mt 8:4; 16:18; 17:24-27; Lk 17:14; Jn 4:22; 18:20.

360 Cf. Jn 2:21; Mt 12:6.

361 Cf. Jn 2:18-22.

362 Jn 4:21; cf. 4:23-24; Mt 27:51; Heb 9:11; Rev 21:22.

363 Cf. Lk 2:34; 20:17-18; Ps 118:22.

364 Cf. Lk 5:30; 7:36; 11:37; 14:1.

365 Lk 18:9; 5:32; cf. Jn 7:49; 9:34.

366 Cf. Jn 8:33-36; 9:40-41.

367 Cf. Mt 9:13; Hos 6:6.

368 Cf. Lk 15:1-2, 22-32.

369 Mk 2:7.

370 Cf. Jn 5:18; 10:33; 17:6, 26.

371 Cf. Mt 12:6, 30, 36, 37, 41-42.

372 Jn 8:58; 10:30.

373 Jn 10:36-38.

374 Cf. Jn 3:7; 6:44.

375 Cf. Isa 53:1.

376 Cf. Mk 3:6; Mt 26:64-66.

377 Cf. Lk 23:34; Acts 3:17-18; Mk 3:5; Rom 11:25, 20.

378 Jn 12:42; cf. 7:50; 9:16-17; 10:19-21; 19:38-39.

379 Acts 6:7; 15:5; 21:20.

380 Cf. Jn 9:16; 10:19.

381 Cf. Jn 9:22.

382 Jn 11:48-50.

383 Cf. Mt 26:66; Jn 18:31; Lk 23:2, 19.

384 Cf. Jn 19:12, 15, 21.

385 Cf. Mk 15:11; Acts 2:23, 36; 3:13-14; 4:10; 5:30; 7:52; 10:39; 13:27-28; I Thess 2:14-15.

386 Cf. Lk 23:34; Acts 3:17.

387 Mt 27:25; cf. Acts 5:28; 18:6.

388 NA 4.

389 Roman Catechism I, 5, 11; cf. Heb 12:3.

390 Cf. Mt 25:45; Acts 9:4-5.

391 Roman Catechism I, 5, 11; cf. Heb 6:6; 1 Cor 2:8.

392 St. Francis of Assisi, Admonitio 5, 3.

393 Acts 2:23.

394 Cf. Acts 3:13.

395 Acts 4:27-28; cf. Ps 2:1-2.

396 Cf. Mt 26:54; Jn 18:36; 19:11; Acts 3:17-18.

397 Isa 53:11; cf. 53:12; Jn 8:34-36; Acts 3:14.

398 1 Cor 15:3; cf. also Acts 3:18; 7:52; 13:29; 26:22-23.

399 Cf. Isa 53:7-8 and Acts 8:32-35.

400 Cf. Mt 20:28.

401 Cf. Lk 24:25-27, 44-45.

402 I Pt 1:18-20.

403 Cf. Rom 5:12; I Cor 15:56.

404 2 Cor 5:21; cf. Phil 2:7; Rom 8:3.

405 Cf. Jn 8:46.

406 Mk 15:34; Ps 22:2; cf. Jn 8:29.

407 Rom 8:32; 5:10.

408 I John 4:10; 4:19.

409 Rom 5:8.

410 Mt 18:14.

411 Mt 20:28; cf. Rom 5:18-19.

412 Council of Quiercy (853): DS 624; cf. 2 Cor 5:15; I Jn 2:2.

413 Jn 6:38.

414 Heb 10:5-10.

415 Jn 4:34.

416 1 Jn 2:2.

417 Jn 10:17; 14:31.

418 Cf. Lk 12:50; 22:15; Mt 16:21-23.

419 Jn 12:27.

420 Jn 18:11.

421 Jn 19:30; 19:28.

422 Jn 1:29; cf. Lk 3:21; Mt 3:14-15; Jn 1:36.

423 Isa 53:7, 12; cf. Jer 11:19; Ex 12:3-14; Jn 19:36; I Cor 5:7.

424 Mk 10:45.

425 Jn 13:1; 15:13.

426 Cf. Heb 2:10, 17-18; 4:15; 5:7-9.

427 Jn 10:18.

428 Cf. Jn 18:4-6; Mt 26:53.

429 Roman Missal, EP III; cf. Mt 26:20; I Cor 11:23.

430 Lk 22:19; Mt 26:28; cf. I Cor 5:7.

431 I Cor 11:25.

432 Cf. Lk 22:19.

433 Jn 17:19; cf. Council of Trent: DS 1752; 1764.

434 Cf. Mt 26:42; Lk 22:20.

435 Phil 2:8; Mt 26:39; cf. Heb 5:7-8.

436 Cf. Rom 5:12; Heb 4:15.

437 Cf. Acts 3:15; Rev 1:17; Jn 1:4; 5:26.

438 I Pt 224; cf. Mt 26:42.

439 Jn 1:29; cf. 8:34-36; I Cor 5:7; I Pt 1:19.

440 Mt 26:28; cf. Ex 24:8; Lev 16:15-16; Cor 11:25.

441 Cf. Heb 10:10.

442 Cf. Jn 10:17-18; 15:13; Heb 9:14; I Jn 4:10.

443 Rom 5:19.

444 Isa 53:10-12.

445 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1529.

446 Jn 13:1.

447 Cf. Gal 2:20; Eph 5:2, 25.

448 2 Cor 5:14.

449 Heb 5:9.

450 Council of Trent: DS 1529.

451 LH, Lent, Holy Week, Evening Prayer, Hymn Vexilla Regis.

452 I Tim 2:5.

453 GS 22 § 5; cf. § 2.

454 Mt 16:24.

455 I Pt 2:21.

456 Cf. Mk 10:39; Jn 21:18-19; Col 1:24.

457 Cf. Lk 2:35.

458 St. Rose of Lima: cf. P. Hansen, Vita mirabilis (Louvain, 1668).

459 Heb 2:9.

460 I Cor 15:3.

461 Cf. Jn 19:42.

462 Cf. Heb 4:7-9.

463 Cf. Jn 19:30.

464 Cf. Col 1:18-20.

465 Rev 1:18.

466 St. Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech. 16: PG 45, 52D.

467 Acts 3:15.

468 Lk 24:5-6.

469 St. John Damascene, De fide orth. 3, 27: PG 94, 1097.

470 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 51, 3.

471 Isa 53:8.

472 Acts 2:26-27; cf. Ps 16:9-10.

473 Cf. I Cor 15:4; Lk 24:46; Mt 12:40; Jon 2:1; Hos 6:2; cf. Jn 11:39.

474 Rom 6:4; cf. Col 2:12; Eph 5:26.

475 Eph 4:9-10.

476 Roman Missal, Easter Vigil 18, Exsultet.

477 Acts 3:15; Rom 8:11; I Cor 15:20; cf. Heb 13:20.

478 Cf. I Pt 3:18-19.

479 Cf. Phil 2:10; Acts 2:24; Rev 1:18; Eph 4:9; Ps 6:6; 88:11-13.

480 Cf. Ps 89:49; I Sam 28:19; Ezek 32:17-32; Lk 16:22-26.

481 Roman Catechism 1, 6, 3.

482 Cf. Council of Rome (745): DS 587; Benedict XII, Cum dudum (1341): DS 1011; Clement VI, Super quibusdam (1351): DS 1077; Council of Toledo IV (625): DS 485; Mt 27:52-53.

483 I Pt 4:6.

484 Jn 5:25; cf. Mt 12:40; Rom 10:7; Eph 4:9.

485 Heb 2:14-15; cf. Acts 3:15.

486 Rev 1:18; Phil 2:10.

487 Ancient Homily for Holy Saturday: PG 43, 440A, 452C; LH, Holy Saturday, OR.

488 Acts 13:32-33.

489 Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion of Easter.

490 I Cor 15:3-4.

491 Cf. Acts 9:3-18.

492 Lk 24:5-6.

493 Cf. Jn 20:13; Mt 28:11-15.

494 Cf. Lk 24:3, 12, 22-23.

495 Jn 20:2, 6, 8.

496 Cf. Jn 11:44; 20:5-7.

497 Mk 16:1; Lk 24:1; Jn 19:31, 42.

498 Cf. Lk 24:9-10; Mt 28:9-10; Jn 20:11-18.

499 Cf. I Cor 15:5; Lk 22:31-32.

500 Lk 24:34, 36.

501 I Cor 15:4-8; cf. Acts 1:22.

502 Cf. Lk 22:31-32.

503 Lk 24:17; cf. Jn 20:19.

504 Lk 24:11; cf. Mk 16:11, 13.

505 Mk 16:14.

506 Lk 24:38-41.

507 Cf. Jn 20:24-27; Mt 28:17.

508 Cf. Lk 24:30, 39-40, 41-43; Jn 20:20, 27; 21:9, 13-15.

509 Cf. Mt 28:9, 16-17; Lk 24:15, 36; Jn 20:14, 17, 19, 26; 21:4.

510 Cf. Mk 16:12; Jn 20:14-16; 21:4, 7.

511 Cf. I Cor 15:35-50.

512 O vere beata nox, quae sola meruit scire tempus et horam, in qua Christus ab inferis resurrexit!

513 Acts 13:31; cf. Jn 14:22.

514 Rom 1:3-4; cf. Acts 2:24.

515 Cf. Rom 6:4; 2 Cor 13:4; Phil 3:10; Eph 1:19-22; Heb 7:16.

516 Cf. Mk 8:31; 9:9-31; 10:34.

517 Jn 10:17-18.

518 I Thess 4:14.

519 St. Gregory of Nyssa, In Christi res. Orat. I: PG 46, 617B; cf. also DS 325; 359; 369.

520 I Cor 15:14.

521 Cf. Mt 28:6; Mk 16:7; Lk 24:6-7, 26-27, 44-48.

522 Cf. I Cor 15:3-4; cf. the Nicene Creed.

523 Jn 8:28.

524 Acts 13:32-33; cf. Ps 2:7.

525 Rom 6:4; cf. 4:25.

526 Cf. Eph 2:4-5; I Pt 1:3.

527 Mt 28:10; Jn 20:17.

528 I Cor 15:20-22.

529 Heb 6:5.

530 2 Cor 5:15; cf. Col 3:1-3.

531 Mk 16:19.

532 Cf. Lk 24:31; Jn 20:19, 26.

533 Cf. Acts 1:3; 10:41; Mk 16:12; Lk 24:15; Jn 20:14-15; 21:4.

534 Cf. Acts 1:9; 2:33; 7:56; Lk 9:34-35; 24:51; Ex 13:22; Mk 16:19; Ps 110:1.

535 I Cor 15:8; cf. 9:1; Gal 1:16.

536 Jn 20:17.

537 Cf. Jn 16:28.

538 Jn 3:13; cf. Eph 4:8-10.

539 Jn 14:2.

540 Missale Romanum, Preface of the Ascension: sed ut illuc confideremus, sua membra, nos subsequi quo ipse, caput nostrum principiumque, praecessit.

541 Jn 12:32.

542 Heb 9:24.

543 Heb 7:25.

544 Heb 9:11; cf. Rev 4:6-11.

545 St. John Damascene, Defide orth. 4, 2: PG 94, 1104C.

546 Dan 7:14.

547 Nicene Creed.

548 Rom 14:9.

549 Eph 1:20-22.

550 Eph 1:10; cf. 4:10; I Cor 15:24, 27-28.

551 Cf. Eph 1:22.

552 LG 3; 5; cf. Eph 4:11-13.

553 I Jn 2:18; cf. I Pt 4:7.

554 LG 48 § 3; cf. I Cor 10:11.

555 Cf. Mk 16:17-18, 20.

556 Lk 21:27; cf. Mt 25:31.

557 Cf. 2 Thess 2:7.

558 LG 48 § 3; cf. 2 Pt 3:13; Rom 8:19-22; I Cor 15:28.

559 Cf. I Cor 11:26; 2 Pt 3:11-12.

560 I Cor 16:22; Rev 22:17, 20.

561 Cf. Acts 1:6-7.

562 Cf. Isa 11:1-9.

563 Cf. Acts 1:8; I Cor 7:26; Eph 5:16; I Pt 4:17.

564 Cf. Mt 25:1, 13; Mk 13:33-37; I Jn 2:18; 4:3; I Tim 4:1.

565 Cf. Rev 22:20.

566 Acts 1:7; Cf. Mk 13:32.

567 Cf. Mt 24:44; I Thess 5:2; 2 Thess 2:3-12.

568 Rom 11:20-26; cf. Mt 23:39.

569 Acts 3:19-21.

570 Rom 11:15.

571 Rom 11:12, 25; cf. Lk 21:24.

572 Eph 4:13; I Cor 15:28.

573 Cf. Lk 18:8; Mt 24:12.

574 Cf. Lk 21:12; Jn 15:19-20.

575 Cf. 2 Thess 2:4-12; I Thess 5:2-3; 2 Jn 7; I Jn 2:1 8, 22.

576 Cf. DS 3839.

577 Pius XI, Divini Redemptoris, condemning the "false mysticism" of this "counterfeit of the redemption of the lowly"; cf. GS 20-21.

578 Cf. Rev 19:1-9.

579 Cf. Rev 13:8; 20:7-10; 21:2-4.

580 Cf. Rev 20:12; 2 Pt 3:12-13.

581 Cf. Dan 7:10; Joel 3-4; Mal 3:19; Mt 3:7-12.

582 Cf. Mk 12:38-40; Lk 12:1-3; Jn 3:20-21; Rom 2:16; I Cor 4:5.

583 Cf. Mt 11:20-24; 12:41-42.

584 Cf. Mt 5:22; 7:1-5.

585 Mt 25:40.

586 Jn 5:22; cf. 5:27; Mt 25:31; Acts 10:42; 17:31; § Tim 4:1.

587 Cf. Jn 3:17; 5:26.

588 Cf. Jn 3:18; 12:48; Mt 12:32; I Cor 3:12-15; Heb 6:4-6; 10:26-31.

English Translation of the Cathechism of the Catholic Church for the United States of America © 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.

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